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Posted: September 30, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Poems.



Baakulu bus that crashed head-on on the Jub-Nimule Highway, near Nesitu

Baakulu bus that crashed head-on on the Jub-Nimule Highway, near Nesitu

BAKULU BUS bakulu2

Tears scrolled down my cheek

When I heard about you

You perished in the day light

When heaven was awake


You were a metal who carried mental

In you there was a life

My mind reads back about what you took

It was a community of the world


I lost desire for food

I am praying for your sole

God must do something

Technological beings like you;

Are becomingdeceitful

To human life


Since you left me in pool of blood

My heart keep aching

For the state of our path

Sharp turns on that road need vitamin K

To put an end to bleeding

It has become a hereditary disease

Road accident!


Life is hard

Life is full of grief

Condolences for your perish

These words give me hope

You are a person we can never replace!



By Garang Atem Ayiik

In September 11, 2001, America was attacked by a terrorist group; an act that shaken the security foundation and capability of United States to insulate against terrorists and external aggression.

An attack that the then president of United States, George Bush Jr. described as series of deliberate and deadly terrors’ acts. The nation was united in her act; the political, security and economic experts were mobilized to restore the confidence of their constituents.

In the economic front, within minutes of attack, security personnel moved New York Reserve Bank employees to a secure building and other officials around the country were contacted to collect economic information from financial intermediaries.

Based on this information, on 12 September 2001, the Reserve Bank pumped 30 billion dollars into the financial system and made 45.5 billion dollars available to financial sector as a temporary caution to US economy.

All these responds by the US economic actors are well documented by Dornbusch (2004) and his co –authors in their Macroeconomic book. Critical is the swift manner with which both economic and security actors responded, and complimented each other in protecting of their state and economy.

America government had no slightest idea that the attacks will occur but the economic managers ensure the economy didn’t came to its knees with their swift actions, the economic actions were commendable.

Overtime, economists expanded their knowledge frontier, equipped themselves with skills that will enable them to identify risk, forecast and mitigate risks. Is south Sudan beneficiary of this knowledge?

In a document available on the Ministry of Finance and Economic website entitled ‘fiscal challenges and progress in public financial management’, prepared by the Ministry in 2008 for Sudan’s consortium brought out dependency on oil as greatest fiscal challenge for South Sudan. Prudent policy management expectation requires South Sudan to hedge against this risk.

There was every reason to believe oil will not flow after South Sudan independence. As Sudan considers South Sudan as an enemy, remember how sanctions work – reducing the capabilities of an enemy; in the same way, military strategists target to close source of supplies, and so was Khartoum going to cut or interfere with oil flow to weaken South Sudan after independent.

At the beginning of 2012, South Sudan closed oil flow. With all indications that Khartoum was going to interfere with oil flow, how did South Sudan respond? Do nothing. After agreement on transit fees, oil flowed again.

The crisis that began in December 2013 puts South Sudan on weak economic position and with an agreement on transit fee expected to expired, Sudan might bully South Sudan by asking for high transit fees.

I hope this time; South Sudan is planning something as she cannot afford interference with oil flow. I suppose, nations should respond to more predictable economic challenges like infrastructure issue in South Sudan oil sector than unpredictable terrorists’ attacks.

Immediately after independent, Bank of South Sudan auctioned dollars. In this arrangement, banks and bureaus bought dollars within a band set by the Bank. From the data I obtained while doing my MA-thesis, during this period, difference between black and official rate was small.

Thereafter, the Bank adopted allocation system which led to growth of shallow financial institutions, encourage inequity and transfer of public money to private pockets through black market.

Attempts to organize foreign exchange market will be meet with resistance by the cartel that has grown. Is South Sudan relocating its human resources to correct places to fight black market menace? Fighting black market involves allowing shallow financial institutions to wither away and this might be resist immensely.

Reviews of autobiography of former governor of Central Bank of Kenya, Michael Cheserem, highlighted difficulty in correcting faulty foreign exchange market with matured cartel. Is South Sudan wholly, heartily and skilfully fighting the black market war as US did during terrorists attack?

