Higher Education: Research to Investigate Quality and Challenges of Teaching in South Sudan

Posted: February 26, 2019 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Books, Education, Junub Sudan, Opinion Articles, Opinion Writers

Higher Education South Sudan: Action Research to investigate quality of teaching and challenges, in higher education reform in South Sudan – Upper Nile University Case Study

 Mr John Monyluak Thon Lal,  MA/Student Zhejiang Normal University, China

Higher Education in South Sudan

Table of content

Dedication——————————————————————————————————-4

Acknowledgement———————————————————————————————5

Abstract———————————————————————————————————-6

1-1 Introduction————————————————————————————————-7

1-2 Statement of the Problem——————————————————————————–9

1-3 Objective of the Study———————————————————————————-10

1-4 Research Questions————————————————————————————–11

Literature Review

2-1 Background of Higher Education———————————————————————–12

2-2 Higher Education—————————————————————————————–14

2-3 Budget in Use———————————————————————————————15

2-3-1 Research methodology——————————————————————————–16

2-4 Data Analysis———————————————————————————————17

2-5 Economic challenges———————————————————————————–19

2-6 Conclusions———————————————————————————————–20

2-7 Reflections————————————————————————————————22

2-7-1 Recommendations————————————————————————————-23

2-8 References————————————————————————————————-29

Dedication

I dedicate this paper, to my mother Late Akuol Deng Tingping, your encouragement to me and hard work has resulted to this great achievement in my life, and I will never forget your struggle for my life and your kind advises to me as your elder son, your care and love for us as your children will unite us in this critical situation where you are no longer, with us forever, I am proudly resisting all challenges and proudly pursuing my schooling according to your advises, may your soul rest in internal peace until we meet again.

Acknowledgement

I wish to acknowledge the effort of friends that help me by offering an insight and relevant information that reflect the positivity of this booklet or journal, it was a great challenges to collect the necessary information concerning reformation process in Higher Education it has never been a easy work, because majority of the people has variety of inputs in term of perception of reformation, the way how they percept reformation in Higher Education is different from person to person. Thanks all the scholars whom their encouragement on my research had allowed me to analyze the work and go a head confidentially with my mission, first thanks goes to my Colleague Dr-Loen from Cameroon for his great encouragement during my study in China, and also not forgetting to thanks Dr-Biar Akim Dean of Faculty of Education in Upper Nile University for granting me a chance to teach and conduct my internship in Upper Nile University, and Finally thanks my Colleague Mrs-Anonciata from Rwanda for her support during my study her kindness and cooperation was very great, so this achievement is not from my own effort, it is a collective responsibility from those whom decided to encourage me during my study and challenges. Finally thank Mr-John Deng Riak, Director General for recruitment in the Ministry of Public Services RSS for recommended me to pursue my Master, s Degree in China. Hopefully life is a journey where you goes together, all the effort goes back for nation building, it is an academic mission to support the scholastic mission.

ABSTRACT

Tuesday, February 26, 2019 (PW) — The paper will focus on federal numerous proposals to enhance quality of higher education of nowadays, South Sudan higher Education is living with challenges that need to be addressed, so this term paper is initially organized in professional ways, it is more practical then theoretical parts, because the researcher had carry out this research process in Upper Nile University, and it is more of comparison theory to Compare South Sudan Higher Education to other nations, as It is well known that higher Education worldwide is one dominant which is an academic profession, aiming at creating new knowledge, transmitting it to students and fostering innovation. This research action is aiming at assessing South Sudan Higher Education system and assessment in increasing interest both among researchers in higher education and in public discussion and international perspective using comparative study approach. The second aim of this paper is to develop a thorough understanding of teacher education reform in South Sudan and its relation to the research development process. To identify whether South Sudanese teachers are equipped with the conceptual understanding and methodological skills which reflect competent that can let students to meet international standard, the research need to assess whether South Sudan higher Education reformation is progressing or are still remain implementing previous strategy of the then united Sudan, as a scholar I have been admitted in the Upper Nile University as a Part-Time Lecturer in The College of community development therefore for me to conduct a research, field visits were carried out to some higher education institutions, apart from Upper Nile University; some content analysis of materials related to their Teacher Education Programs are conducted; people are interviewed (one, professor, and policy makers, three teachers, and two students) are interviewed to provide more understanding. In the research process, the researcher had opted to use in-depth qualitative data are collected non-formal interviews over a period of one month. This research attempts to discuss the action policies in teaching, strategies and practices in undergraduate schools of teacher education and the contributions of research case study in developing high quality teaching and comparison in international perspective. Findings of this research is expected to make research-informed contributions to contemporary issues, initiatives and reforms in South Sudan higher education, and will at least serve to initiate a debate about research-based teacher education and contribute to the decisions that need to be made regarding the future of higher education in South Sudan.

Keywords: Action/Research, investigate, quality, teaching, challenges, Teacher Education, Higher Education, Higher Education, Education Reform.

