Archive for the ‘Junub Sudan’ Category

Is South Sudan at the Brink of Disintegration?

Posted: September 15, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan


RESOURCEFUL MINDS LURED IN DIVISIVE DISCOURSES

By Jurkuch Dengdit

RSS

It’s not the unsaid that divides us; it’s the said divisive words that divide us.

No one had seen this coming. From national politics to communal/clan minds-resourceful minds lured by egos. The egos that had cost South Sudan ten of thousand of people dead, millions displaced and fifty thousand children on the verge of starvation- a man made disaster is taking young innocent souls.

This war has created unprecedented level of hatreds amongst South Sudanese. South Sudan, a nation polarised by tribal affiliations! It doesn’t end tribal per se. A national political disagreement has found its new ‘palace’ in the hearts and minds of Bor and Twic East counties. Myopic political appointment perhaps is an apocalypse between these two sisterly communities of Bor and Twic.

The rants that had surfaced amongst Daidit Maa, Tearz Ayuen, Atong and Amer Mayen had further or somewhat have polarised the two communities of Twic and Bor. It’s creating animosity and division. It eerie! Pause and think. It’s bellowing. It smells-a disastrous putrid smell perhaps. Hate speeches that have given the government of South Sudan an absolute control over its citizens when it should be the citizens that dictate what the government does.

This is because we have abridged our intellects to debate trivial discourses that often compromise our shared values that overrun nation discourses. We are loosing the war to hold the government of South Sudan accountable to be wise and fugal government, which shall refrain men from injuring one another, shall leave their own pursuits of industry and improvement and shall not take from the mouth of labour the bread it has earned. This should be our absolute fight to anyone who wants to extend the hands of the former oppressors in our nascent country.

This rant is an epitome of anathema, and this shouldn’t whatsoever be use to polarised these communities who have fought in various wars side by side. They have witnessed and endured horrific and merciless massacres inflicted upon its people by another brother.

These communities together fought determinedly to see the people of South Sudan living in their own country in decency and in dignity. Their shared values are embroidered in paying an ultimate courtesy and respect for anyone regardless of one’s tribe, gender, social status or political affiliation.

Daidit Maa, Ayuen, Atong and Amer are great writers and thinkers. They can help these communities ‘elate’ their political frontiers through their acumens. They can always thunder the evils of nationalism. They can shun the vices of national developments. More importantly, they can engage our young and ‘learned’ generation of South Sudanese wherever they are on strategic and pertinent national discussions.

Or possibly if they know, they can help Kur Wel Kur rewriting the history of lost boys and redefining the diabolism in the history of the lost boys (twisted history to conquer impossible frontiers).

I must admit, you guys can write wonders. You can move the mountains of lies and institute the archive of the truths. Dust yourselves off from this petty and toxic debate and maybe leave it to less informed and ‘escapegoaters’ who think they can build a strong community base support.

You are tarnishing our shared image and sadly, you are unknowingly goading our friends/enemies-those who want to see Bor and Twic disintegrate to advance their political influence. Your language usage and creativity to craft words out of the existing community’s name, which am hesitant to exhume herein is disheartening and outrageous. Remember, it’s not the unsaid that divides us; it’s the said divisive words that divide us.

In time of crisis, anyone has rights to support any political paradigm, but that doesn’t guarantee one’s a license to names calling. Too, it’s equally true to say that names calling don’t degrade your community. Remember folks, a wise is superior to any insults that’s hurled upon him and the best reply to unseemly behaviour is patience and moderation. We must rise above insults and shame ourselves of evil that litters in us.

If we don’t change this, in my humble view, you are ultimately compromising our long shared and cherished social fabric that holds Bor and Twic people together for time immemorial

As I said above, our focus as this generation is to engage our politicians on the barbarism of caging our own people in an appalling situation in UN managed camps across the country. We must engage our politicians to avoid devouring media laws that compromise the lives of our journalists and writers.

We must shrug off these petty debates and fearlessly tell the president to stop ‘defiling’ our nation’s constitution as if it’s his own book that requires new editions. We must advocate for our girls education to be a nation agenda. We don’t need no education for our girls.

With the same token of determination, we must also echo the same voices for better health facilities that are well equipped with world class trained medical professionals so that the nation must curb the rampant child mortality during childbirth.

