Biography of the Late Dr. John Garang de-Mabior

Posted: August 8, 2011 by PaanLuel Wël in Books, History, People
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Biography of the Late Dr. John Garang de-Mabior

June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005

Founding President

The late Dr. John Garang De Mabior Atem is a founder of the Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Sudan Liberation Army (SPLA) and eventually became the President of the Government of the Southern Sudan after he signed one of Africa longest war with Khartoum based government. John Garang lost his life of the plane crush as he was coming from Uganda to his base in Southern Sudan; barely after two weeks in the office.

Dr. Garang was born John Garang to Mabior Atem and his wife Gak Malwal Kuol on June 23, 1945 at Buk village, Nyuak Payam (Twich East County), Bor area in Jonglei State. He was the sixth of the family’s ten children comprising seven boys and three girls. Dr. John was a disciplined but inquisitive child who grew respecting his parents and the community. His parents were strict Christians hence the discipline with which they brought up their children.

Young John began his education at Tonj and Buseri primary and intermediate schools. Upon completing primary education, he joined Rumbek Secondary School. However, his stay there was short-lived. He was expelled after taking part in a strike. He went to Tanzania where he joined Magamba Secondary School from where he completed his studies having passed with flying colours. Thereafter, he joined the University of Dar es Salaam where he was a classmate to President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda. John also received a scholarship to Grinnel College in the USA where he was awarded BA in Economics. Due to his quest for knowledge, he pursued further studies in the USA and was awarded a PhD in Economics by Iowa State University in 1981. His love for his country and the dream of its development was epitomed in his doctoral thesis was entitled: Aspects for Development in Southern Sudan.

Dr. John was first recruited into the liberation army when he was 17 during the Anyanya I revolt but he dropped out after a short stint to go back to school. It is reported that the commanders saw his intellectual prowess and urged him to complete his education first. No wonder he rejoined Anyanya I army soon after he came back to Sudan in 1971. His military organization skills was recognized fast and he was soon dispatched for a company commanders’ course in the American Military Academy where he graduated in the top three positions. He remained in the army until he left the country for his doctoral studies. He returned in 1982 and rose to the level of Colonel and was based at Khartoum as a military planner. On May 16, 1983, a group of army officers based at Bor mutinied. Dr. Garang was sent by the Nimeiri’s government to quell the mutiny. Converse to the government’s expectations, Dr. Garang joined that mutiny than fight his own people. Due to his leadership qualities he became the leader of this group and set up a command base on the Sudan-Ethiopia border. This is how SPLM/A was born.


Dr John Garang’s grave in Juba.

Dr. Garang married Rebecca Nyandeng on December 19, 1976. They were blessed with seven children of whom one died in infancy. The surviving children are Mabior, Chuol, Gak, Akwal, Nyankuir and Atong.

Dr. John was a well travelled person and a Pan-African for that matter. For instance, he lived in Kibera in Kenya’s capital in the early 1960s. He even taught at Gatung’ang’a secondary school in Nyeri between 1965 and 1966; just before he flew to Iowa on a scholarship.


A towering statue of Dr John Garang at the SPLA Headquarters [Photo by Joseph Garang Deng]

This article was updated on Jul 13, 2011
Further Resources on Dr John Garang

Books:

Shimanyula, J.B. (2005). John Garang and the SPLA. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation

http://www.goss-online.org/magnoliaPublic/en/president/FormerPresedent.html

 A Brief Biography of the Late Dr. John Garang De Mabior

The late Dr. John Garang de Mabior was born on June 23, 1945 (with five brothers and two sisters) to parents Mabior Atem Aruei (of Aulian Tribe) and Gak Malual Kuol (of Kongoor Tribe) in Buk Village, Nyuak Payam, Tuic East County of Jong’lei State. The late Dr. John Garang was a very dynamic human being who wore many hats and accomplished many great feats. His biography can be written in volumes, however for the purposes of this manual, the focus shall be on his education.

           The late Dr. John (as he was fondly known) started his education in Tonj Primary School in 1952, after being taken there by his uncle Athethei Aruei, who had to plead with his family to release him. This was a time in the history when most tribal societies in Southern Sudan had negative attitudes towards education. The parents of Dr. John where of the view that the numerical strength of families in the village where important than education of their children; however, his uncle pleaded with the family until they relented. Athethei Aruei had travelled widely in Sudan, and had been exposed to urban life, hence predicted to his family of a time in the future when education would become central to the survival of families in the village. It could therefore be said had it not been the visionary (family) leadership of Uncle Athethei, the history of the Sudan would have been much different.

                  In 1956, Dr. John graduated from primary and enrolled in Buseri Intermediate School in Wau. In 1960 he was accepted in Rumbek Senior Secondary School, from where he was recruited (with many of his colleagues) into the Anyanya I Rebel Army. The leaders of Anyanya, particularly the late hero Deng Nhial, suggested that the young John Garang should go and continue his studies as the revolution would soon need educated young men. This took the young John to East Africa, where he visited and stayed in Uganda, and also taught in a high school in Nyeri, Kenya. From Kenya, he went to Tanzania where he first lived in Bushoto Refugee Camp, before going to the University of Dar es salaam where he became an assistant to Professor Walter Rodney.