For the period it has been in existence, Government of South Sudan got less than 5% revenue of its budget from non-oil revenues. This is explained by Dutch disease theory. If South Sudan knows this problem why can’t it be addressed, is the problem knowledge or willingness to focus on non-oil revenue? It is a mirage to expect an economy to grow on one resource.

Recent circular on reducing the role of foreigners on labour market, despite its right intention for South Sudan, it is being bullied to dustbin by the region and the world. However, signs suggesting government ministries involved are pulling in different directions displays incoherent or lack of internal synergies within government.

The labour market problems can be traced to two issues; work ethic and competency of South Sudanese; and second, unregulated entrance of foreign workers without designed living strategy into South Sudan labour market. Any policy must take into consideration the labor gap that might be created.

On labour circular, foreign economic interest seems more powerful than the domestic interest. There seems to be an interest clash between South Sudan and other partners.

It is a clear message that whether South Sudan builds a pipeline through Djibouti or Kenya, Economic interest dictates behaviour. Recent blackmailing and name-calling on labour circular should provide a bigger lesson to South Sudan beyond the labour case.

The future engagement with other countries must be guided by the fact that international trade can be use an intimidation tool. Whether it is on alternative infrastructure, port, bank or a labour. Truly, economists are right when they say there is no free lunch.

South Sudan has many sectors that have the potential to propel her economy and equally potential high risks that can ruin her economy. What she needs are economic managers who monitor, diagnose and act rightly as US did in her difficult time in 2001. To wait or act in an emotion and say ‘our people have suffered before and they are prepare to suffer’, is act of no plan, care, responsibility and ownership.

South Sudan must address macroeconomic challenges; diversify her economy; use and improve local resources – labour and natural resources and develop strong institutions. For this to happen, policies must adopt a holistic view. I suppose, Obama was right when he said ‘Africa needs strong institutions not strong men’.

Garang Atem Ayiik is an independent South Sudan economic commentator. He lives in South Sudan and can be reached at First version of this article was published in New Times, South Sudan in 2012.

IGAD-led peace process continues in Bahirdar

Posted: September 30, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan

IGAD-led peace process continues in Bahirdar

By Morris Mabior Awikjokdit


The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan defined Education as the fundamental right to every citizen to be educated but the former National Ministers of Education science and Technology were against the establishment of quality education in the country as the intention of the attempted coup.

Dr. Adwok Nyaba was against the operation of private Institutions of learning across the country due to the reason best known to him. Instead of fighting against high illiteracy rates in the young nation, comrade Adwok Nyaba went as far as encouraging the closure of private universities.

Education is one of the basic ways people of the Republic of South Sudan can achieve their well- being. It life-time earnings as well as how much a person can engage with and contribute to the entire society of South Sudan. Quality education positively effects health, and lowers family size and fertility rates.

Availability of workers with the right skills is one of the key determinants of success for any business and of capable and professional public bureaucracies and service. Investing in Education in South Sudan will brings individuals and societies enormous benefits, socially, environmentally and economically. But to realize these benefits, children and adolescents must have access to Education and learn from it.

Across the African states, investment in education clearly benefits individuals and societies. In countries emerging from conflict, giving children who couldn’t attend school and a second chance is one way to rebuild individual capabilities and move into national recovery.

However, globally, there is an education, learning and skills crisis especially in the ten Southern states. Some primary schools are operating under the quantities average instead of quality education. The author of this opinion piece of Article is totally confuse about the current education system in South Sudan and I don’t really understand to my limit knowledge whether our government want quality education or quantity?

I believe it important to target learning outcomes, to make sure that every child performs up to a global minimum standard upon completing primary and secondary education. To do this, many countries have found that pre-primary education, getting children ready to learn, is also needed in South Sudan, so we have added target on that.

All around the world, we are nearing universal primary school enrollment, although 28 million children in countries emerging from conflict like DRC, Mali, Somalia, Central Africa Republic and South Sudan are still not in proper established Educational system.