The youth must also advocate for the utlisation of untapped national sectors such agriculture to engross our young people in productive activities that will make them sustainable in long term.

This in turn, creates employments and magnanimously ceases idleness in our people. Profoundly, South Sudanese young people should indulge themselves with such debates rather than tribal or clannish debates.

In conclusion, tribal and communal/clan rants are disheartening and we must rise above communal tendencies. We must know that these two sisterly communities of Bor and Twic have co-existed before therefore, no myopic political interests of TODAY will ever compromise this long cherished and well-lived co-existence.

We must abjure the tendencies that drive us apart. We are one people, and no amount of hates speeches from few individuals will darken our ‘ceiling’ of understandings.

The success of Buor and Twic doesn’t lie in tiptoeing and envying on our own selves. No matter what circumstances we are in, we must always diligently and honestly guard our thoughts.

Press Release from the SPLM-DC on Hon. Makwei Lueth

Posted: September 15, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan

Press Statement Makuei 1Press Statement Makuei 2********

Dr Lam Akol Prevented from Traveling to Addis Ababa for Peace Talks

Date: 13 September 2014

At about 2:30 pm today, the authorities in Juba prevented Dr Lam Akol, the Leader of Delegation of the Political Parties to the peace talks, from travel to Addis Ababa to take part in the peace talks. Four other members of the delegation, Ismail Suleiman Saeed, David William Tut, Albino John Lako and Sarah Nene Redento, also did not travel.

The delegation held a press conference at the airport describing the measure as a violation of the country’s constitution which guarantees freedom of movements to all citizens. Dr Lam Akol explained the background of the decision as the government’s intention to replace the delegation of the political parties with one comprising political parties represented in the current government. Such a scenario, he stressed, would mean that the government would practically have two delegations at the talks: the direct one and the proxy one under the guise of political parties. Dr Lam explained that from the moment the political parties published in July their position on the resolution of the armed conflict, the government has shown open hostility to the political parties. It had thought that they would have supported it blindly. Things came to a head in Addis Ababa on the 15th of August when the same position paper was tabled before a plenary sitting of the stakeholders. Dr Lam reminded the press people of the defection then of four members of the political parties delegation who are in the government under threat from the government delegation in Addis Ababa.

Dr lam Akol told the press that back in Juba the four defectors were joined by the Minister of Cabinet Affairs and the Minister of Information in creating a rift between the political parties.  Due to the government’s sticks and carrots, the parties in the Political Parties Leadership Forum that are represented in the government broke away, declared that they have dismissed Dr Lam from the leadership of the delegation and formed a delegation of their own composed entirely of parties in the government including the SPLM. When the official delegation led by Dr Lam Akol was invited to Addis Ababa and their illegal delegation was not, this became too much to the government, hence the decision to prevent Dr Lam Akol from travelling to Addis Ababa.

Members of the delegation stressed that they will insist on the independence of the political parties and called upon IGAD and the international community to bring pressure to bear on the government to respect that independence. They wondered why political parties that are part of the government should look for representation outside the government’s delegation to the talks, asserting that the delegation of the political parties should exclusively represent the opposition parties.

Dr. John Garang de Mabior Foundation Premier Note

Posted: September 13, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan

Dr. John Garang de Mabior Foundation Premier Note

An Iconic Picture of Dr. John Garang on Nairobi streets: Kenyans marking the death of Dr. John Garang, 2005

An Iconic Picture of Dr. John Garang on Nairobi streets: Kenyans marking the death of Dr. John Garang, 2005

Dr. John Garang Foundation was inspired by this quote of his.

“…It is the same God who makes Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Lotuho, Taposa, Murle, Anyuak, etc, and who is this to amend God creations, the one makes amendment, I would say is against God. If this problem of my transfer to God I will win this case.” By Dr. John Garang

(1) Dr. John Garang Museum, there is no schedule time yet now. Just stay tune for that. However, it opening date and time might be affected by an important individual attendance. I will not give a name of that person now.

(2) The Foundation will protect every South Sudanese (64th Tribes) & Sub-tribes Identities as their Natural gift and shouldn’t be exploited, either it is their Languages, Dialects, Identities, etc. Our people Histories, Languages, Dialects of South Sudan tribes or sub-tribes has to be protected because they were important part of our heroes did fight for so long. In addition too, we have to bear in our minds that Dr. John Garang and many heroes of our new Nation did commit themselves for our co-existence respect and preservations.