                      The University of Dar-e salam is also where he met with current President Yoweri Museveni, and together formed a student organization called the University Students African Revolutionary Front (USARF). Through the help of missionary organizations, the late Dr. John was able to sit for and pass an international examination that awarded him a scholarship to Grinnell College in Iowa, USA. After completing his Bachelors of Arts Degree, he was offered a scholarship to University of California at Buckley; however, he chose to go back to Tanzania where he studied East African Agricultural Economics. In 1968 he rejoined the Anyanya Army fighting for the Independence of Southern Sudan.  In 1972 when the Addis Ababa Agreement was signed between the Government of Sudan (GoS) and the Anyanya, Dr. Johnhad attained the rank of Captain the Sudanese army and he was sent to Fort Benning in Georgia, USA, where he received a Masters in Military Science.

           He returned to Sudan and in 1976 married his beautiful wife, Mama Rebecca Nyandeng. Thereafter, Dr. John together with his wife, returned to America where he completed his PhD in Agricultural Economics from Iowa State University. He then returned to Sudan and worked briefly as the Deputy Director of Production at the General Head Quarters of the Sudan Armed Forces. He also taught at the University of Khartoum, Faculty of Agriculture. In 1983 when the Addis Ababa Agreement was violated and Sharia Law was decreed, the whole country was thrown in to turmoil.

            It was in the midst of this chaos that the late Dr. John emerged as a leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), which then created the current Sudan Liberation Movement (SPLM).The Dr. John Garang International School is thus among the pioneer custodians of this legacy and is committed to training young Scholars that shall follow on the heels of this great man.

     DR.JOHN GARANG INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL (to be referred to as institution) DR.JOHN GARANG INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL is an institution founded in remembrance of the late DR. JOHN GARANG DEMABIOR.

http://www.drjohngaranginternationalschool.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=36&Itemid=37

Biography of the Late Dr. John Garang de-Mabior
June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005


Date of Birth: June 23, 1945 (One of the 7 (Seven) siblings {5 brothers and 2 sisters} and Dr. Garang was the child # 6.

Place of Birth: Ajakgiet (Wagkulei Village) Jongley.

Parents of Dr. John Garang:
– Father: Mabior Atem Aroy
– Mother: Gag Maluwal Kwal: (From Knogor)

Education:
– 1952 Tonj Primary School.
– 1956 Buseri Intermediate School (Wau).
– 1960 Rumbek Senior Secondary School (Did not complete)
– 1962 Left for Uganda then Tanzania and sat for overseas
examination, after that he was granted a scholarship at Grinnell College in Iowa (USA) where he received a B. A. in economics in 1968. He was well known there for his bookishness. John Garang was offered another scholarship to pursue graduate studies at University of California at Barkley but chose to return to Tanzania and studied “East African Agricultural Economics” in Dar El-Salaam University were he met the current president of Uganda (Yoweri Kaguta Museveni) and became close friends.

- 1968 / 1969 Joined the Anya Nya One rebel movement which was led by General Joseph Lagu Yanga.

- 1972 After the Addis Ababa agreement, John Garang was absorbed in the Sudanese Army as a junior officer (Rank of Captain).

- 1973 John Garang went back to Tanzania and then to USA where he pursued his studies at the Iowa State University and received a master’s degree in Agricultural Economics.

- 1976 John Garang was married to his lovely wife Madam Rebecca Nyandeng in Juba, Sudan, but traditionally the marriage arrangements were done in their village.

- 1978 John Garang and his wife Madam Rebbeca Nyandeng came to the United States and John Garang continued with further studies and received a Ph. D. in economics in 1980 at Iowa State University, Iowa.

- 1980 Dr. John Garang went to Sudan and was a lecturer at the University of Khartoum, Faculty of Agriculture in “Shambat” (Khartoum), by then was also a colonel in the Sudanese Armed Forces.

- 1983 Dr. John Garang was sent by field marshal president Jafaar Mohammed Nimeri to crash a mutiny in Bor (His Home Town) of 500 southern Sudanese government soldiers known as Anya Nya Two, but he decided to join his colleagues (Samuel Gai Tut, William Nyuon and Keribino Kuanyin Bol) and then the name Anya Nya Two was changed to Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) “Political Wing” and Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) “Military Wing” and that was in May 16, 1983 in Bilpaam. Dr. John Garang was welcomed and selected to lead the movement and became it’s chairman of SPLM and commander in chief of SPLA.- May 16, 1983 to January 8, 2005 Dr. John Garang waged a successful war against the Islamic Government of Sudan for almost 22 Years.- January 9, 2005 SPLM/A, And National Congress Party permanently signed Comprehensive Peace Agreement ending 21 years of war.

- July 9, 2005 Dr. John Garang was sworn in as the First southerner to hold the position of the first Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and at the same time the President of the government of southern Sudan (Dr. John Garang was appointed to these two positions by president Omer Hassan Ahmed El-Beshir according to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement “CPA”).

- July 30, 2005 Dr. John Garang passed away in a helicopter crash at the mountains ranch of Imatong in a place called Himan south of Lotukei in “Eastern Equaoria”.
Late Dr. Garang is survived with six children (2 Boys and 4 Girls).

Southern Sudan and indeed the whole of Sudan have lost its beloved son, Dr John Garang De Mabior.

Early Life

John Garang de Mabior (June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005).

A member of the Dinka ethnic group, Garang was born into a poor family in Wanglei village in Bor, Sudan, in the upper Nile region of Sudan (currently Jonglei State). An orphan by the age of ten, he had his fees for school paid by a relative, going to schools in Wau and then Rumbek. In 1962 he joined the first Sudanese civil war, but because he was so young, the leaders encouraged him and others his age to seek an education. Because of the ongoing fighting, Garang was forced to attend his secondary education  in  Tanzania. After winning a scholarship, he went on to earn a B.A.  in  economics in 1969 from Grinnell College in Iowa, USA. He was known there for his bookishness. He was offered another scholarship to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley. But chose to return to Tanzania and study East African agricultural economics as a Thomas J. Watson Fellow at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). At UDSM, he was a member of the University Students’ African Revolutionary Front. However, Garang soon decided to return to Sudan and join the rebels. There is much erroneous reporting that Garang met and befriended Yoweri Museveni, future president ofUganda, at this time; while both Garang and Museveni were students at UDSM in the 1960s, they did not attend at the same time.