1-1 Introduction

The paper is addressing the issue of education reform in South Sudan, knowing that in the modern world, economic growth and spread of democracy have a great value in education reform and an increasing the importance of ensuring that the education reform that nation demanded have access to high quality and effectiveness to meet an international standard, our Higher Education in South Sudan need to be reform and not forgetting to maintain national, cultural and linguistic unity, to address higher Education reform first we need to reform K-12 to make it easy for higher education to address national demands and norms, all the challenges facing higher Education will be addressed because South Sudan is the youngest nation in the world, and the National Ministry for Higher Education, Science and Technology[MoHEST] was establish by President Degree Number 62/2010 of 21 st June in accordance with the provision of Articles 55,56, and 103 [1] of the Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan [ICSS], 2005 read in conjunction with Schedule [B] of the Interim Constitution of the Republic of Sudan. By this decree all functions, assets and personnel of the former Directorate of Higher and Tertiary Education in the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology[MoEST]. Higher Education in South Sudan refers to the education offered at post secondary level. Higher Education Institutions [HEIs] are institutions where students are required not only to acquire knowledge students are required also to contribute effectively in producing it as well as developing their critical faculties. There are eight government-sponsored universities in South Sudan. seven are currently operational while one is still at the project level. There are over 35 private tertiary institutions operating in South Sudan. There are no laws governing private sponsored HEIs. Higher education was using concurrent powers before independence but after independence in 2011 the ministry assumed fully responsibility over higher education in the country, The reform shall be initiated by the Ministry to tryout plans that regulate these institutions operating with out laws governing them, by the way some of those institutions were closed by the former minister of higher education Dr-Peter Adwok, which later met critique from scholars. There are also other tertiary institutions currently run by other line ministries. And there are future plans to bring all post secondary education under the supervision of the Ministry. therefore reform shall initially be done through restructuring policies on universities The research will provide more suggestions on Educational development in reflection to the world Educational norms and regulations, There is a need of Reform and development principles in South Sudan higher education system, there should be networks research centers that can be used as planning centers to assist higher education in provision or organization of an events updates, changes in education, seminars to be organized at international level to assist higher education institutions to learn and adapt the new principles or norms of higher education system worldwide, world as a global village need to know that education is a core values of humanity and dignity, so we need to work together in education so that our students can compete in the Global village, This essay is meant to explore the elements which deal with reform in teaching quality, challenges and consider the role of individuals—administrators, faculty members, staff, students, and community members—who see the world in new ways, who can construct a deeper sense of today’s realities from perspectives drawn from many disciplines, and who can draw others together. The research will also borrowed the strategy of higher education action researches carried out by other Nations e,g Japan to be used as a role model in fostering innovation and reform principles in teaching styles, because Higher education plays an essential role in society by creating new knowledge, transmitting it to students and fostering innovation, some gifted talents are being considered in the modern world as part of education principles, With regard to this, Action Research/to investigate teaching quality and challenges in education reform -South Sudan Case Study has lately received increasing interest both among researchers in higher education and in public discussion. Through these experiences, the research suggested that the teachers should develop the requisite knowledge and skills to become effective classroom leaders capable of implementing the national reform agenda. Take example in past ten years, Japan has witnessed many problems in schools. Many of these problems were attributed to a lack of competence among teachers (Hosoya and Talib, 2011) and, as a result, the national advisory groups should made the improvement of the teacher training through their advises the main theme for educational reform we need to adapt those strategies in South Sudan. This reform will make the teacher education as national concern. As a result, Action research on teacher education should be the one of the most important fields in education in South Sudan. The researcher has made a Field visits when conducting the research during my stay in Juba to identify whether South Sudanese teachers are equipped with the conceptual understanding and methodological skills to conduct action research in education. The content of this paper is organized around a number of issues that concern policymakers, educators, and researchers. These include the pedagogical approaches used in teacher education and the contributions of research in developing high quality teaching. It discusses the background of higher education reform in South Sudan to provide a deep insight into the state of research-base approaches in teacher education.  In South Sudan We need to address possible means so that change can materialized to individualists responsible for higher education principles and those are:

  • are individuals who seek to alter a system’s acceptance of an idea;
  • are individuals who are generally external to the system they are seeking to change;
  • are usually professionals with a University degree in a technical field;
  • use opinion leaders to affect change within the social system.

Executive Summary

The most pressing challenge hindering the development of higher education in South Sudan is the widespread violence and instability in the country, the armed conflict had interrupted the learning and academic cycles, and forced many students especially those with means to leave the country and enroll in Universities of the neighboring countries, and those with no means some had quit the studies and others are still pushing forward harder to find way for success, daily meal is a great challenges, hatred among the students caused by the political background these are challenges it mean the government and international communities are confronted with major challenges of reconstruction, rehabilitation, and reconciliation of post-conflict society. While these factors are highly contextual there appear to be few blueprint solutions, the re-establishment of education contributes to normalization, democratization and economic recovery are the elements that can help, because higher education plays roles in capacity building for livelihood improvements, development, innovation and progress. Therefore without a strong and sound higher education system and institutions that can provide quality education, post-conflict nation South Sudan will struggle to move from destruction to recovery and socio-economic development and from insecurity and violent to stability and lasting peace, these will be the Areas of continual movements without education, it is therefore good to sort out education transformation policies by all means and even joining hand with government , and looking at the Challenges of drawing in the public domain, the central challenges confronting learning program or system because, South Sudan is in dire need of clear policies regarding establishment and foundation of higher education policies by considering the international perspectives and globalization policies of higher education as we all know Higher Education Play an essential role in any society by creating new knowledge, transmitting it to students and fostering innovation. Quality teaching in higher education matters for students learning outcomes. and introduction of new theories pedagogical approaches within the environment of Universities. And this can be achieved through educational transformation in the conflict and post conflict country South Sudan, recruitments of qualify teachers and expansion of educational institutions as well as fostering quality teaching and creation of conducive environment for learning, this shall ensure the quality education the higher education offer meets the expectations and consideration of education regulations. And also shall be materialized when academic freedom is in place and Autonomy by the way there was a planning for transformation in place after independence but was interrupted by 2013 war crisis, the evaluation and assessment were carryout base on the overview below.

1-2 Statement of the Problem

Action Research

The research paper known as Action Research/ to investigate quality and Challenges of teaching in Higher Education-South Sudan case study Engagement to design solutions to the problems we face as a South Sudanese society and indeed as apart of global community. We will examining the performances in South Sudan Higher Institutions and contact experts in Higher Education fields worldwide e,g China as our education partner and others, those that can help create new opportunities for different disciplines to work together and for all parts of a campus community and members of the broader society to form new working relationships are boundary spanners. Others call them “transacademic interface managers” (Brundiers, Wiek, &Kay, 2013). They can come from within the academy or from the external community. Their roles are emerging, and they are seeking to find their way in a world that blends the traditions of an academic culture and the knowledge, experiences, and expectations of a broader community. In this essay, we will consider several questions. What role will these individuals play in building a culture of engagement? How will their work change our ideas about faculty work, staff work, and the role of students in achieving the goals of the institution and in responding to the changing world around us? Higher Education in the 21st Century: Learning to Deal with Wicked Problems Our nation’s colleges and universities have always sought to prepare their graduates for life and work in their own era. The pressures we face as educators and administrators in higher education today, both from outside the academy and from within our own community, are complex, interlocking, and hard to manage (Ramaley, 2013). These challenges require us to rethink what others did in field of education in order to meet reform take Japan as an example and China as our role model or development agency, it is therefore our aim to compare our education to the rest of the world so that we develop knowing the sort of higher education that is taking place worldwide, our scholars in South Sudan will be oriented to focus on innovative roles, they should adapt Japanese roles and learn from China, because China and Japanese education has been a focus of comparative studies for the past 20 years. Many scholars have attributed the economic success of this industrialized society to a highly literate and well-educated population. Recent studies, however, have tended to be more critical of the Japanese educational system, often concluding that, without major reform, the school system in Japan would be unable to meet the needs of 21st century Japan (Goodman & Phillips, 2003). Most universities in Japan are acutely aware of the need for change and a considerable national effort is being made at institutional change. The importance attached to the role of research in Educational reform is evident in Japan. Educational research is carried out by a variety of organizations and individuals. The main research activities can be classified into those carried out by national, public and private research institutes, those carried out by academic institutions and organizations such as universities and professional associations, those that make use of Ministry of Education-designated schools, and those undertaken by educational practitioners in a school setting. There is also a network of 283 educational research institutes, called the “National Federation of Educational Research Institutes.” The Federation organizes annual collaborative research meetings and symposia as well as publishing educational research reports. Regarding the links between educational research, educational reform and policy decisions, educational research in Japan constitutes an important resource for policy level decision-making in educational administration. In particular, research resources are routinely, the study will assess an adapt the international comparison on Higher education perspective, creation of institutes, researches centers and innovation of higher institution services in South Sudan which are not currently available, also it is clear that no reformation without researches to investigate services delivery some of the students in University of Juba, had assured me how lecturers suffered due to lack of services, salaries delayed, students are better then lecturers in term of services, some lecturers quit teaching jobs due to lack of enough salaries, it is therefore your duties as Higher Institution experts to draw a possible roadmap to alert government on how to delivery services.