(3) Lɔ̈ŋkuëi (Longkuei) Security will be formed under this Foundation to protect it intended missions. Also these Security personnel will be trained in computer skills and other securities requirements in United States and other parts of the world. Lawyers and Longkuei Security will protect heroes of our Freedom.

(4) Lawyers are going to be included under this Foundation to protect it missions. Peace, Education and Reconciliation Programs, Sport, Cultural Activity, etc.

(5) Every 64th tribes of South Sudan is going to be represented under this Foundation of Dr. John Garang de Mabior.

(6) Every tribes or sub-tribes Languages or Dialects will be done here also. Plus Computer Keyboard design for every Languages or Dialects letters as well under this Foundation.

(7) Book publishing in any Languages or Dialects; Translation and Interpretation and many other programs too.

(8) Any person who still with old mind-set of contempt and/or being Advocating for wrong History that would cause any Tribes, Sub-tribes, and Clan inciting conflict will be punished by Law severely under this Foundation wherever he/she might be residing around the world, it would be work of Longkuei Security and Lawyers of this Foundation through any means. Everybody has to know that, we South Sudanese didn’t fight to leave loophole in our heroes visions whereby many of them have sacrificed to let everyone be free and have rights of: Languages, Dialects, Identities, properties, etc.

(9) Even if there might be any tribe or sub-tribe in South Sudan that has only two people and they speak one Language or Dialect it must be protected under this Foundation. Because it is their Nhialic (God) gifts to them.

“Let us also drop this crazy idea that we all must be Arab even God will not accept it.” By Dr. John Garang de Mabior

Update for Drjohngarangfoundation.org progress

South Sudanese Museum address:

560-76th St suite 542, Byron Center, MI 49315.

You have a book, any books, videos of tribes, sub-tribes, tribes or sub-tribes historical arts, and you want to donate it to SOUTH SUDANESE MUSEUM for your own Author, tribe, sub-tribe promotion, please don’t hesitate to sent to that address before time. What we mean before time, it is time the Museum be opening within the upcoming months.

(1) The Museum Building is already in hand. The lease did start on August 29, 2014. However, in first update in few months back was supposed to be named, “Dr. John Garang Museum” but it is now changed to, “SOUTH SUDANESE MUSEUM.” The reason behind this change was due to idea that, “the Museum of important person like John Garang should be established first in his home area of Greater Twic East, Jonglei State, South Sudan.”

(2) Other fews purposes being added under this Foundation are:

-The Foundation will educate world communities about South Sudanese rich cultures of diversities and preserves them for next upcoming generations of every tribes, sub-tribes, communities, etc.

-The Foundation will investigate any suspicious killings of individual or groups who are suspicious about particular love ones have die in suspected or malicious activities. Under this point, thoroughly investigation have to be done in scientific way like Forensic analogy. Written investigations, and other form of investigations.

-Any individual, groups, entity, news makers, blogs, and others inciting conflicts through wrong tribal or sub-tribes identity or history misplaced, would be hunt-down around the globe wherever he/she lives.

-Also under this foundation, there would be none exception when it comes to suing individual, groups, entity, organizations, and so forth who is/have been able to distorted other tribes or sub-tribes of their rights of identities or histories. However, the warning should be sent a head of time to any violator of other communities’ identities or histories that have been proved beyond any doubt of our human beings logic.

-Both Longkuei Security, Doctors and Lawyers under this Foundation are going to have opportunities when it comes to their training in things like computer and other essentials tools that are going to facilitated their jobs around the world.

-Plus if you are individual or groups need some protection, please don’t hesitate to contact Foundation about membership dues. Our office phone has not yet been activated but within the next few days or weeks, it should work. Here is Office number: 616-551-3165.

-And other programs that would be added on later.

N/B: This week we will post the Museum photos or pictures.

T-shirt “64th Tribes: Makes South Sudanese Nation Stronger Union”

South Sudanese Museum address:

560-76th St suite 542, Byron Center, MI 49315.