The civil war ended with the Addis Ababa agreement of 1972 and Garang, like many rebels, was absorbed into the Sudanese military. For eleven years, he was a career soldier and rose from the rank of captain to colonel after taking the Infantry Officers Advanced Course at Fort Benning, Georgia. During this period he took four years academic leave and received a master’s degree in agricultural economics and aPh.D. in economics at Iowa State University, after writing a thesis on the agricultural development of Southern Sudan. By 1983, Col. Garang was serving as senior instructor in the military academy in Wadi Sayedna 21 km from the centre of ( Omdurman )where he instructed the cadets for more than 4 years and later he nominated to serve in the military researchs department in the Army HQ in Khartoum.

Rebel Leader

In 1983, Garang went to Bor ostensibly to mediate with about 500 southern government soldiers in battalion 105 who were resisting being rotated to posts in the north. However, Garang was already part of a conspiracy among some officers in the Southern Command arranging for the defection of battalion 105 to the anti-government rebels. When the government attacked Bor in May and the battalion pulled out, Garang went by an alternate route to join them in the rebel stronghold in Ethiopia. By the end of July, Garang had brought over 3000 rebel soldiers under his control through the newly-created Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M), which was opposed to military rule and Islamic dominance of the country, and encouraged other army garrisons to mutiny against the Islamic Law imposed on the country by the government. This action marked the commonly agreed upon beginning of the Second Sudanese Civil War, which resulted in one and half million deaths over twenty years of conflict. Although Garang was Christian and most of southern Sudan is non-Muslim (mostly animist), he did not initially focus on the religious aspects of the war.

The SPLA gained the backing of Libya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Garang and his army controlled a large part of the southern regions of the country, named New Sudan. He claimed his troops’ courage comes from “the conviction that we are fighting a just cause. That is something North Sudan and its people don’t have.” Critics suggested financial motivations to his rebellion, noting that much of Sudan’s oil wealth lies in the south of the country.

Garang refused to participate in the 1985 interim government or 1986 elections, remaining a rebel leader. However, the SPLA and government signed a peace agreement on 9 January 2005 in Nairobi, Kenya. On 9 July 2005, he was sworn in as vice-president, the second most powerful person in the country, following a ceremony in which he and President Omar al-Bashir signed a power-sharing constitution. He also became the administrative head of a southern Sudan with limited autonomy for the six years before a scheduled referendum of possible secession. No Christian or southerner had ever held such a high government post. Commenting after the ceremony, Garang stated, “I congratulate the Sudanese people, this is not my peace or the peace of al-Bashir, it is the peace of the Sudanese people.”

As a leader, John Garangs’ democratic credentials were often questioned. For example, according to Gill Lusk “John Garang did not tolerate dissent and anyone who disagreed with him was either imprisoned or killed”. Under his leadership, the SPLA was accused of human rights abuses.

The ideological profile of SPLA was as shadowy as Mr Garang himself. He varied from Marxism to drawingsupport from Christian fundamentalists in the US.

The United States State Department argued that Garang’s presence in the government would have helped solve the Darfur conflict in western Sudan, but others consider these claims “excessively optimistic”

Death

In late July 2005, Garang died after the Ugandan presidential Mi-172 helicopter he was flying in crashed. He had been returning from a meeting in Rwakitura with long-time ally President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda. He did not tell the Sudanese government that he was going to this meeting and so did not take the presidential plane. To this day nobody knows with whom Garang had met. Sudanese state television initially reported that Garang’s craft had landed safely, but Abdel Basset Sabdarat, the country’s Information Minister, went on TV hours later to deny the report. Actually, it was Yasir Arman, the SPLA/M spokesman who told the government that Garang plane had landed safely. His intention was to save time for internal arrangements in SPLA before Garang’s death was known. Garang’s plane crashed on a Friday and so remained missing for the following Saturday. During this time the government believed he was in Southern Sudan.

Soon afterwards, a statement released by the office of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir confirmed that a Ugandan presidential helicopter crashed into “a mountain range in southern Sudan because of poor visibility and this resulted in the death of Dr. John Garang DeMabior, six of his colleagues and seven Ugandan crew members.” His body was flown to New Site, a southern Sudanese settlement near the scene of the crash, where former rebel fighters and civilian supporters gathered to pay their respects to Garang. Garang’s funeral took place on August 3 in Juba. His widow Rebecca Nyandeng de Mabior  promised to continue his work stating “In our culture we say, if you kill the lion, you see what the lioness will do.”

Both the Sudanese government and the head of the SPLA blamed the weather for the accident. There are, however, doubts as to the truth of this, especially amongst the rank-and-file of the SPLA. Yoweri Museveni, the Ugandan president, claims that the possibility of “external factors” having played a role could not be eliminated.

Considered instrumental in ending the Civil War, the effect of Garang’s death upon the peace deal is uncertain. The government declared three days of national mourning, which did not stop large scale rioting in Khartoum which killed at least 24 as youths from southern Sudan attacked northern Sudanese and clashed with security forces. After three days of violence, the death toll had risen to 84. Unrest was also reported in other parts of the country. Leading members of the SPLM, including Garang’s successor Salva Kiir Mayardit, stated that the peace process would continue. Analysts suggested that the death could result in anything from a new democratic openness in the SPLA, which some have criticized for being overly dominated by Garang, to an outbreak of open warfare between the various southern factions that Garang had brought together.