1-3 Objectives of Reform

South Sudan need to adapt higher education policies, in comparison reasoning and positive analysis on how to create an immediate strategy for catching up with world classical education regulations and functions, it is well known that, higher education institutions were professional organizations with one dominant profession, the academic profession. Therefore the core characteristic of professional occupations is that they want not only control over the conditions of their work, but also over the definition of work itself, and that is what it means of democratic policies in education, South Sudan higher education should exercises their freedom of elections, electing Vice-Chancellors rather then appointments. Scott (1995) has distinguished the kinds of work-related control which professionals are seeking.

Regulative control: professionals want to determine what action has to be prohibited and permitted and what sanctions are to be used.

Normative control: implying that professionals want to determine who has right to exercise authority over what decisions and actors in what situations

3- Cognitive control: the drive to determine what types of problems are to be categorized and processed

We also need to be creative: qualitative assess student opinions of teaching and administrative quality, in order to gain better understanding of what is going on in the system

Consult expert professors in the field of teaching to ensure the literature is comprehensive and to identify unpublished work of higher education. The structures of Universities and leadership system should actually confidentially exercises all the necessities of what it mean of positive leadership, independent and administrative exercise and regulations. We need our education system to be modernized so that to meet the quality of education of 21 st century, and this can be achieved if financial capacity is stable, leadership capacity and careful instructions from the legitimate government.

1-4 Research questions

The case under the study is not a thesis but it is organized using principles of Thesis and professional journal, in ordinary term papers questions are not necessary, I just add questions just to drive the readers into the real case under study, because I am using comparison, The study had used comparison reasoning and looking into the gabs of educational needs in South Sudan, it is aiming at expansion policies within the system of higher education in South Sudan, the expansion for fulfillments of pedagogical gabs, fulfillment of administrative needs, and expansion for linkages of South Sudan education system with worldwide-education policies of higher education system, the systematic and comparative research has made a widening explanations amount of progress toward general explanations.

1-How do current scholars in South Sudan view effectiveness of the Higher education system in South Sudan?

2-What are the real reformation needs of higher education in comparison to international perspective theories of education transformation?

3-What could be an effective model given south Sudan, s higher education in current situation?

4-What are the views of students concerning the effectiveness of the higher education system in South Sudan?

5-What are the real challenges facing South Sudanese Universities?

6-What are the Challenges facing students performances at higher education level?

The limitation of the study

The study was limited to evaluate tertiary education institutions in the country, with consultation of policy makers in the country, e,g parliament and government specially education committee in the parliament will be consulted to examine the concepts, roles and strategies concerning how formation of public policies for college sector. And how they view transformation of education and what is strategy set to mitigate the challenges facing education? The study also will examine the role of Ministry of higher education in implementing policies and not forgetting the ministry of Finance and economic planning in keeping the purse.