Phone: 616-551-3165

E-mail: drgarangfoundation@yahoo.com

E-mail: garang@drjohngarangfoundation.org


“Remarks of Gen. Gathoth Gatkuoth Hothnyang, Military Governor of Upper Nile State (SPLM/A IO), addressing war-wounded heroes in Akobo on 2nd September 2014

Gathoth Gatkuoth, the rebel commander in Upper Nile state

Gathoth Gatkuoth, the rebel commander in Upper Nile state

1. Dear Comrades, wounded heroes. Salva Kiir imposed tribal war on Nuer on 15th December 2013 in which, for the first time in the history of South Sudan, he carried out premeditated genocide of over thirty thousand innocent civilians of Nuer Ethnic Group. This can only be equated with holocaust committed against Jewish Community by tyrant Hitler of Germany, and with genocide in Rwanda several decades ago.

Dear comrades, wounded heroes, your fellow brothers fell in Malakal three times and in Nassir. You are fighting a just war. We must continue to fight in order to liberate your people from tyranny. In fact, the war is not about power struggle, as some people may claim, not a fight to take leadership of the country. But rather, it is a fighting to get rid of tyranny of endemically corrupt, tribalistic, nepotistic and oppressive regime that at will butchers its people. Bad leadership of tyrant Salva Kiir must go if South Sudanese are to enjoy lasting peace in their land. Salva Kiir is nothing less than deadly Ebola in West Africa. He is just another deadly Ebola of South Sudan, which must be got rid of.

2. I would like to express my gratitude to Honourable Hilde Johnson, Former Special Representative of UN Secretary-General in South Sudan for having been able to save lives and protecting our people in UNMISS camps in Juba, Malakal, Bor and Bentiu. Many thanks too UNMISS Human Rights department for having exposed to the whole world evidence of committed genocide in Juba. However, the fact that US government led by Democrats and regional bloc IGADD, today, wants to turn down the facts of genocide and other human right abuses and wants to impose tyrannically brutal leadership on South Sudanese is a different thing altogether. We must continue to reject their blackmailing agenda. South Sudanese need peace more than anybody else. It is South Sudanese themselves that will bring their peace – a lasting peace under new leadership, not Salva Kiir’s.

3. Comrades, wounded heroes. Be informed that our negotiating team in Addis Ababa, contrary to what Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin alleged on Radio Tamazuj, did not sign any peace agreement including permanent cease-fire. The IGADD proposal failed to address the root causes of the conflict. It aimed at keeping Salva Kiir in power for the next period of time, and so was rejected by our team. That biased document of biased IGADD can never be signed by our negotiating team or by any sound member of SPLM/A. Thanks to the Chairman, Dr Riek Machar and our delegation for their wise decision to reject IGADD’s biased document that intends to retain the status quo. Salva Kiir must go home in order for South Sudanese to live in peace.

4. IGADD mediation process will, in my view, never yield lasting peace in South Sudan, for IGADD mediators are seriously compromised/biased due to conflict of interests as for sure some of them have directly been involved in the war (e.g. Uganda) fighting alongside the government. I would therefore urge UN Security Council to give responsibility of mediation to any neutral African countries (other than IGADD-member countries) that may be able to mediate between warring parties impartially.

5. I also urge US government led by Democrats to review their foreign policy towards resolving conflict in South Sudan and portray neutrality, and to stop aiding and keeping in power the regime of South Sudan Ebola – Salva Kiir.

6. Dear comrades and compatriots, there are traitors who, like Salva Kiir, also killed innocent Nuer civilians in Juba. These are Col. Simon Kun Puoc, Gen. James Hoth Mai, Joseph Nguen Monytuil, John Kong Nyuon, James Kok Ruei, Thomas Duoth Guet, Johnson Gony Biliu, Riak Gai Kok, and John Gai Yoh. These people conspire against you, insult and kill you simply in exchange for position and money from Salva Kiir. Just like Judas Iscariot who sold Jesus Christ, they sold you and killed you simply to get money and position from Salva Kiir’s government. So do not blame them for history will judge them harshly, but we are going to fight on till South Sudan Ebola –Salva Kiir- goes home.

7. Dear comrades, wounded heroes. You are fighting a just war and thus must fight on till Salva Kiir steps down, marking a total liberation of all South Sudanese from tyranny and tribalism.

