Analysis: Sudan, South Sudan back from brink of war

Posted: March 18, 2012 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan
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AGREEMENT ON THE BORDER DEMARCATION PROVIDES BASIS FOR STARTING DEMARCATION OF WHAT IS AFRICA’S LONGEST BOUNDARY

KHARTOUM (Xinhua) — Sudan and South Sudan have achieved a breakthrough in recent negotiations with the drafting of the framework agreements on national status and boundary demarcation.

Analysts believed that the progress pulled back the two nations from the brink of war and served a positive signal for both of them to pursue peace and avoid escalation of tensions.

Under the agreement on nationality, nationals of each state will be allowed in the other state with freedom of residence and movement as well as freedom to undertake economic activity and to acquire and dispose of property.

The agreement on the Demarcation of the Boundary and Related Issues provides the basis for demarcating what is Africa’s longest boundary.

The agreements are to be signed by South Sudanese President Salva Kiir Mayardit and his Sudanese counterpart Omar al-Bashir at a meeting in Juba, capital of South Sudan, within two weeks.

This is the first visit for Bashir to his south neighbor since the declaration of independence of South Sudan last July.

“These agreements create a positive atmosphere for convening the summit. Particularly, it came shortly after escalation of tensions and traded accusations between the two sides,” Dr. Mohamed Hassan Saeed, a lecturer of political science, told Xinhua.

The two sides have been trading accusations of supporting the opposition in each other country.

Sudan says that South Sudan supports the rebels active at Blue Nile and South Kordofan areas, while South Sudan accuses Sudan of supporting the rebel groups in the south.

The Sudanese army accused South Sudan of supporting the Revolutionary Alliance which brings together Darfur armed movements and the SPLM/northern sector, to launch attacks against Buhairat Al-Abiyad area on the borderline between the two countries.

South Sudan accused on March 1 the Sudanese army of violating the south’s air space, bombarding water and oil wells and moving 17 km inside its territories in the oil rich Unity State.

The Sudanese government has ordered to close the border with South Sudan, while the latter accused Sudan of “stealing” its oil and decided to stop oil production.

The UN Security Council called upon all parties concerned on March 6 to stop using violence and military action in areas near the border.

“The negotiations between the two sides have provided a mechanism that could be enhanced by a presidential decision with which outstanding difficulties and issues, such as oil, Abyei and external debts, can be overcome,” Saeed said.

He further expressed optimism that the forthcoming summit would achieve a breakthrough to help resolve the outstanding issues, saying “the Addis Ababa agreements indicate that there is a political will on both sides and reflect their preference to dialogue instead of conflict.”

However, not all analysts are optimistic about the prospect of the future development, with some saying implementation of the agreements on the ground might face difficulties.

Abdul-Rahim Al-Sunni, a Sudanese political analyst, told Xinhua that “many barriers may prevent the implementation of the agreement, particularly with regard to the fact that more than 500,000 South Sudanese live in the North.”

“With the (Sudanese) government’s rejection to grant duo-citizenship to these Southerners and its adherence to April 9, 2012 as the deadline for them to resolve their nationality, what the negotiators have built in Addis Ababa could be demolished,” he added.

Al-Sunni, however, said he expects that the deadline be extended during the forthcoming summit between presidents Omar Al-Bashir and Salva Kiir in a week’s time.”

He further stressed that the issue of border demarcation also constitutes another barrier for the implementation of the agreements, saying “the joint committee for demarcating the border needs to immediately begin their work on the ground.”

He added that “the border demarcation could collide with many issues, including the difference over five border points in addition to the fact that the borderline between the two countries is witnessing security tensions, particularly at Jao area in South Kordofan, besides areas in Blue Nile State.”
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EARLIER REPORTS:

U.N. chief welcomes Sudan-South Sudan agreement on post-independence issues

UNITED NATIONS (Xinhua) – UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Wednesday welcomed a framework agreement between Sudan and South Sudan to give their citizens basic freedoms in both nations.