Literature Review

2-1 Educational Background

South Sudan need to learn that education is changing in today’s world because the world itself is changing. All of our post- secondary institutions, regardless of their mission, will be positively oriented to exploring how we can educate our students to become the kind of educated citizenry that we need in our nation today. We also can examining how our institutions can model informed and collaborative interactions with the broader society both locally and wherever our missions and interests take us. These goals can have implications for the nature of our curricula and our conceptions of what it means to be well-educated. There also will be consequences for how we approach scholarship, teaching, and learning; how the careers of our faculty unfold; the roles and responsibilities of staff; the structure of our institutions; and how we support our mission. There also will be changes in our interactions with the communities that make up our world, both internally and externally. The future opening up to us is both challenging and exciting. The world now has learn that there is a need for change in teaching , Quality teaching in higher education matters for student learning outcomes. Because fostering quality teaching needs higher education institutions to ensure that the education they offer meets the expectations of students and the requirements of employers, both today and for the future (Hénard and Roseveare 2012). In the last two decades, a great deal of attention has been directed towards developing research in teacher education all over the world. Teacher education is clearly an essential element for the improvement of education by producing highly qualified teachers. Many countries identify the production of “high quality teachers” as the goal and focus of their teacher education programs. A primary goal of all teacher educators is to provide pre-service teachers with meaningful professional development opportunities that will help them succeed in making the transition into their own classrooms (Diana, T. J. 2013). In most of the developed countries, teacher education has moved from training teachers to transfer knowledge and preparing them to practice a new role of producing knowledge (Stewart, 2011). In other words, in the process of becoming and being a teacher, doing a teacher research not only promote reflection about personal performance in the classroom, but also seem to stimulate a valued process of self-assessment, in challenging future teachers to identify their personal strengths and weaknesses. Thus, in order to help teachers practice this advanced role, teacher education should equip teachers with self-evaluation and problem-solving skills that are based on research-oriented education. Research in education is necessary in order to provide a basis for educational planning. It is one of the main fields that should be embedded in higher education curriculum (Niemi&Jakku-Sihvonen, 2006). South Sudan, which attained its independence from Sudan in July 2011, has one of the smallest, but most problematic higher education systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The world’s newest country has five public universities the University of Juba, the University of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile University, Dr. John Garang Memorial University of Science and Technology, and Rumbek University—with nearly 20,000 students, including 1,040 graduate students. There are also four “project” or “proposed” public universities: the University of Western Equatoria (Yambio), the University of Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Torit University of Science and Technology, and the University of Bantiu. Exacerbated by conflicts and a lethargic economy, the system is confronted with several challenges, characterized prominently by poor physical infrastructure, under funding and severe staff shortage. These weaknesses have heavy implications for the capacity of the universities to function. The failure of public universities to meet the enormous demand for tertiary education has encouraged the emergence of an unregulated private university sector in the country. South Sudan has 13 private universities, but only four of them are recognized. The focus here is on the experience of the five functioning public tertiary institutions. Faced with extant problems, the institutions have limited options but to live with the challenges. Four main approaches underline the sector’s resilience: dedicated staff, institutional partnerships, a supportive tertiary governance structure, and international assistance. Dedicated Staff In 2012, there were only 721 faculty employed at the universities, which suggests a comparatively moderate student: lecturer ratio of 28:1. But the universities experience a considerable shortage in qualified academics. With 66 percent of the students, Juba University, the largest tertiary institution in the country, lost 561 of its staff, northern Sudanese, at independence. Similarly, significant numbers of faculty of Upper Nile University and Bahr el Ghazal University, the post-1991 institutions, remained in Khartoum when the universities were returned to the South in December 2010. Moreover, the system is dominated by unqualified faculty. For example, in terms of academic qualifications, only 86 of all academics held a PhD in 2012. Furthermore, staff profiles, compiled the same year, revealed that only 36 faculty were full professors, while 62 were associate professors, 76 assistant professors, 242 lecturers, and 262 teaching assistants. To run the academic programs, universities recruit part-time tutors. Thus, 31 percent and 60 percent of Juba and Bahr el Ghazal lecturers, respectively, were part- timers in late 2016. The staff situation at the other three universities is equally alarming. Nonetheless, the universities employ some of the most educated, experienced, and talented workforce in the country. Rigorous university recruitment procedures insulate the institutions from the corrupt practices inherent in the civil service. More importantly, the commitment of the academics to the institutions underscores their ability to impart knowledge and provide other vital services. The dedication of the academic staff mitigates the threats posed by the lack of qualified faculty. For example, a Bahr el Ghazal’s professor supervises 12 doctoral students. Institutional Partnerships In general, scanty infrastructural facilities represent the most pressing challenge for the universities. The facilities and laboratory equipment of the three older universities were either left in Khartoum when the institutions were repatriated to the South, or plundered in the aftermath of the December 2013 conflict, as in the case of Upper Nile and John Garang. To tackle this problem, the vice-chancellors instituted partnerships, which had a positive impact on the capacity of the institutions. For instance, although John Garang has reopened in Bor, due to the current insecurity in Malakal, Upper Nile has been relocated to Juba. The displaced university utilizes some of Juba’s facilities, and Juba’s professors instruct students and work part-time at John Garang. Furthermore, Rumbek University’s science students conduct laboratory experiments at the University of Bahr el Ghazal in Wau, and John Garang’s science students visit Juba for their practical work. In addition, professors in other universities supervise Juba’s graduate students. To ensure staff development, universities enrol their staff for graduate studies offered by the Universities of Juba and Bahr el Ghazal. Supportive Governance Tertiary education in South Sudan is governed through the ministry of higher education, science, and technology. The ministry has policy, technical, and administrative oversight. Although the minister is a political appointee, the presence of academics, such as the undersecretary, at the helm of the ministry ensures that the views of the tertiary institutions on the problems confronting them are taken into consideration. The ministry supports the universities, primarily by providing government funding. The ministry increased the remuneration of lecturers in 2014, a measure that attracted some academics back to the universities. The number of Juba’s permanent staff rose from 251 in 2011 to 574 in 2016. Although this indicates a 56 percent increase from 2011, it is still well below the university’s pre independence staff level of 700. In addition, through the ministry’s efforts, some European and African countries support university staff development programs. Currently, through this initiative, many academics pursue graduate studies at Chinese Universities and few at Makerere University, Uganda, the University of Zambia, and the University of Zimbabwe. Moreover, the representation of the universities on the National Council for Higher Education (NCHE) strengthens the bonds between them and provides the institutions with a national platform. In addition, the university leaders have introduced a collegial management style in the universities. Faculty, students, and supporting staff are consulted on major institutional affairs, which enhances internal university communication. In this respect, the universities determine, and reflect on, the wider issues within and outside their campuses. The vice-chancellors draw on their connections and political insight to access resources for the universities. They appeal to members of university councils, who are often influential ministers or parliamentarians, in order to be heard by government ministries. In a country where informality is more dynamic than bureaucratic procedures, this modus operandi often yields results. International Assistance Higher education is one of the least funded government sectors in the country. The universities consistently receive less than 1 percent of annual fiscal allocations. This meager funding restricts university operations. University administrators use funds prudently on staff remuneration, procurement of essential services, and learning equipment such as books. As a result of the government’s inability to fund physical infrastructure and staff development programs, the universities need to rely on foreign support. International assistance is the most practical mechanism to address the two critical challenges confronting the tertiary sector: infrastructural inadequacy and staff shortage. With international support, universities can handle the issue of infrastructure. Prior to independence, Juba secured $6.5 million from international development partners— Norway and USAID—to build premises for its college of law in 2010. The new buildings provide accommodation for other colleges and a graduate research center. At that time, 87.6 percent of the faculty did not have doctorates. Staff development is therefore a top priority on the international assistance agenda. In early 2011, Juba agreed to a three-year venture with the Virginia Polytechnic and Virginia State University to train Juba’s staff. Juba also signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Number 89: Spring 2017 Exacerbated by conflicts and a lethargic economy, the system is confronted with several challenges, characterized prominently by poor physical infrastructure, underfunding, and severe staff shortage.

2-2 Higher Education sponsorship

The State is the main sponsor of governmental HEI in South Sudan while private universities are sponsored by private sector. During the Interim period, the role to financing governmental HEI in South Sudan was shared between GoSS and GoNU. GoSS paid tuition fees, feeding and accommodation for returnees and IDP students as well as providing financial support to study abroad students. With the independence of South Sudan, GoSS has taken over fully all the roles of GoNU including payment of salaries of the dons. The future role of Government of South Sudan was about to be determined when the NCHE National Council of Higher Education established.6- Government: The law was amended in 2012 for regulating the higher education because the laws and regulations regulating higher education in Sudan was still called the Higher Education and Scientific Research act 1990:7 laws of the Sudan (7ed. 2003, and printed as amended up to 1996). This law repealed the 1975 Act.With the 1990 Act still in force, major decision on higher education is still taken by the Federal Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, GoNU. The conference for Higher Education held from 6 th – 7 th September 2010 called for the repealing of 1990 Higher Education Act. This is believed to give GoSS more leverage in making decisions in matters related to Higher Education in South Sudan. This opportunity has arrived fully with the independence of South Sudan. Key Priorities and Targets The Ministry intends in the next five years to: established-Institutions: The Ministry intends to regulate the expansion of tertiary institutions by establish the national Council for Higher Education and to ensure that expansion in higher education is not only governed by political consideration but also inspired by the demand established through a study. This quality assurance body will be in charge of strengthening national tertiary institution monitoring, evaluation and developing policy framework.