Source

Garang, John 1987 John Garang Speaks. M. Khalid, ed. London: Kegan Paul International.

Wikipedia (2005). “John Garang”  Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garang

Accessed September 15, 2010.

The First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and the President of South Sudan was on official visit to Uganda during the period 29th – 30th July 2005 when the helicopter he was traveling in crashed near New Kush on his return last Saturday.

John Garang de Mabior (June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005).  By the time of his birth, his parents were looking for shelter…. Dr. Mabior. Born in Wagkulei, Bor, Sudan. One of 7 siblings. Attended Tonj Primary School, 1952. Buseri Intermediate School, 1956. Rumbek Senior Secondary School, 1960. In 1962, went to Uganda then Tanzania. Took overseas examinations and granted a scholarship at Crinnel College in Iowa, USA. Receved a B.A in Economics, 1968. Granted another scholarship for graduate studies at University of California but chose to return to Tanzania. Continued studying Economics. Met current Uganda President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni. Became close friends with Yoweri Kaguta Museveni. Went to South Sudan. Joined Anya Nya One rebel movement, 1968-1969. Became Junior Officer (Captain), 1972. Returned to Tanzania, 1973, and then to the US. Economics in Iowa State University. Received a master’s degree in Agricultural Economics. Went back to Juba, Sudan. Got Married to Rebecca Nyandeng, 1976. Went to the US. Continued studies at Iowa State University. Recieved Ph. D. in Economics, 1980. Returned to Sudan, Khartoum. Worked as a Lecturer at the University of Khartoum. Dr. John Garang was then sent to Bor by Presiden Jafaar Nimeri to crash a mutiny of 500 Southern Sudanese known as Anya Nya Two. When in Bor, he decided to join the 500 Southerners. Shortly after, the name was changed from Anya Nya Two, to Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) “Plitical Wing” and Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) “Military Wing,” 1983. Again, shortly after, Dr. John Garang was selected to lead the movement. He was the Chairman of SPLM and the Commander in Chief of SPLA, 1983. SPLM/A, with the leadership of Dr. Mabior, brought about the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005 – after a two-decade civil war. After the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Dr. Mabior was sworn in as the First Vice President of Sudan. He was also the President of South Sudan. Six months into his Presidency. Dr. Mabior meets with his long-time ally Yoweri, the Presidend of Uganda. After the meeting, the President’s Mi-172 helicopter attempts to take Dr. Mabior back. The helicopter is reported missing. The helicopter is reported to have landed safely. Then again the helicopter is reported missing. Dr. John Garang de Mabior’s death is announced. Chaos! ….By the time of his death, he was the President.

PAN-AFRICAN POSTCARD

Killing of John Garang: Who did it?

Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem

2007-06-28,

“When my husband died, I did not come out openly and say he was killed because I knew the consequences. At the back of my mind, I knew my husband had been assassinated”

Those were the chilling words of Mrs. Rebecca Garang, the widow of the late Liberation fighter, Dr (Col) John Garang de Mabior, leader of the SPLA/M who was killed on July 30 2005 in a helicopter crash on the borders of Uganda, Kenya and Sudan. The helicopter he was traveling in belonged to President Yoweri Museveni, Dr Garang’s closest ally and comrade.

I was one of many people who refused to accept the immediate conclusion then that it was an accident. Not because we missed Garang too much and found it impossible to let go which we did but because the explanation was too obvious.

If anyone wanted to kill Garang (and there were many forces) there was no better cover for an almost perfect crime than for him to be traveling unofficially in the helicopter of his closest ally. Since Khartoum did not officially know that he was leaving the capital anyone of the many vested interests who felt threatened by Garang’s messianic entry into Khartoum early in July that trip provided your best opportunity.

Mrs. Garang has now thrown open widely what many had been suspecting. All the inquiries so far have ‘concluded’ that it is pilot error, bad weather, and other technical conclusions but the dearth was political.

So who could have done it?

My first suspect was and remains the extremist wing of the government and Northern hegemonists in the security and intelligence of the country. Their heart must have shook and their desperation further heightened by the tumultuous welcome from all Sudanese commitment to creating a New Sudan when he arrived in Khartoum to be sworn in July 9 2005. They must have seen their world collapsing before their eyes. A Black prophet arising from the South must seem like end of the world for them. Garang was not the first Black Sudanese to have been made Vice President. Khartoum has had a succession of Black poodles willing to be tools of misrule against their people and the whole of Sudan. But in John Garang, a formidable personality who had distinguished himself both militarily and politically the hegemonists shook at what would happen to their rule were Garang to have the opportunity to reshape the country because Garang could be no one’s errand boy. For Sudanese democrats he was a bridge of hope with the potential of turning the country into a genuinely democratic environment where Sudanese might, in the Martin Luther King hope , ‘ be judged not by the color of their skin but by the content of their character ‘ . The enemies of hope had to act and act quickly before goodness broke out in a country that has been in conflict for most of its post independence (1956) existence.

Khartoum is not the only suspect in Garang’s death. Chief amongst other suspects could be extremist wing of Southern Nationalists whose agenda was to secede from Sudan and may have great fears that Dr John’s commitment to creating a New Sudan uniting the North and the South was a betrayal. Plausible but not probable. They needed Garang and backed him in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) which gave them the option of full independence by referendum in the course of the 6 year term of the agreement.

Mrs. Garang is herself a believer in Southern Sudan Independence, and between her and her husband they agree to disagree on this issue therefore it is highly unlikely that Southern nationalists killed Dr John.