In a statement, the UN chief called the agreement “an important step forward and an encouraging manifestation of both parties’ spirit of cooperation and partnership.”

It added that their agreement on “the status of nationals of each state and the demarcation of the common boundary” is also an important progress.

After their talks facilitated by the African Union High Level Panel (AUHIP), the two sides signed Tuesday the “Framework Agreement on the Status of Nationals of the Other State” and the Agreement on the “Demarcation of the Boundary and Related Issues.”

According to the signed documents, the two sides agreed to allow citizens of the other state to live, work and own property on either side of the border, and travel between the two nations.

The agreement on the border demarcation provides the basis for starting demarcation of what is Africa’s longest boundary.

“The secretary-general…encourages them to resolve all other outstanding matters as a matter of urgency and make the necessary compromise that will guarantee a peaceful and prosperous future for both nations,” the statement said.

South Sudan broke away from Khartoum officially in July 2011, after the holding of an independence referendum.

However, several outstanding issues have remained between the two nations, including oil and borders.

On March 6, the two countries resumed negotiations on those issues in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital, under the facilitation of the AUHIP.

African Union Commission pleased with progress in Sudan-S. Sudan negotiations

ADDIS ABABA (Xinhua) – Chairperson of the African Union Commission Jean Ping on Wednesday welcomed the agreement reached by Sudan and South Sudan on the “Framework Agreement on the Status of Nationals of the Other State” and the Agreement on the “Demarcation of the Boundary and Related Issues.”

According to an AU statement, the chairperson is especially pleased to note the new spirit of compromise and cooperation expressed by the two parties.

The agreements were initiated by the leaders of the teams negotiating the arrangements on post-secession issues between Sudan and South Sudan.

The “Framework Agreement on the Status of Nationals of the Other State” sets up a joint High Level Committee, which shall oversee the adoption and implementation of joint measures relating to nationals of the other state.

The agreement also accords nationals of each state the freedom of residence, freedom of movement, freedom to undertake economic activity and the freedom to acquire and dispose of property.

It said the “Agreement on the Demarcation of the Boundary and Related Issue” establishes institutional mechanisms responsible for overseeing and carrying out the demarcation process of Africa’ s longest land border.

The agreements will be signed by President Omar Hassan Al Bashir and President Salva kiir Mayardit at a summit to be held in Juba in the coming weeks, the statement said.

Sudan-South Sudan agreements may face implementation obstacles

KHARTOUM (Xinhua) – Sudan and South Sudan achieved a breakthrough in their recent round of talks with the inking of a number of agreements, dealing with some of their most outstanding issues.

While some analysts regard the achievement as a harbinger of a comprehensive settlement, others doubt these deals can be implemented due to the barriers on the ground.

The two documents signed on Tuesday in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa aim to resolve the national status of some citizens and boundary demarcation.

They also agreed on a summit which is to be attended by the two countries’ presidents.

Though the agreements promise to remove the obstacles in the way of a comprehensive settlement, yet their implementation on the ground might face difficulties.

Abdul-Rahim Al-Sunni, a Sudanese political analyst, told Xinhua that “many barriers may prevent the implementation of the agreement, particularly with regard to the fact that more than 500, 000 South Sudanese live in the North.”

“With the (Sudanese) government’s rejection to grant duo- citizenship to these Southerners and its adherence to April 9, 2012 as the deadline for them to resolve their nationality, what the negotiators have built in Addis Ababa could be demolished,” he added.

Al-Sunni, however, expects that the deadline be extended during the forthcoming summit between President Omar Al-Bashir and Salva Kiir in a week’s time.”

He further stressed that the issue of border demarcation also constitutes another barrier for the implementation of the agreements, saying “the joint committee for demarcating the border needs to immediately begin their work on the ground.”

He went on saying “the border demarcation will collide with many issues, including the difference over five border points in addition to the fact that the borderline between the two countries is witnessing security tensions, particularly at Jao area in South Kordofan, besides areas in Blue Nile State.”