2-3 The budget in use currently:

Agency Summary

Higher Education, science & Technology 2017/18 budget

453,533,513

2017/18 q3 outturns

781,169,579

2018/19 proposed budget

657,812,876

Wages and salaries 414,026,091 446,765,16 582,895,932
Use of goods and services 39,507,422 334,404,418 74,916,944
Grand Total 453, 533,513 781,169,579 657,812,876

Sources: Approved Budget Book Fiscal year 2018-19/Ministry of Finance and planning Republic of South Sudan/October 2018 grss-mof.org

The same budget is calculated and divided into several institutions of Higher Education, Universities and all tertiary institutions under the government of the Republic of South Sudan, it will remain a question to economist, whether the budget is enough for whole state funding of Higher Education or it is inadequate? The researcher doubt that budget is inadequate due to dollar rate, which is extremely high, 1=250 ssp sometimes=300ssp. It mean one hundred dollar usually rating at 25,000 twenty five thousand ssp, this mean that budget is totally not a quarter for higher education services of the whole nation, and this is why the lecturers and abundant teaching professional, and seeking employment with NGOs, etc.

 2-3-1 Research Methods

Collected through observations and non-formal interview and online documents, the aim of research is to analyze education actors, higher education policies and implementation process, A content analysis of teacher-education program was conducted for three universities. In addition, a sample from university professors and students were compare to online documents in order to reflect the tangible understanding on matter under the study. According to world Bank online documents For this level, data from the Federal Ministry for Higher Education and Scientific Research state a total enrollment of 15,102 in public universities 144 4• Education in the Republic of South Sudan in South Sudan in 2002 (1,444 at University of Bahr El Ghazal, 11,785 at Juba University, and 1,873 at Upper Nile University).therefore this study had analyzed the previous enrollment compare to current enrollment and produce strong evidences, there is decrease in enrollment rate due to conflicts and many challenges. Also To compare South Sudan to the rest of the world, higher education is very low, see below table indicate enrollment rates by states of the entire nation.

Sources: South Sudan Education management system (SSEMIS, 2015).

2-4 Data Analysis

I had adapted to use action research because it represent practical parts, Nowadays, in many countries, there is great interest in promoting action research in the teacher education curriculum (Burns, 2010). It has been discover that Action research is a problem-solving and self-evaluation tool, and higher education in South Sudan is full of obstacles or problems, we as educators will assess teachers in action, and give advises which can help teachers to improve the quality of their teaching skills and practice. In teacher education, action research methodology offers a systematic approach to introducing innovations in teaching and learning in South Sudan. It seeks to do this by putting the teacher in the dual role of producer of educational theory, and user of that theory. This is both a way of producing knowledge about higher-education teaching and learning, and a powerful way of improving teaching and learning practice (Burns, 2010). No separation needs to be made between the design and delivery of teaching, and the process of researching these activities, thereby, bringing theory and practice closer together. In this research methodology, teachers conduct research, create a study, collect data and analyze the results to improve the quality of teaching and student achievement in the schools where they work. In this respect, action research can provide opportunities for reflection, improvement, and transformation of teaching. It is common knowledge that teachers face many problems while teaching, such as problems relating to the school program, the subject specialism, the class environment, the teaching strategies, and students’ achievement. Teachers, interestingly, can conduct their own research on different instructional topics. On the individual level, teachers typically formulate a research question or topic based on the day-to-day challenges of their classroom. This may focus on grade level curriculum instructional materials, teaching practices, assessment or learning styles. Conducting action research can greatly impact on a teacher’s Ability.

Qualitative data

In process of my research I opted to use better understanding because part of my research involved discussions with South Sudanese higher-education specialists and policy makers. Non-formal interviews were conducted to the following:  1-Representatives from the Higher Education and some from Ministry of Education, Science & Technology The Senior Researcher who are also Masters and PHD students were interviewed verbally.

2-Documents online were collected analyzed and located.