Mrs. Garang made her public disclosure at an award ceremony by the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Foundation (JOOF) in Nairobi, Kenya. The late John Garang had been honored with a posthumous Uhuru Award for his contribution to the liberation struggles of Africa. Prof. Dani Wadada Nabudere was the guest speaker on the theme of CONFLICT AS A CATALYST FOR CHANGE.

It was not just about her husband’s death that Mrs. Garang spoke. Her speech also touched on a number of sensitive issues across Africa. One of them is how we treat. Partners of our heroes. Often they are not seen as persons in their own right. They may have been married to heroes but some of them have a place in the struggle in their own rights. Mrs. Garang spoke from the heart but not as a grieving widow rather as a combatant. She disclosed the embarrassing fact that that award by the JOOF was the first time that Dr John was being honored by an African organization. What doe this tells us about the way in which we treat our heroes and heroines. Garang was the recipient of many awards from all kinds of people in Europe ands North America but his first ward from Africa is posthumous and even then from an Independent foundation. Is this yet another case of a prophet having honor but not in his village or not in his life time?

* Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem is the deputy director of the UN Millennium Campaign in Africa, based in Nairobi, Kenya. He writes this article in his personal capacity as a concerned pan-Africanist.

Tribute to Garang death: http://www.videosurf.com/video/tribute-to-dr-john-garang-de-mabior-9610909?vlt=

http://www.videosurf.com/video/tribute-to-dr-john-garang-de-mabior-9610909?vlt=

http://www.videosurf.com/video/dr-john-garang-new-sudan-speech-part-1-4-120450816?vlt=

SPLM/A Leadership Biography

The line of succession was already detemined by each individual’s senior in the POLITICO- MILITARY HIGH COMMAND. Below is the list according to their seniority
1. Cdr Dr John Garang,
2. Cdr Kerubino Kuanyin Bol
3. Cdr Wlliam Nyuon Bany
4. Cdr Salva Kiir Mayardit
5. Cdr Arok Thon Arok
6 Cdr Nyacigak Nyaculuk
7. Cdr John Kualng
8. Cdr Dr Reik Machar Teny
9. Cdr Dr Lam Akol Ajawin
10 Cdr Yusif Kwa Mekki
11. Cdr James Wani Igga
12.Cdr Daniel Awet Akot
13. Cdr Kuol Manyang Juk
14. Cdr Martin Manyiel Ayuel
15. Cdr Lual Diing Wol
16. Cdr Gelario M

Salva Kiir Mayardit 

 

First Vice President of the Sudan

President of South Sudan

“SPLM/A will remain united and strive to faithfully implement the comprehensive peace agreement.”Yoweri Kaguta Museveni.

President of Uganda. 

Long-time ally and friend

“Possibility of external factors having played a role could not be eliminated.” President Muserveni on the death of Dr. Mabior.

Peter Moszynski, a Sudan specialist who covered the war for many years. 25 years’ experience in Sudan.

 August 3, 2005

“Becoming Vice President after 22 years, leading a guerrilla army in the bushes, John Garang was an expert in survival: someone who knew how to bend with the wind yet maintain his political objectives, someone who knew how to seem all things to all men.”

George W Bush 

President of the United States of America

White House

August 1, 2005

 “I was deeply saddened to learn of the death of Sudanese First Vice President Dr. John Garang de Mabior. He was a visionary leader and peacemaker who helped bring about the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which is a beacon of hope for all Sudanese.”

Rebeca de Mabior

The widow of Dr. John Garang de Mabior.

Currently one of the advisors of the President of SS.

 

   “Wh

o killed my 

husband?”

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hope Page Picture

The First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and the President of South Sudan was on official visit to Uganda during the period 29th – 30th July 2005 when the helicopter he was traveling in crashed near New Kush on his return last Saturday.

Dr. Mabior’s Death

Garang’s death was a blow to the people of Sudan and to those in northern Uganda who would have benefited from his promised clamp down on the murderous Lord’s Resistance Army that terrorized the region.

I have to wonder whether or not Garang’s death an accident? He somehow survived a 21-year civil war but, when peace came, died in an aircraft mishap? I’m suspicious. And, so are others.

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni for the first time has publicly stated that the “accident” may not be what it seems. “Some people say accident, it may be an accident, it may be something else,” he told Garang mourners.

But I assure you that if the investigation finds that it was a result of foul play, the perpetrators will pay,” Museveni was quoted as saying in another report. He said SPLA, Ugandan, US, Russian and Kenyan investigators visited the crash site, inspected the bodies and recovered the black box. He said former army commander Maj. Gen. James Kazini oversees the Ugandan team.

Museveni also announced the formation of a panel of three experts to probe the accident that claimed Garang’s life. “We have also approached a certain foreign government to rule out any form of sabotage or terrorism,” he said.

Ironically, although Museveni was reportedly a long-time friend and ally of Garang, some suggest that negligence on his part and other Ugandan official contributed to Garang’s tragic demise. Ugandan parliamentarian Aggrey Awori told reporter William Eagle that the Ugandan government does not seem to have followed proper procedures with regard to the doomed flight.

They took off after hours, definitely. According to CAA regulations, no rotor aircraft, [like a] helicopter, can take off after 5 pm for any destination lasting more than one hour,”he explained. And Awori said Museveni should have advised his Garang to stay in Kampala, or to cut short their mid-afternoon meeting so Mr. Garang could arrive home before nightfall.

Museveni also shut down a popular FM radio station after it aired a program discussing theories about the crash, including some that blamed the Ugandan government.