In conclusion, I would like to express sincere thanks to Gen. Duop Lam, Military Governor of Jonglei State, and Cde Koang Rambang, Commissioner of Akobo County for warm reception accorded to you (war-wounded) and me.”

The journey of the First Palotaka boys (part two)

Posted: September 11, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan

By Kur Wel Kur

Each Lost Boys has a similar story, they parents were killed during an attack of their village, leading them to begin their extraordinary exodus. At the end of their epic journey, some boys had walked for 2000 km, an equivalent of hiking from Paris to Roma. Itang, Ethiopia. UNHCR / W. Stone / 1991

Each Lost Boys has a similar story, they parents were killed during an attack of their village, leading them to begin their extraordinary exodus. At the end of their epic journey, some boys had walked for 2000 km, an equivalent of hiking from Paris to Roma. Itang, Ethiopia, UNHCR / W. Stone / 1991

“…Arrived at Torit in Eastern Equatoria, we headed to Mission, a suburb which missionaries resided back then…”(part one).

We settled into concrete, corrugated irons and tiles roofed houses, which almost all of us not familiar with, those permanent houses amazed us (remember, the development in Equatoria was/is nowhere in Jonglei state), since our parents introduced us to the art of cattle rearing at tender ages or our conical grass thatched huts occupied our minds. We would play with electricity lights switches, how one touch would either turn on or turn off the lights. We would play under the modern and man-made lights contrary to natural light, the moon, until the operators turned off the power, that when we could fumble our ways to our sleeping corners.

Just finished their training, the SPLM/A cadets awaiting their respective assignments, resided in Mission too. The noise we made in howling after the operators switched off the lights, kept them awake as if their bodies absorbed caffeine from the coffee. Their knowledge about us held them without complaining, they understood that we lack discipline; they knew that we were few days(no days left) away from settling into a routine best known by SPLM/A as ” an organised oppression “!(the description of “an organised oppression”, detailed in part three)

As we stayed in Torit, we littered the land with faeces like droppings of wildest beasts in Serengeti; the hydrogen sulfide emitted by the faeces, corrupted the fresh air of Equatorian tropical forest. The area affected, grew every day and night by a kilometre; our health worried the locals, guardians and missionaries because any contagious disease could attack and wipe out the majority among us!

The general hygiene became a problem as some children decided to neglect themselves, out of habits or being so young to care for themselves, stayed without showering for days; some could manage a week without a drop of water on their heads. So the lice infested our few clothes we owned. Some clean children could wash their clothes and stayed naked until their clothes dried.

One morning, the authority informed us to stay around in the vicinity of our accommodation because one of the high ranking commanders would come. We collected the mangoes seeds and leaves around the accommodation compounds. Around noon time, the high commander, William Nyuoon Bany showed up; his guards flooded the area of Mission.

Converging in a semi-circle, we poised as if media cameras spied on us. A slender 6 something, foot tall, smooth dark skin man, paced into the semi-circle, tapping his right calf with his prestige stick,   his guards stood as curtains between us and him. He raised his left arm and folded his fingers into a fist, and forced the air out of him with the Liberation slogan: Jesh al-Hamar (the red army) oyeee x 3, then invited a silence for a few seconds, he signaled for a translator.

He began his briefing in Arabic; he narrated the history of our country, Sudan; how Arabs think the country with everything in it, belongs to them. “Jesh al-Hamar, you must be willing to study; you must not dive into nostalgia, thinking about your parents, relatives or cattle; we must defeat the immigrants in all fronts” he sighed in anger!

“I know and am seeing it, you lack clothes and blankets; Jesh al Hamar, you must be on the lookout for patience because without it, all lives will end in seconds; so alongside patience, welcome persistence and everything else will follow,” he lectured! CDR. Nyuoon Bany informed us of our first uniform and he left; before we dispersed, the translator (one of our guardians) expressed to us of William’s position, a third cornerstone in the SPLM/A, he whispered.

Though flimsy and the cold could penetrate through them (the uniform) like mosquito nets, we received that uniform as a blessing and a progress towards civilization. The guardians distributed the uniform to the majority of boys who had no clothes and a few among us, who possessed some clothes received nothing.