Universal primary education, continues to be a required priority and our government need to ensure all children, regardless of circumstance, are able to enroll and complete a full course of primary and lower secondary education and, in most cases meet minimum learning standards by employing qualified trained teachers.

Of course, education is about far more than basic literacy and numeracy. While the target is about access to school and learning, education’s aims are wider. As set out in the convention on the Rights of the child, education enables children to realize their talents and full potential earn respect for human rights and prepare them for their role as adults. With quality Education, it should also encourage creative thinking, teamwork and problem solving.

It can also lead people to learn to appreciate natural resources, become aware of the importance of sustainable consumption and production and climate change, and gain an understanding of sexual and reproductive health. Education supplies young people with skills for life, work and earning livelihood.

Teachers are often early mentors who inspire children to advance. The quality of education in all countries depends on having a sufficient number of motivated teachers, well trained and possessing strong subject- area knowledgeable. Equity must be a core principle in promoting education system of the Republic of South Sudan. Education disparities persist among and within countries.

In many countries where average enrollment rates have raised, the gaps between, for example, rural girls from a minority community and urban boys from the majority group are vast. Some states have made significant gains in education of South Sudan in the last decade in reducing disparities based on disability, ethnicity, language, being a religious minority and being displaced. Equatorial region benefits in education of South Sudan more than other region of the country.

As children move on higher levels of education the education gap still remains enormous. Many children who finish primary school do not go on to secondary school due to lack of strong secondary schools established and insufficient of qualified trained teachers.

Under payment of teachers and lack of motivating them is another factor facing the education system of South Sudan? They should, and we have included a target to reflect this.

Skills learned in school must also help young people to get a job. Some are non- cognitive skills teamwork, leadership, problem solving. Others should come from technical and vocational training centers.

Wherever it takes place, these skills are important components of inclusive and equitable growth. Such activities are needed to build capacity and professionalism in governments and business, especially in conflict affected states.

The barriers to education of South Sudan, and the most effective solutions, will vary from state to state. But the commitment to learning must be constant and unwavering.

The author is a freelance opinion writer and a professional experience teacher based in Warrap state- Kuajok. He can be reached by email:

The conspiracy behind Khartoum’s alleged leaked memo

Posted: September 30, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Mapuor Malual

By Mapuor Malual Manguen

In August this year Riek Machar and his entourage visited Khartoum to drum up support for Addis Ababa peace talks between his rebel movement and the government of South Sudan. About two months later, it is emerging that his visit was not a peace tour as reported in the media but, in fact a soliciting drive for military support from the archenemy of his country, the republic of Sudan. On 24 September, Prof. Eric Reeves, a distinguished analyst of South Sudan and Sudan published a secret memo on Sudan Tribune from a meeting of top military and security officials in Khartoum that took place on August 31 this year. This was three weeks after Riek visit. In the memo, senior Sudanese officials allegedly agreed to support the Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition (SPLM-IO) with advanced weapons and trainings to change balance of power in South Sudan.

Sudan 1st Vice President Bakri Hassan Saleh is quoted that his regime “Recognizes Dr. Riek Machar Liaison office and all organs are required to provide protection and security to them. “I met Riak Machar, Dhieu Mathok and Taban Deng Gai and they are regretting the decision to separate the South and we decided to return his house to him. He [Riek Machar] requested us to assist him and that he, has shortage in the M.I. personnel, operations command and tank technicians. We must use the many cards we have against the South in order to give them unforgettable lesson.”

But inevitably Prof. Reeves raised questions about the authenticity of this document, marked internally as “secret, confidential, and restricted.” Most of the reasons for believing the document to be authentic, on Reeves’ reading, have to do with the extremely close resemblance of much of what is said by officials in this meeting and what has been said and done publicly by the National Congress Party/National Islamic Front regime, but in the minutes with more detail, specificity, and nuance of expression.