Sudan authority Eric Reeves in an interview with Adnkronos International (AKI) stated there may be more to the story than meets the eye. “There’s a clear possibility that sabotage was involved,” Reeves said, noting how the SPLA wants a full investigation on Saturday’s crash before making any announcement on the allegations.

UPI reported that a senior ai\de to Garang is requesting an investigation.

Deng Alor, a senior member of Garang`s rebel movement, the Sudan People`s Liberation Army/Movement, refused to say if the plane crash was accidental or the result of a sabotage.

“We do not rule out any possibility, and that is why we are asking for an investigation,” Alor told UPI in a telephone interview from southern Sudan.

CNS News notes the potential link and subsequent speculation regarding the LRA:

Although no reports have suggested foul play in the crash, speculation will likely arise in the days ahead that a notorious Ugandan rebel group, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), may have shot down the helicopter.

Operating from bases in southern Sudan — allegedly with past support from Khartoum — the LRA has for some 18 years been fighting to overthrow the Ugandan government. It is notorious for vicious tactics including the abduction of thousands of children forced to become soldiers or concubines for rebels.

A joint commission between the northern Sudanese government and Garang’s Sudan People  Liberation Movement (SPLM) was formed to investigate the causes of the crash and officials have said they welcome any input from the U.N. or other international experts. Considering that northern Sudan has a terrible track record full of human rights violations and would certainly welcome the demise of the SPLM, it is incumbent upon those overseeing the peace process to provide “input” and, even better, accountability.

In addition, there are also powerful international forces vying for influence in this oil rich country of Sudan.

While there exists speculation tied to the vested interest of certain governments and groups to silence Garang the reality is that no evidence has been reported to the outside world that would substantiate any claim of foul play. As I mentioned, I’m suspicious but only because of the unusual timing of the crash, the inherent corruption of the Sudanese government and the numerous individuals and groups who had motivation to assasinate Garang.

Eric Reeve Writes,

The NIF will continue to sustain genocide by attrition in Darfur, even as it welcomes the destabilizing possibilities presented by the death of John Garang. The new leader of the SPLM, Salva Kiir Mayardit, will face severe testing, with all too many possible venues in the south and in Khartoum for such trial. As the authoritative “Africa Confidential” observes in its August 5, 2005 edition:

“The [NIF] regime may not have caused the crash [that killed Garang] but could not have wished for more. It will redouble its efforts to deepen Southern divisions, convinced that Garang’s successors won’t withstand its mixture of military attack, disinformation, and financial inducements.” (“Africa Confidential,” Vol 46, No 16, August 5, 2005).

There were also signs, prior to Garang’s death, that the National Congress Party [the ruling faction of the National Islamic Front] was seeking to undercut implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement through its uses of the militias (the South Sudan Defense Forces), bribery, and through the tactics of divide and rule. [ICG, July 25, 2005]

Biography of the Late Dr. John Garang de-Mabior
June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005



Date of Birth: June 23, 1945 (One of the 7 (Seven) siblings {5 brothers and 2 sisters} and Dr. Garang was the child # 6.

Place of Birth: Ajakgiet (Wagkulei Village) Jongley.

Parents of Dr. John Garang:
– Father: Mabior Atem Aroy
– Mother: Gag Maluwal Kwal: (From Knogor)

Education:
– 1952 Tonj Primary School.
– 1956 Buseri Intermediate School (Wau).
– 1960 Rumbek Senior Secondary School (Did not complete)
– 1962 Left for Uganda then Tanzania and sat for overseas
examination, after that he was granted a scholarship at Grinnell College in Iowa (USA) where he received a B. A. in economics in 1968. He was well known there for his bookishness. John Garang was offered another scholarship to pursue graduate studies at University of California at Barkley but chose to return to Tanzania and studied “East African Agricultural Economics” in Dar El-Salaam University were he met the current president of Uganda (Yoweri Kaguta Museveni) and became close friends.

- 1968 / 1969 Joined the Anya Nya One rebel movement which was led by General Joseph Lagu Yanga.

- 1972 After the Addis Ababa agreement, John Garang was absorbed in the Sudanese Army as a junior officer (Rank of Captain).

- 1973 John Garang went back to Tanzania and then to USA where he pursued his studies at the Iowa State University and received a master’s degree in Agricultural Economics.

- 1976 John Garang was married to his lovely wife Madam Rebecca Nyandeng in Juba, Sudan, but traditionally the marriage arrangements were done in their village.

- 1978 John Garang and his wife Madam Rebbeca Nyandeng came to the United States and John Garang continued with further studies and received a Ph. D. in economics in 1980 at Iowa State University, Iowa.

- 1980 Dr. John Garang went to Sudan and was a lecturer at the University of Khartoum, Faculty of Agriculture in “Shambat” (Khartoum), by then was also a colonel in the Sudanese Armed Forces.

- 1983 Dr. John Garang was sent by field marshal president Jafaar Mohammed Nimeri to crash a mutiny in Bor (His Home Town) of 500 southern Sudanese government soldiers known as Anya Nya Two, but he decided to join his colleagues (Samuel Gai Tut, William Nyuon and Keribino Kuanyin Bol) and then the name Anya Nya Two was changed to Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) “Political Wing” and Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) “Military Wing” and that was in May 16, 1983 in Bilpaam. Dr. John Garang was welcomed and selected to lead the movement and became it’s chairman of SPLM and commander in chief of SPLA.

- May 16, 1983 to January 8, 2005 Dr. John Garang waged a successful war against the Islamic Government of Sudan for almost 22 Years.

- January 9, 2005 SPLM/A, And National Congress Party permanently signed Comprehensive Peace Agreement ending 21 years of war.