After a month, we became restless and dead bored, so we began to loiter; some of us would fake sickness so on our way to the hospital, we would see the traffic of the free population of Torit and smell the fresh air in town contrary to our caged state and foul air in Mission; some of us would sneak into the forest to gather the green (unripe) mangoes; Some of us would wander to the forest and trespass the private properties of the locals; the locals complained to the SPLM/A authority. The authority gave orders to the guardians that nobody should leave without a permission and if anybody does leave without a permission, then he must be whipped.

So whipping began at Mission in Torit; whipping became part of us; it molded us into who we are today (most of Africans’ kids learned the hard ways-through whipping-!) Though flogging harm, some children especially those whose lives depended on cattle since their mothers weaned them from breast feeding, adopted whipping and viewed it as normal.

Those children, the writer of this article included, straight from cattle camps received ‘butts whipping’ all day, every day; but they would sneak out still! So the guardians introduced other form of punishments such as fetching fire woods and carrying water from the river; these punishments got us sitting without thinking of sneaking because women used to do these types of jobs; we pictured them as “humiliating jobs”.

Two months spent, SPLM prepared us for our last journey; before we departed To Palotaka, the authority reshuffled and grouped us (four groups of over 800 children) because we lived in Bomas (mostly related children in the Boma and the relationship reduces as you move up the hierarchies) and payams (administration hierarchies in South Sudan: Boma-Payam-County-State- Country) so some us end up living with strangers, who became closest friends in the end.

So if you scoop a handful of lost boys in world today, a probability of 95% will favour their knowledge of one another. In reshuffling, some of us came in contacts with scabies victims; composing of skin bumps and blisters, scabies produce rashes. Scabies always affect the fingers’ webs. The scabies victims had troubles taking care of themselves as they couldn’t handle things with ease, even bathing was a problem; they lacked medicine.

On the 24th of December, 1990, the group one and half of group two boarded three medium trucks (Nissan) and all soldiers (guards) in Cdr. Kuol Manyang Juuk’s headquarter with Mr. Juuk (the current minister of defence in South Sudan), escorted the children to Palotaka…

To be continued…….

Lookout for part 3

South Sudanese Student Kills in Uganda

Posted: September 11, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Junub Sudan

Student killed over gold necklace

By Cecilia Okoth

Suzan Adit Maker, 20, a Senior Three student at Emma High School, Kisaasi met her death as she pursued a petty thief who had snatched her gold necklace in a busy city mall.
She was reportedly strangled to death at the basement of Gazaland shopping mall in an ensuing brawl after catching up with the thug, relatives said.
The case was reported at the Central Police Station (CPS) vide CRB 41/6/9/2014.
 “We are aware of the case and have so far arrested one person who is in our custody. Two other suspects are on the run,” said Patrick Onyango, the Kampala Metropolitan Police spokesperson.
Michael Adut and Nelson Makoyi, both relatives of the deceased, said Maker could have been hit and later strangled.
Makoyi, an uncle to the dead student, said that on the ill-fated day Adit left their home in Muyenga, a city suburb, in the company of her three sisters and a brother for the city to buy herself a mobile phone.
It was while there in the city that the assailant snatched her gold necklace, an incident that would later end tragic.
It emerged that the student’s siblings who had traveled along with her to town told her not to pursue the goon, but in vain. Adit was determined to get back what belonged to her.
Makoyi narrated: “[Adit] Maker, in an attempt to rescue her precious jewel, followed the thief into the basement and tried to grab back her necklace but she was instead overpowered by the thief and strangled to death.”
He said attempts moments later by the student’s siblings to trace her were futile as they lost track of her, only to find her lying dead on the floor at the basement.
‘Disciplined student’
The incident happened at around 2.00pm local time.
The corpse was later transferred to Case Clinic, about a mile out of the city centre and the matter reported at the Kampala Central Police Station (CPS).
She was laid to rest on Monday in Yirol in South Sudan.
Mark Malinga, the headteacher of Emma High School, told New Vision on phone that Adit was a very good girl.in a phone interview with the New Vision described the deceased as a very good girl.
“She was disciplined and very hard working and we expected her to get very good grades come next year in Senior Four,” he said, adding that she was due to report back to school for the third term.
Born to Maker Mading and Lou Ngor who are both pastoralists, Adit came to Uganda in 2012 to attain secondary school education.