Nevertheless, this purported memo is not far from reality on the battlefields in Upper Nile and Unity States. After acquiring trainings and weapons from Sudan, the rebels of SPLM-IO recently crossed borders into the country and launched attacks on government controlled areas. The Chief of Joint General Staff of the Sudan Armed Forces, 1st Lt. General Hashim Abdalla Mohammed, adds his voice in this conspiracy theory and I quote,

“We must change the balance of forces in South Sudan. Riak, Taban and Dhieu Mathok came and requested support in the areas of training in M.I. and especially in tanks and artillery. They requested armament also. They want to be given advanced weapons. Our reply was that we have no objection, provided that we agree on a common objective. Then we train and supply with the required weapons,” end quote.

But what is that “common objective” that Khartoum regime is forging with South Sudan rebels? Is it a common objective for regime change in Juba? Or is it for reunification of Sudan with South Sudan? Just as I mentioned in my previous article, the recent rebels activities in Renk is strong evidence to Khartoum’s leaked memo.

The objective of Sudan may not necessarily intend to re-occupy the whole South Sudan but aims to take up contested areas along the border. Rebels on their part are desperate to capture or destroy operating oil facilities through Sudan’s help to starve Juba with oil proceeds which it depends for running state institutions. This is bitter pill for Sudan to swallow because it also relies on oil infrastructure fees that Juba pays per every barrel of crude that passes through Sudan’s territory.

This article was first published by The Juba Telegraph on Tuesday 30, September 2014. The author is journalist, blogger and political commentator based in Juba.

Bloomberg: China Halted Weapons Sales to South Sudan

Posted: September 30, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan

China halted weapons sales to South Sudan after it discovered the state arms manufacturer sold millions of dollars worth of equipment to the war-torn nation, a Chinese Embassy official said.

China North Industries Group Corp., known as Norinco, delivered its first consignment of a $38 million order to South Sudan in June. The Chinese government decided it was “inappropriate to implement” the remainder of the contract after details of the order came to light in July, Lan Kun, an attache at the Chinese Embassy in South Sudan’s capital, Juba, said in a Sept. 21 interview.

“No more weapons are heading to South Sudan,” he said. “There are some media reports that were alleging that the Chinese government was behind this business operation and wants to undermine this peace process. That is totally untrue.”

South Sudan has been wracked by a civil war since mid-December in which thousands of people have died and sparked one of the world’s worst humanitarian crises, according to the United Nations.China’s Foreign Ministry has repeatedly called for an end to hostilities, while Chinese Ambassador to the African Union Xie Xiaoyan has worked with U.S., Norwegian and U.K. diplomats to try end the conflict.

U.S. Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan Donald Booth said he raised the issue about the weapons sale with Chinese officials during a visit to Beijing in July.

“I have been told and assured that they have frozen delivery of any further arms that are already sold and they continue to have a policy of no new arms agreements,” he said by phone from New York.

Oil Buyer

China is one of the biggest buyers of South Sudan’s oil, output of which has fallen by a third to about 160,000 barrels a day since fighting between President Salva Kiir’s government and insurgents loyal to former Vice President Riek Machar started nine months ago, according to the Petroleum Ministry. The violence has displaced 1.8 million people and left 4 million, almost a third of the population, in need of urgent humanitarian assistance, according to the UN.

China National Petroleum Corp. is one of three companies that pump oil in South Sudan. The company evacuated 97 of its staff in December because of the conflict, the state news agency Xinhua reported on Dec. 25.

Human Rights Watch, the New York-based advocacy group, has accused South Sudan’s army and rebel forces of crimes against humanity including massacres and rape during the fighting. Civilians had been purposefully targeted and killed, child soldiers recruited and towns pillaged, said HRW South Sudan researcher Skye Wheeler.

‘Meaningful Steps’

“Neither side has made any meaningful steps toward ending abuse or holding their forces to account for crimes driving South Sudan deeper into humanitarian crisis and causing terrible levels of suffering,” she said by e-mail.