- July 9, 2005 Dr. John Garang was sworn in as the First southerner to hold the position of the first Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and at the same time the President of the government of southern Sudan (Dr. John Garang was appointed to these two positions by president Omer Hassan Ahmed El-Beshir according to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement “CPA”).

- July 30, 2005 Dr. John Garang passed away in a helicopter crash at the mountains ranch of Imatong in a place called Himan south of Lotukei in “Eastern Equaoria”.
Late Dr. Garang is survived with six children (2 Boys and 4 Girls).

Southern Sudan and indeed the whole of Sudan have lost its beloved son, Dr John Garang De Mabior. The First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and the President of South Sudan was on official visit to Uganda during the period 29th – 30th July 2005 when the helicopter he was traveling in crashed near New Kush on his return last Saturday.

SPLM/A Leadership Biography

The line of succession was already detemined by each individual’s senior in the POLITICO- MILITARY HIGH COMMAND. Below is the list according to their seniority
1. Cdr Dr John Garang,
2. Cdr Kerubino Kuanyin Bol
3. Cdr Wlliam Nyuon Bany
4. Cdr Salva Kiir Mayardit
5. Cdr Arok Thon Arok
6 Cdr Nyacigak Nyaculuk
7. Cdr John Kualng
8. Cdr Dr Reik Machar Teny
9. Cdr Dr Lam Akol Ajawin
10 Cdr Yusif Kwa Mekki
11. Cdr James Wani Igga
12.Cdr Daniel Awet Akot
13. Cdr Kuol Manyang Juk
14. Cdr Martin Manyiel Ayuel
15. Cdr Lual Diing Wol
16. Cdr Gelario M

http://www.gurtong.org/GarangTribute/Biographyof_LateDr.JohnGarangde-Mabior.asp

John Garang de Mabior

Leader and Founder of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army

By , About.com Guide

Colonel John Garang de Mabior was a Sudanese rebel leader, founder of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) which fought a 22 year civil war against the northern dominated, Islamist Sudanese Government. Was made vice president of Sudan on the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, shortly before his death.

Date of birth: 23 June 1945, Wangkulei, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Date of death: 30 July 2005, southern Sudan.

John Garang was born into the Dinka ethnic group, educated in Tanzania and graduated from Grinnell College in Iowa in 1969. He returned to The Sudan and joined the Sudanese army, but left the following year for the south and joined the Anya Nya, a rebel group fighting for the rights of the Christian and animist south, in a country which was dominated by the Islamist north. The rebellion, which was sparked by the decision made by the colonial British to join the two parts of Sudan when independence was granted in 1956, became a full blown civil war in the early 1960s.

1972 Addis Ababa Agreement
In 1972 the Sudanese president, Jaafar Muhammad an-Numeiry, and Joseph Lagu, leader of the Anya Nya, signed the Addis Ababa Agreement which gave autonomy to the south. Rebel fighters, including John Garang, were absorbed into the Sudanese army.

Garang was promoted to Colonel and sent to Fort Benning, Georgia, USA, for training. He also received a doctorate in agricultural economics from Iowa State University in 1981. On his return to The Sudan he was made deputy director of military research and an infantry battalion commander.

Second Sudanese Civil War
By the early 1980s the Sudanese government was becoming increasingly Islamist (introduction of Sharia law throughout Sudan, an imposition of black slavery by northern Arabs, and Arabic being made the official language of instruction), and when Garang was sent south to quell a new uprising by the Anya Nya, he instead swapped sides and formed the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and their military wing the SPLA.

2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
In 2002 Garang began peace talks with Sudanese president Omar al-Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir, which culminated in the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 9 January 2005. As part of the agreement Garang was made vice president of Sudan. However, only a few months later, on 30 July, a helicopter carrying Garang back from talks with the president of Uganda crashed in the mountains near the border. Although both Al-Bashir’s government and Salva Kiir Mayardit, the new leader of the SPLM, blamed the crash on poor visibility, doubts remain about the crash.

http://africanhistory.about.com/od/biography/a/John-Garang-De-Mabior.htm

Birth of A New Nation

Monday, 11 July 2011 00:00 Editorial Team
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Before the birth of Africa’s 54th newest nation on July 9, 2011, the man who, for over two decades, is credited for unleashing a rebellion for an independent state for Southern Sudan, Dr. John Garang  in one of his interviews with BBC’s Robin White upon being inflicted a massive crushing blow which claimed huge deaths on his SPLA in a battle, and when asked  following such loss of lives, to call  it a day and devise a new method outside the military posture, the late SPLA’s strongman proudly and robustly told Robin White that his  men (rebels) are like fish under the water, no matter how many you kill, they can never finish from under the water.

Finding the expression to become the backbone of the embodiment of the world’s 193rd country on July 9, 2011, and although he was killed in a tragic helicopter crash in 2005 upon signing a ceasefire with his archrival;  and like Paul Coffee (the first free negro who did not realize his dreams as a result of death),  he died  before his plan was realized; yet he remains the shining and indelible imprint at the heart, body, mind and soul of the new country-In short, he stands as the most dominant gene in the DNA structure of the new Southern Sudan nation.

Like any nation on earth that has fought for independence, for the new country, it equally took blood, sweat, tears and deaths to arrive at this point of freedom, independence and self-rule. They too know the bitter and the essence of independence which is all about land; and how did it come about…through bloodshed.

As Malcolm X once said that the essence of independence is land- the landlords vs. the landless, and how did it come about…through bloodshed. The Independence of July 4, 1776 was all about land, and how did it come about, through bloodshed as well as others which stormed Africa and Asia as well as some parts of the world during the terrifying colonial golden era.