2-4-1 Qualitative Data/Findings to be reformed

Findings from documents and Observations Higher Education office, the Higher Education office of Upper Nile University/faculty of education drawn their suggestions on how Higher Education should be made for innovative strategies, which means to supports university education reform. They suggest that, The main mission of the Higher Education office, is to enhance teachers’ skills of teaching and to provide excellence in teacher training. In documents and observation strategies and non-formal interviews with some of the representatives from Higher Education Bureau, the researcher met Dean of Education faculty in the Upper Nile University Dr. Biar Atem in his Office for Teacher Education Higher Education most of their complaint empathy on Lack of qualified educators is causing disadvantages in teaching perspective, the current lecturers most of them are Arabic background, there is severe lack of facilities, in the entire University of the Upper Nile due to conflict which erupted on 15/Dec/2013 all cars and facilities were ruined and destroyed,  currently the Entire University has only two cars, 1-for Vice-Chancellor and 2- for services, and the University is housed in premises of secondary school, so there is a need of qualify lecturers to deliver teaching in a very professional manner and provision of services. In the same development during my interview with Education expertise concerning research conducted by the students in Universities specially colleges of undergraduate studies as noted. some Professors believed that there was a relationship between research and the quality of education, and this research could help in educational planning and decision-making. they stated, what research termed as action research to investigate quality of teaching and challenges in education reform-South Sudan case Study, can tell us what the reality is, however, it should to be considered in the graduate school of teacher education better then undergraduate schools, Their empathy also revealed that there were some barriers preventing the promotion of research in education it has relationship with lack of adequate services delivery, budget allocated for each service is not enough Dr.Biar of College of education known as Teacher Education Upper Nile University was interviewed. He had 19 years of teaching experience in Upper Nile University, in teaching ‘Career Education’. He stated “I want students to develop their own careers”, he said. In some subjects, students are required to submit research paper in undergraduate colleges. However, he agreed that there was a relationship between research and the quality of teaching. He did think that all teachers needed to conduct research while teaching; In relation to this, he said, When this Professor was asked if his students had the capability to write a research paper, he replied, in Some faculties “No, they do not; their schedule is too loaded and they lack capacity to publish papers and there are numbers of factors resulted to this shortcoming one of them is network problem in South Sudan and equipment e,g Computers and lack of qualify teachers, At The Universities across the country, then, some students are required to submit a research paper or a thesis. Additional evidence of this problem is limited funding and bureaucracy significantly slowed educational advancements in the developing nation of South Sudan, Currently South Sudan has twelve Universities of which seven are Public and five are Private. There are no enough spaces, some Universities are shifted from their locations to Juba, some are destroyed by rebels e.g Upper Nile University, it is totally destroyed. Therefore South Sudan need to adapt the strategies of world classical education planning to meet international standard, There is a need for construction and provision of man-power in comparison to other recent declarations like the Rio+20 higher education treaty as well as the Nagoya Declaration on higher education for sustainable development from November 2014, all call for transformation of higher education in order to better foster sustainable development through an institution-wide approach that reflects all different roles and dimensions of higher education institutions. Today the UN sustainable development goals as well as the UN Global action program on education for sustainable Development (Aichi-Nagoya Declaration, 2015) are adding to call for engagement of higher education. In the same related information, transformation at the interface of education, Research, policy and practice evidence from a global study on higher education for sustainable development, in global study on higher education for sustainable development (Mader, Rammel, 2014), 425 higher education stakeholders from  101  countries  responded  and  reported  their achievements and challenges, the study carried out in collaboration with international Association of Universities and Financed by the Australian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and economy, was presented in September 2014 at the international conference on higher education for sustainable development in Nagoya, Japan. It revealed that 42 percent of respondents said that institution and educational quality management is most influential in striving for institutional transformation toward sustainable development, South Sudan as a world, s youngest nation shall establish strategy to catch up in the process of transformational policies taking place in educational framework world-wide we need to adapt quality management and higher education assessment system according to sustainable principles. Policy frameworks that reflect sustainability principles, that are crucial for implementing sustainability into national and global higher education system. South Sudan as a part of world , s educational policies it mean we need to learn new policies regarding change within education policies, by using comparisons and evaluation of globalization policies and see where we are today at this stage. And in reality the world-wide educational policies are changing into transformative education sustainability, in the same conference on global study on higher education at Nagoya, Japan, 45 percent of Respondents said that they are inspire by the policies to integrate sustainability into their education institutions, this can be considered in combination with 41 percent who said that Regional Challenges inspire the sustainability profile and activities of their institutions. This is also a sign for importance of collaboration of higher education institutions with their regional communities and practice. It is therefore good enough that transformative education policies is a global debate today, it is mainly addressed through comparative education study, data analysis and international comparison reasoning, it is a process of using a prior interpretation of the meaning of one , s experience in order to guide future action, therefore South Sudan is at war throughout, we therefore need this planning of transformation policies to be prepared for future of South Sudanese Higher education institutions, as it is well quoted by (Mezirow, 1996, p.162) Drawing upon the work of O,Sullivan, Morrell and O,Connor (2002), Transformative education can be defined as teaching and learning which involves:- (A) Shift of consciousness that alters our way of being in the world (B) A deep structural shift in basic premises of though, feeling and actions (C) Understanding ourselves, ourselves-locations and our relationships with others in the world (D) Understanding relations of power interlocking structures of race, class and gender (E) Envisioning alternative approaches and possibilities for social justice (p.xvii), therefore these are the basic objectives to be addressed by thesis, to find South Sudan higher education pathetic, effectiveness of educational learning and positive outcomes of education in South Sudan, or adjustment to newly theories that guide the world-wide pathetic education policies, because education is a learning process where you learn and adapt something positive into your program base on international comparison principles of education and Globalization policies.

2-5 Economic The Challenges

Buildings and property of Upper Nile University in Malakal and John Garang University of Sciences and Technology in Bor were plundered when their Towns became ensnared in the conflict, and some staff and students fled. The hostilities exacerbate the economic woes-South Sudan relies on oil for 98 percent of its income, the oil is in Upper Nile Region, the center of fighting. Oil production has been slashed from 490,000 barrels a day in 2011 to 220,000 in late 2016. The low price of crude oil has also taken its toll; according to world bank, South Sudan ,s gross domestic product shrank by 6.5 percent in 2015, and inflation stands at ruinous 850 percent. In this troubling economic context, government institutions fight for the limited resources available, and education has not fared well, spending on higher education has consistently remain below 1 percent of government budget, The economic sector in education need strategy and planning carefully with goals and objectives for example (Chinese Education policy in the context of Decentralization and Marketization: Evolution and Implications Kinglun Ngok-2007 Sun Yat-Sen University China) launched market-orientation on economic reform in the late 1970s, Chinese policy makers formed a vision for the country, s Economic development that was different from Maost one. Economic and modernization, become paramount policy goal of the government, and the contribution of education to both economic by the policy makers. The post Maost Chinese leaders realized that education is the essential tool for economic modernization. Against this backdrop, education serves the economy, a new principle of education, limited state capacity to fund education, a pragmatic perception of education to serve the economy, they develop a conception of stakeholders in the education policy sector come into being, the central government has decentralized the control of education to provincial, and county levels, local Authorities are encouraged to play a greater role in Financing, provision, and the regulation of education, and then they have to find money for Education, therefore in this context we shall learn from this policy on how to create own path in economic policy of post conflict nation, there is a need of a new strategy which shall be modeled from example given above about China. Economic growth and education, it is frequent practice in the studies on education and conflict to illustrate the negative impact of conflict on education system (Davies, 2004; Smith, 2005; world bank, 2005). Another commonplace is stress the importance of educational reconstruction for stability is economic growth, higher education is to accelerate economic development, also economic development cannot be broad and deep without a huge boast in strategy for example South Sudan talent on natural resources shall be utilized to drive development that relies less on extraction and export of commodities and more on economic activities on the nation, from business services to agriculture. The worldwide nations are seeking to build their national economic capacity through the development and application of knowledge. The world believes that knowledge empower young people to engage in economic development where processes are created, services rendered, products manufactured, and whether analysis informs major activity in the public and private sector, and increasingly in civil society.

2- 6 Conclusions and proposed reformation

The study was undertaken in order to find out whether teachers in South Sudan, s Higher Education are equipped with the conceptual understanding and methodological skills, teaching styles with creativity, and consideration of talents, which is currently found need proposals and workshops to orient teachers on such matters, also for me to conduct action research in education I found in documents and non-verbal communication that, most of the problem is due to lack of budget and qualification, but China is playing great roles in increasing lecturers through provision of scholarships. While The issues related to lack of money is mainly caused by two facts which are the main obstacles affecting the Nation as whole these are:-

  • The South Sudanese government, s proposed budget for 2011 did not include Universities at that time.
  • 2013 war crisis in the country has worsen everything resulted to transfer of some Universities to Juba. There is a need for Reform and development principles in higher education system, these are the core values which will assist in upgrading the educational operation in the country, the colleges and Universities serving the nation shall be financially and administratively independent. Allocation of their enough fiscal physical, and human resources and creating of entrepreneurship systems within the institutions to advance economic development, senior administrators shall provide strong, visible leadership designed to achieve goals by eliminating economic constraints.