Since the start of the war, China’s government “has asked all relevant Chinese companies to stop the weapons trade to South Sudan and this stance of the government has not changed,” Yu Ruilin, chief of the political section at the embassy, said in a Sept. 23 interview.

China’s government is committed to restoring peace to the nation, she said. Yu was unaware which shipments by Beijing-based Norinco had been stopped. The deal for the weapons was struck before the war broke out and the embassy had no knowledge of the sale, Lan said.

“China’s support in halting arms flows to all parties in the conflict is critical to reaching a political resolution of the conflict,” Casie Copeland, the Brussels-based International Crisis Group’s South Sudan analyst, said by e-mail.

‘No Obligation’

No one was available at Norinco in Juba for comment. The company’s office in Beijing referred questions to a man named Ji, who declined to comment when reached by phone on Sept. 29.

“Norinco observes international laws and the laws and regulations of the Chinese government,” he said. “We are under no obligations to talk about Norinco’s internal business with journalists.”

South Sudan army spokesman Philip Aguer said in a Sept. 21 interview in Juba he was unaware that the Chinese had stopped arms sales.

“We have weapons,” he said. “We are an army. We have no shortage of arms.”

South Sudan’s Army Chief of General Staff Paul Malong declined to be interviewed and two calls to Defense Minister Kuol Manyang Juuk’s mobile phone didn’t connect.

News of the weapons order prompted Amnesty International, the London-based advocacy group, and a coalition of 30 non-governmental organizations to call for an embargo against arms sales to South Sudan. During a visit to Juba last month, U.S. Ambassador to the UN Samantha Power said reports of arms purchases were “very worrying.”

‘Convenient’ Cancellation

China’s decision to halt the weapons sale comes “conveniently” after one shipment arrived in South Sudan, said Jonah Leff, director of operations at Brussels-based Conflict Armament Research.

“Nevertheless, it’s indicative of a renewed effort on their part to not play a part in fuelling the conflict with arms,” Leff said in an e-mailed response to questions.

Ambassador Mawien Makol Arik, spokesman for South Sudan’s foreign minister, said he did not understand what the issue was with buying military equipment.

“When it comes to weapons, this is a sovereign country, we can contract anybody who can give us some weapons,” he said. “This is the right of any country not just South Sudan.”

To contact the reporter on this story: Ilya Gridneff in Nairobi at

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Antony Sguazzin at asguazzin@bloomberg.netPaul Richardson, Karl Maier

South Sudan Bus Crash kills 56

Posted: September 29, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan

South Sudan bus crash kills 56

Monday, 29 September 2014

Baakulu bus that crashed head-on on the Jub-Nimule Highway, near Nesitu

Bakulu bus that crashed head-on on the Jub-Nimule Highway, near Nesitu

At least 56 people have been killed after a bus travelling from South Sudan to Uganda crashed into a truck, doctors say.

‘The police first brought something like 20 bodies… all in all they brought 56,’ said Xaviour Okadi, a doctor at the main hospital in South Sudan’s capital Juba.


The crash is one of the worst recent accidents in South Sudan.

The bus crashed shortly after dawn on Monday, on the main highway south to Uganda, some 25km from Juba.


Police said the bus and truck collided head-on while crossing a bridge.

Many of those killed were Ugandans, Okadi said, adding that around 15 were South Sudanese.

An AFP reporter witnessed dozens of dead bodies in the hospital’s mortuary, many with wounds to the head, or with broken limbs.


Ugandan traders play a key role in the South Sudan capital, many running small businesses or trading stores.

The Ugandan army is also supporting government troops in South Sudan, battling rebel forces in a more than nine-month long civil war.


The highway to Uganda is one of the few tarred roads in South Sudan, which is grossly underdeveloped after decades of war.

Fighting broke out again in the oil-rich country, also the world’s youngest nation, in December 2013 following a clash between troops loyal to President Salva Kiir and his former deputy Riek Machar.


The war spread rapidly across the country and has been marked by widespread human rights abuses and atrocities by both sides.

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