Reports simmering from Southern Sudan reflect the presence of over 10,000 people including high profile dignitaries and heads of state who are bracing the freshness of the birth of a new nation with joy and happiness punctuated by mind captivating political and nationalistic speeches with the new  National Anthem thundering all over the place, the struggle of the SLPA and its quest for an independent homeland has become a living dream with the bones of Dr. Garang and other patriots gladly and gallantly turning in their respective graves.

On this auspicious occasion, we hesitate not to caution the revolutionary people of Southern Sudan that the price of independence, freedom and self-rule was not achieved on a silver platter nor was it obtained by sudden flight, and as such, should remain mindful and keep on the red alert to ensure that that vices that ruin the cardinal fabrics of a promising nation do not infest their wisdom, knowledge and sense of belonging to reduce their hard earned and newest sensation to the level of becoming a failed state due to greed, selfishness and autocratic tendencies.

We make it no secret about the daunting problem and task ahead in building the capacity of a trained, professional and vibrant civil servants and in order to make progress in that direction; all those at the helm of authority must embrace and welcome with open arms and hearts those brothers and sisters in the Diaspora who are well schooled in the various crafts and trade in nation building including those who mean well for the genuine growth and development for the new nation.

Treacherous tactics, chicanery and maneuvers designed to frustrate their efforts must be immediately thwarted in the supreme interest and spirit of greater, better and prosperous Southern Sudan that will proudly serve as a beacon of hope and dignity on the continent. A route to that end is the total discouragement and if possible the abolition of a one party state, entertainment of a class system or elitism to dominate and influence the politico-socio-economic and cultural spheres of the society.

Let not the honeymoon of independence continues perpetually; the line must be drawn so that Christmas will only be Christmas and business is business and avoid combining both time after time.  We reiterate our caution, be open-minded and receptive to the accommodation of those in the Diaspora including the experienced professionals and technocrats in order to build the solid foundation of the new nation.

Strive, and make it a must, to end and discourage unsavory practices in both government and business. At this juncture we pause to allow carrying on your celebration of the beauty of independence coupled with its attending kudos. We say bravo and hats off to you all dear brothers and sisters, as we hail the birth of a new nation.

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Comments
  1. [...] and sudanese army, death of Dr. John Garang, Dr. John Garang, juba sudan, yoweri kaguta museveni 0         [...]

  2. Kodi Wilson says:

    Dr John Garang was a real man of sudan who had strong vision of republic of sudan and how sudan should be dominated regardless of ethnics diversity in sudan .As he dispersed away , we really felt that we have lost important person in sudan .
    In God ‘s hand he rest and in our hearts he remain forever !

    • Deng kongor says:

      I can see death of Dr John Garang de Mabior is very complicated which out friends of him and his staff members and the an enemy of him are not very clean of the big mourn what i should commands on him who he was president of me and my people’s Dr John Garang we are missing you now and forever in our’s victory thanks for great the jobs and seperating us out from being just sudan only we are comforting well but your left us friends of you are celebreating your gone and dn,t mind you anymore dear give dream to your closers staff so that we should feel’s your visionary we can’t see your left that had been luck own by we dn’t know mind’anyways my full message to you say all no to curruption big number is dying of diseases,lack of food and murdering death of rebels at the state my public’s operators come back to your fans brothers and sisters who are suffering lots start the campegaineries early and starts too the development scensitively agenda’s im trying to be who Im but situation can’t allow me and my brothers who are too hunting for her mother land people need if government is me and you dearest forward my sent message for further initial of things not through accordingly we love you all our janitors and we are under you supporting your running lines.regard.

  3. nicxson says:

    Am so sorry for loosing a dear leader like him he was a good and social man that everybody likes even the kids love him too

  4. Rual says:

    In fact a lot of no reasons history is being uploaded over or followers over innocent people who cannot predict or understand what had been our history. That’s fine i don’t have any objection through unclear and clear history. Unclear history may die quickly while clear history remained in then heart of the people.
    What you are describing is too complicated and nascent. John Garang did not join the first movement Anya-Anya 2. Second he was observed in the Sudan armed forces but accounted to be part of Twic gogrial member in the Sudanese armed force.
    John was not send by Numeri. He when to his own village to completed his marriage Nydang. He did not join Keribino in bor war. He run from his home and left Abel Alier there and to Ethiopia where he claimed to be Keribino to the Madistu, but later on being identified as garang and not Keribino. That proves him to be the clamour layer.
    Jumping over the hill can caused death jumper himself.
    He misleads the SPLM/A many people was killed by him. He killed more than what the Arab killed. He did not know one day he will die.
    He created bad leadership style in which proves him to be the worst leader in the world.
    He took the SPLM/money and used it as his own money; he was assisted by Nydang and slava kiirr. They contributed to the current wrong doing in the south Sudan. He is describe as Extrajudicial Nature animal.

    They had a very strong tied with Arabs in the north, while in the warring with the north. I hope they were aware of what had gone wrong in the South. Now there is a time for them to be limited through leadership and managing the state affairs.
    He started to misleading the true funders Keribino and William Nyoun and he killed them. This also helps other like USA and Masibini kill him before testing the live.
    This is a bit about your John garang
    I will come back once more time to discuss this in details.

  5. die a hero rest in peace ; be judged not by the clour of their skin but by the content of their charecter says:

    die a hero

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  9. Maghen says:

    Truly inspiring!

  10. Reblogged this on The Shoeshiner's Eyes and commented:
    A true hero is never forgotten in dream and prayers – Deng Mangok Ayuel

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