Since the two countries agreed on convening a summit to bring together Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit, then agreements can be a good base for the leaders to resolve other differences including those regarding the oil issue.

“These agreements provide a positive atmosphere for convening the summit. Particularly, it came shortly after escalations of tensions and traded accusations between the two sides,” Dr. Mohamed Hassan Saeed, a lecturer of political science, told Xinhua.

“The negotiations between the two sides have provided a mechanism that could be enhanced by a presidential decision with which standing difficulties and issues, such as the oil, Abyei and external debts, can be overcome,” he added.

Saeed further expressed optimism that the forthcoming summit would achieve a breakthrough to help resolve the outstanding issues, saying “the Addis Ababa agreements indicate that there is a political will on both sides and reflect their preference to dialogue instead of escalations.”

The two sides have been negotiating in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, under the mediation of the African Union, over many outstanding issues including the oil sharing and border demarcation.

After the separation of South Sudan from the North last July, the two sides failed to agree on oil transit fees. Juba stopped its oil production and exportation via Sudan’s territories after Khartoum decided to deduct the transit fees in form of crude oil from the South’s oil transported through the North.

http://www.coastweek.com/3511_sudan_01.htm

Southern Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis in the latest country in the world

Onnik Krikorian 23rd January 2012

Less than a year after the Southern Sudan declared its independence in July 2011 and as the newest country in the world was struggling, the country still humantitären with a crisis. The civil war between the African South Sudan and the Arab Northern Sudan had previously been about 1.5 million lives and international organizations warn that the conflict is far from over.

People displaced by cattle thefts in the district of Pibor, Jonglei State © Liang Zi / Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)People displaced by cattle thefts in the district of Pibor, Jonglei State © Liang Zi / Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)

Earlier this year, for example, the Southern Sudan said  Jonglei State to a disaster area after up to 100 000 people due to fighting between the rival Lou Nuer andMurle tribes were forced to flee. The United Nations has already launched an emergency operation to approximately 60 000 to allow people to provide humanitarian assistance.

The Borgen project blog is detailed background information about the latest conflict between the tribes :

According to reports, the conflict began with the theft of cattle, but more and more auβer control are advised. Conflicts like these “cattle feuds” and other disputes between rival ethnic groups are widespread in southern Sudan.According to the United Nations last year about 350 000 people displaced by such violence.

Such inter-communal violence is a major challenge for the young government of southern Sudan. As a newly independent state, the country is faced with the task of developing an effective system of government. HOT STUFF is the Southern Sudan is one of the poorest regions of the world. There are almost no roads, schools, hospitals and other vital infrastructure. The lack of cyclical development in the country only stokes the Instablitität and leads to a higher rate of conflicts such as those recently in Jonglei.

Displaced population caused by cattle raiding in Pibor county, Jonglei state © Liang Zi / Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)

Catholic Relief Services, an international aid organization that operates in southern Sudan agrees to :

The history of the crisis-ridden district of Jonglei has long been marked by ethnic tensions, cattle thefts, kidnappings and sometimes violent contests over scarce resources. The recent attacks are attributed to the self-proclaimed Nuer White Army, a group of up to 6,000 armed Nuer youth of Lou ethnic group. Spokesman for the armed group said it was her goal to retrieve stolen cattle and 180 abducted children, according to their information from a neighboring ethnic group, the Murle, had been stolen from their communities.

[...]

“After nearly four decades working in Sudan and Southern Sudan, the CRS weiβ that sustainable development and peace are closely linked,” says Boyd.”To a long-term improvement of basic services and economic opportunities that people everywhere are in southern Sudan are available to help, it is essential to support the communities in finding meaningful, tangible ways to resolve their differences and destructive conflict to an end to prepare. At the same tensions between groups are often exacerbated by the lack of basic services such as access to water, schools and hospitals. Development and peace must begin at the same time. “

Also, another international organization, Oxfam sees a link between conflict prevention and  provision of essential goods and services :

Now that the Sudan was born a new nation, there are people here and all of the nation’s stability at the interested parties may not be a more pressing concern than investing in their own agriculture and the long-term guarantee of food.