create a quality workforce by growing, training, and attracting the finest talent Improve learning and teaching by adopting current or modern principles of Pedagogical approaches. Disseminate research and promote technological transfer Employ a diverse workforce Enhance the technology infrastructure. There are many things that  reform policies should addressed to design a positive outcome for educational quality and relevance ,Evidences of the problem at Professional level There is lack of research centers supporting higher education system in South Sudan, due to lack of financial capacity, research centers shall always fill the existing gabs, and building of the linkage between higher education institutions and society particularly their outreach activities, research must be enhanced, in Areas of philosophy and policies of higher education, policies must drive from the national goals and objectives of social, economic and cultural transformation of the society, In the post conflict nation South Sudan, this will require necessary amendments to the higher education act/2012 in order to facilitate smooth transition in higher education systems and institutions including the ministry of higher education,(DR. Adwok Nyaba Former Minister of Higher education) there is also a need of Transformation within the council of Higher education system in The country, it deserve to be transformed into global perspective through creation of research centers, can be locally and internationally to communicate effectiveness of education, and educational norms. This is one of General Objective of the Research study This Term ‘paper it aims at orientation policies on positive outcomes of the transformative perspective theory, it is guided by the principle of transformative learning which introduced by Mezirow (1997) as a change process that Transforms Frames of Reference, (Imel, 1998), his theory defines frames reference as the structure of Assumptions through which we understand our experiences. This selectively  shape  and  delimit expectations, perceptions, cognition, and feeling, (Mezirow, 1997, p.5) according to this view, actions and behaviors will be Changed based on the changed perspective, therefore the move is about higher education policies, we need to create strategy so that we catch up in higher education development, the world policies of higher education is changing, for more than twenty years, HEIs from around the world have been elaborating and implementing different methods to integrate sustainable into their education, research operations, in- and outreach activities, beginning with the Talloires Declaration in 1990 (Lozano et al; 2014;), The specific aims and objectives, and the research questions of my study, produced the following findings. Regarding their teacher education program, student-teachers revealed that the given subjects in the undergraduate School were useful, but they thought they were more theoretical and little to use in practice. School teachers also noted that the teacher education program did not meet their expectations; they didn’t get enough practical knowledge during their education, and argued that the program focused too much on theory. In their opinion, school teachers agreed that teacher training was necessary. They revealed that their teaching needed to be improved, and that they faced difficulty in planning for their teaching sessions.

2-7 Reflections on reform

According to researcher the conceptions and perceptions of the students, professors, school teachers, and policy makers. The reflections on the insights that I have gained about the use and the practice, First of all, for research purposes, accessing existing information on the school of teacher education is difficult in South Sudan, because the government does not put much efforts in Education sector, and Education is not a priority in Parliament. We need to evaluate the policies changes from Igaz salvation former policies of the then united Sudan, The study deals with the development and transformation of higher education activities that are, done and that are, absences due to lack of planning or any factor associated to inadequate services, there is marked lack access to electronic reading materials or digital libraries and conflict had interrupted the learning and ruined learning materials and most Universities in South Sudan appear to be carbon copy of Sudan System in term of programs they offers with emphasis of quality it is Islamic education, what shall be done about that? And what will be the alternative to cover the part that has been ruined by war? Lack of professors has emphasis on science subjects, therefore the dissertation is an effort to better understand the role of higher education in Society suffering armed conflict and how can we model the Administration system for better learning and teaching in South Sudan, multi-research centers and all necessary academic organs shall be established to deal with changes and if centers are available then need to be oriented . In clarification let me say the objectives of this study are threefold: First: developing a conceptual framework for the study of the potential role of higher education in transformation policies on social development to ensure whether better teaching and learning is materialized. Second: evaluating the learning environment and assess the necessary needs, that shall be tackled and provision of the solutions for such things:-Academic freedom and mobilization of resources as well Recruiting the qualify teachers/lecturers into the system of higher Education across the country as this shall be done if University Autonomy is fully established, and availability of enough budget allocated to the Universities/Higher Education in General. provision of learning facilities/modeling the structure of the higher education system to upgrade the higher education in the country at large. Increase the number of tertiary institutions in the country and recognition of the tertiary institutions that help the country currently in provision of the learning facilities. Third: will provide a general overview on higher education in the conflict zone, and propose the solutions on how such institutions should continue to operate in Juba the capital city of South Sudan? Or how will they be relocated back to their original places, Assessing the Academic freedom and provision of enough budget to Higher institutions in the country is the priority in this context. revision of academic facilities to Universities and assessing the teaching and learning outcomes if weak to be transformed from quantity to quality, and this deserve qualify professors to be recruited if not there is a need for assessing development of University faculties, centers researches and The conversation of Role of Universities and social transformation shall be passionate and sources of great complexity impact of higher education institution in economic, political, social and cultural spheres.