[...]

The international community has invested a tremendous amount to the Sudan and South Sudan to gently guide you through the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and to independence. Now, however, starts work on first and helpers need to redouble their efforts to support the Southern Sudan to overcome the problems of insecurity, displacement, cyclic droughts and floods.

While changing the Sudan as a nation that lives by itself and its neighbors in peace, will take the country an all-encompassing balance of vorhersehrbarer, several years of development assistance as well as continued support of humanitarian issues with disaster management and a strengthening of the South Sudanese government on emergency training focus .

There will also be important to invest in programs to reduce risk from disasters and resilience that enable communities to prevent it humantitäre crises, mitigate, and quickly recover from them. With regard to the provision of humanitarian relief and development workers should also consider the evolving South Sudanese civil society seen as an important agent that complements the programs of the state and the private sector.

Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)  reported on site :

“Thousands of people from Lekongole Pibor and ran for their lives last week and is now hiding in the bush, where they endure the fear of death,” Parthesarathy Rajendran, MSF head of southern Sudan said. “Their flight was in a hurry and they have violated no food or water, some of them are without a doubt, have wounds or injuries and are now alone in her hiding place beyond the reach of humanitarian assistance.”

The village Lekongole has been razed to the ground and an MSF team of 28December, the situation in einschätzte Pibor, described it as a “ghost town” since almost everyone has fled into the surrounding landscape. While the people hiding in the bush, we can not reach to clean their wounds and to connect to treat illnesses and provide them with a general medical care available. The longer they are in the bush, the more serious is the situation for the people who are sick or injured.

[...]

“There is currently developing several crisis situations in various parts of southern Sudan,” added Rajendran. “Our medical teams respond to flee at the time also to a crisis in which people from conflicts in neighboring Sudan.This clearly calls us to remember that occur despite the independence of acute emergencies in southern Sudan is still too often and that the power remains for humanitarian emergency response is an absolute priority. “

Bill’s Space commented :

It feels like it was before only a few months ago, in Africa, with the independence of southern Sudan by the Sudan, a new nation was created.But it seems that a new name and a new life do little to change things in this part of the world. I read reports that last week more than 3,000 people were killed in southern Sudan because of ethnic violence, and thousands were forced to flee – even though people “flee” in the earlier parts of Sudan for decades. Despite the presence of United Nations staff, the southern Sudanese army, etc., it seems possible to continue this kind of mass killings or massacres. A report, according to which this is the worst outbreak of ethnic violence in the new nation, since they split off from Sudan in July seems to indicate that violence is an ongoing activity [...].

Others are more cynical, given the stated objective of the United Nations to help southern Sudan. The Impudent Observer published a satirical article in this respect,death in the Sudan, who cares? , in which he takes a bead on the United States in particular:

Our intrepid reporter asked prominent political leaders in America is a reaction to this massacre of innocents.

George Bush: “The most important question is whether there are weapons of mass destruction in southern Sudan, which could be a threat to America.”

Michele Bachmann: “The South Sudan? Is that near New Orleans? “

Herman Cain: “I wonder if there would have anyone interested in a great pizza offer.”

Ron Santorum: “I advise those unfortunate people urged to pray to God.”

Mitt Romney: “America condolences to all those who are persecuted. I will inform the Mormon headquarters for them to send some missionaries. “

Newt Gingrich: “The Southern Sudanese leaders may contact me. I have some interesting ideas, which provides help them myself, and my company at the beginning of a discount. “

Barack Obama: “We leave conflict areas and not go.”

More news on the Southern Sudan are on the blog  PannLuel WEL: South Sudanese bloggers to find the wave PannLuel operates from Washington, and @ PaanLuelWel2011 on Twitter.

This article is part of our special coverage of  the referendum in southern Sudan in 2011 .

http://www.readers-edition.de/2012/01/23/sudsudan-humanitare-krise-im-neuesten-land-der-welt/

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