2-7-1 Reformation Recommendations

South Sudan need kind of reformation that values purposeful engagement in activities that turn students into self-Reliant and effective contributors and learners, holding on to the view that everyone possesses natural gifts that are unique to one, s personality (e,g computational aptitude, musical talent, visual arts abilities). It likewise upholds the idea that children, despite their inexperience and tender age, are capable of coping with anguish, able to survive hardships, and can rise above difficult times, this is reform that the modern world had adapted and it is our role as educators and researchers to Enlightening the nation that education is everything that humanbeing possesses natural and educated, our nation is therefore rich in cultural norms, talents that can be utilized into educational curriculum and competent, however, South Sudan need to adapt the new policies from various countries, e,g China has had long and varied phases of emergence of higher education. For the sake of this study, it is appropriate to note, Chinese Communist Party (CCP) central committee issued a decision to reform education system in 1985. The policy was effected in 1999 after issuing the “The twenty-first Century Education Revitalization Plan” (Zhou, 2006). The overall aim of the policy was to raise Gross Enrolment Ratio to 15% by 2010 and to some scholars this target has been achieved and in fact, exceeded the expectations. In the same year, universities enrolment had doubled between 1999-2001. As 2010 rolled on, Gross Enrolment Ratio had risen to 26.5% (Chinese Year Book, China Statistics 2012). There is an agreement among educationalists that the higher-education system in South Sudan, regions needs to evolve in ways that can effectively accommodate the rapid changes currently taking place in all societies and regions. For greater relevance and effectiveness, higher education system should seek to accommodate the emerging social, economic, political, cultural and educational issues and concerns. And this can be achieved through educational transformation in the conflict and post conflict country South Sudan, recruitments of qualify teachers and expansion of educational institutions as well as fostering quality teaching and creation of conducive environment for learning, this shall ensure the quality education the higher education offer meets the expectations and consideration of education regulations. And also shall be materialized when academic freedom is in place and Autonomy. Research has the potential to make an important contribution to the rational understanding and management of these major issues and concerns. Seconded I concur with the Japanese Research in Higher Education Journal Volume 24 – August, 2014 Research, higher education, which quoted that, I agreed with Diana T.J(2013) when stated that teacher educators can begin to develop teacher leaders who are capable of implementing a national reform through implementing professional development experiences that focus on research. Hence, educational research, in particular, can play a key role in the decision-making process for policy-makers and for practitioners functioning at various levels within an education system. With a new emphasis on promoting research in teacher education, the teaching of research methodology and skills must be changed to align with teachers’ changing role in society. Conceptions of action research do not develop in a vacuum but are educationally contextualized. Scholars agreed that action research is a systematic inquiry conducted by a teacher researcher to gather information about the ways that their particular school operates, how they teach, and how well their students learn. The information is gathered to gain insights, develop reflective practice, and to effect positive changes in the school environment and improve educational practices and student outcomes. In this respect, the defining features of action research also reflect the qualities of teachers in collaborative cultures of change. These qualities include a deep understanding of their school’s vision and insight, a need for new knowledge, a desire for improved performance, and a willingness to effect change page 24(Stewart 2011). Action research, accordingly, can inform teachers about their teaching practices and empower them to take leadership roles in their local teaching contexts. In this case, successful action research sometimes requires the development of a cadre of teachers working in the field who accept the responsibilities of becoming co-researchers in various projects. They do not have to share the same values, visions, or beliefs, but they must all be prepared to accept the basic premise of action research as a method for improving their collective situation (Wallace, 2006). Such a group is representative of the domain as a whole ,and forms the core of the decision-making regarding subsequent activities. Due to this role to formulating plans for action, it is usually referred to as a design team. It should be understood that action research is conducted by teachers and for teachers. It is a small scale, contextualized, localized, and aimed at discovering, developing, or monitoring changes to practice. in the light of the findings of my study, I argue that the core features of the conception of action research should be understood not only as the product of the ruling strategy and educational policy but also in the way teachers.

2-7-2 Education Planners must value conflict sensitivity

Educational planners must examine the interface between conflict and education. However, to date education policies that reflect social development processes are also rarely considered during an education sector planning process, many policies and programs that aim to support conflict prevention or peace building, rarely consider education as central core for peaceful development and economic growth. In conflict affected countries, emphasis is often placed on short term access and delivery services, rather than support for conflict prevention and a post-conflict reconstruction. Educational planning process therefore need to consider the political context and its effect on education and include the state, s commitment to (a) address the educational issues affecting country, (b) address the conflict- related issues that impact on education or are impacted by education. (c) address basic social, Economic and political challenges and (d) prepare flexible contingency plans in view of an unpredictable future.

Reasons for study

The main reason encouraged me to pursue this study is to address the role of education in conflict and post conflict society South Sudan, to remind educators on Challenges facing Education in conflicted Zones and how to build make the learning environment better and most importantly the changes currently took place worldwide, on international perspectives, globalization policies and updates in higher education to educators in South Sudan because worldwide higher education is on brink of revolution. For those who think regularly about the future of education, this proclamation will come as no surprise, while we are delaying ourselves through armed conflict we need to focus on teaching and learning in the post-Conflict nation South Sudan, my main purpose is about future updates advocating for higher education expansion, at any time when the society and the nation is seriously advocating for the policy of widespread commitment to equal opportunity and social mobility. Therefore as a scholar am extremely reminding the Universities/Ministry of higher education to address the needs, for quality education policy in the nation, I have experiencing many tertiary higher education institutions operating without legal documents it is the role of the Ministry of higher Education to take lead and register or recognize such an institutions, these are the matters related to transformation policy, registration of Universities and Tertiary institutions is part of inspection in this study. The study also aiming at evaluating working environments, learning, administrative issues and accommodations, generally am just inspecting the post-conflict higher education system in South Sudan compare it to the rest of the world, and propose some international perspective ideas like Autonomy of the system, modeling education program, pedagogical gabs, the recruitment of enough professors, and all the necessary needs for educational fulfillment, expansion of budgetary proposals and allocation of necessary allowances for tutors and Lecturers.

About the author

John Monyluak was born in 1/1/1986 in Village known as ApirThon Nyabang next to Warbuol in  Duk Padiet, John is  a native of  Dinka Achuil society/ Wier section of Khorfulus. John Monyluak is married to his wife Amahani Chan Daniel Chuang and are blessed with two sons Namely: 1-Kiir Monyluak and 2-Juach Monyluak.

Professional careers

Monyluak Thon Lal served as a volunteer during struggle days 2001-2003 as (CHW) community health worker under SPLA/M liberated Areas, treated both wounded soldiers and Civillians in Wunbol Malith, John is a former head teacher of Wunlem primary school in 2008 to 2009. Assistant Inspector of Court of Appeal 2010 to 2013 in Malakal the former Upper Nile State, currently known as Central Upper Nile State. Monluak also served as contracted Tutor at Rombur National teacher training Institute from Nov/2015 to August 2016, teaching students teachers under the title: subject specialist, teaching Education Administration, civic Education and citizenship.

Educational Background

John Monyluak is pursuing his master, s Degree at Zhejiang Normal University in China, majoring in educational sciences/Comparative education. John Monyluak obtained his undergraduate Degree in education/Department of Geography and History at Upper Nile University Malakal. John went to Ayod secondary school in 2005 and obtained a Sudanese school certificate of secondary school in 2008 in Ayod secondary school. John Monyluak went to Booth Diew Primary school in 1995 and obtained certificate of primary school in 2004 at Booth Diew Primary school.

Abbreviations

UNC=upper Nile University

MOHEST=Ministry of Education science and technology

ICSS=interim constitution of South Sudan

HEI=Higher Education institutions

NCHE= National Council Of Higher Education

MOU=Memorandum of Understanding

USAID=United States Agency for International Development

GOSS=Government of South Sudan

GONU=Government of National Unity

SSEMS=South Sudan Education management system

CEQ=Central Equatoria

LAK=Lakes State

EEQ=Eastern Equatoria

NBG=Northern Bhar al Ghazal

WAR=Warrap

WBG=Western Bhar Al Ghazal

WEQ=Western Equatoria

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The opinion expressed here is solely the view of the writer. The veracity of any claim made is the responsibility of the author, not PaanLuel Wël Media (PW) website. If you want to submit an opinion article, commentary or news analysis, please email it to paanluel2011@gmail.com. PaanLuel Wël Media (PW) website do reserve the right to edit or reject material before publication. Please include your full name, a short biography, email address, city and the country you are writing from.

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