Archive for the ‘Junub Sudan’ Category

John Garang’s prophecy

“The history of the Sudanese people has been one of continuous struggle between the oppressed and the oppressors, the invaded and the invaders, between the exploited and the exploiters. From our ancient past to the present day, the Sudanese people have always struggled for freedom, justice, and human dignity and for a better life. Our present revolutionary struggle, spearheaded by the SPLM/SPLA, is an integral part and a continuation of these past struggles of our people. The SPLA recourse to armed struggle in 1983 was a resumption of earlier wars before, during and after colonialism. All these wars and struggles were aimed and are aimed at regaining African dignity and nationhood that has been mutilated over the centuries. If we visit the corridors of history from the biblical Kush to the present, you will find that the Sudan and the Sudanese have always been there. It is necessary to affirm and for the Sudanese to remind themselves that we are a historical People, because there are persistent and concerted efforts to push us off the rails of history. The concept of the African nation must stick and become a living ideological weapon of struggle for the unity of the Africa people. The concept of the African nation with a historical mission and destiny, must be taught in all our schools beginning from childhood, and African students and youth must put pressure, including demonstrations, against African leaders who do not actively promote the cause.”

The late Dr. John Garang, in his paper, delivered on his behalf by Dr. Barnaba Marial Benjamin, to the 17th All Africa Students Conference (AASC), held in Windhoek, Namibia, 28-29th May 2005.

Dr. John Garang: The Man of the People

By PaanLuel Wel, Bor, South Sudan, 23 April 2015

Garang Mabioor Atem Aruai—popularly known as Dr. John Garang—was born on 23rd June 1945 into a peasant Dinka family in Buk Village of the Awulian community, Kongor District in Jonglei State, Upper Nile Region of the historical Sudan. Garang was the sixth of ten children—six boys and four girls—born to Mabioor Atem Aruai from the Awulian clan (Patem, pan-ayen) and Gak Malual Kuol from the Kongor clan (Padool, pareng), both of Twic Dinka from the Greater Bor Dinka Community.

Young Garang left his home district of Kongor at the age of ten after the death of his father to attend school in Bahr el Ghazal. He went to Tonj Primary School (1954), followed by Bussere Intermediate School (1958), and then Rumbek Secondary School (1962) when the Anyanya One war broke out. Just after joining Rumbek Secondary School, teenage Garang was expelled for participating in a Southern-wide student-led strike—one that was fomented by the legendary Southern freedom fighter, Marko Rume.


Can we trust the government in Juba to protect and preserve the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of South Sudan: The case of the Ilemi Triangle involving Juba, Nairobi and Addis Ababa? I think the answer, based on the track records of the government in Juba, is simply NO. The government of Kenya and Ethiopia will definitely and naturally do everything within their powers to cater to the interests of their respective nations and citizens; however, the same thing can’t be said for the government of South Sudan. Therefore, the fossilized issue of the Ilemi Triangle should be pushed to the foreseeable future when we shall, once more, be on our firm feet — to have settled our internal differences before embarking on resolving bilateral disputes with other nations, which are numerous: with Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, DR Congo and Ethiopia — PaanLuel Wel Mediai Editorial note

June 20, 2019

To: Hon. Peter Marcello Jelenge, Chairperson, IBC

Presented by: Hon. Peter O. Kleto Aharanya.

Friday, June 20, 2019 (PW) — Dear Hon. Chairperson, On June 18, 2019, It was announced that officials from the ministries of foreign affairs of Kenya and South Sudan respectively agreed to find amicable solution to the question of Ilemi triangle. It is worth noting that ilemi triangle has long been an area of interest both during colonial and post-colonial eras because of its strategic location to Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Sudan, and with the new discovery of Oil, huge deposit of gold, uranium and other minerals, Kenya is now trying to assume the area as its own official territory and this is the point of contention between Kenya and South Sudan and most importantly the people of Eastern Equatoria who are inhabitants of this important area called the “ilemi triangle. There has been inter-ethnic conflicts between the Akara( Toposa), South Sudan, Turkana of Kenya, and Nyangatom of Ethiopia in the area. When the colonial government allowed the Turkana to move freely into the Sudanese territory of ilemi triangle for grazing and water, it was under the understanding that they do it with respect and knowing that the land belongs to the Sudan.


By Malith Alier, Sydney, Australia

The Genius of Dr. John Garang: Speeches on the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) Paperback – November 26, 2015 by Dr. John Garang (Author), PaanLuel Wël (Editor)

Tuesday, June 18, 2019 (PW) — I wanted to have a different title for this piece but because I found another piece on authored in remembrance of another person of the same name as our John, I had no choice but to follow the lead. The similarities may not be striking but the first names and the titles have a perfect symmetry one can’t ignore. Well, Dr. John Garang is a character many will cite in political discourse maybe until the end of the earth/world.

We’re right now in June and July the month Dr. John perished on the fateful chopper crash on the mountains close to Uganda. John was heading to his beloved Newsite between Narus and Ngatinga in what is now known as Kapoeta State. When the news broke that evening of the 29 July 2005, I was putting final touches to my studies at Murdoch University in Western Australia.

I didn’t, as an individual believed that what was unfolding before the world was going to have a long lasting impact for another generation in South Sudan. The news was mildly headlined as ” A helicopter Carrying Sudan’s First Vice President has Disappeared.” Has disappeared, what a joke?” Many rhetorical questions came forth chief among them was why did the chopper leave Entebbe Airport for the bushes of Southern Sudan late in the evening?


June 14, 1997: The Day Yirol Fell to the SPLM/SPLA under the Command of CDR Oyai Deng Ajak and CDR Pieng Deng Kuol – Tributes to the Fallen Comrades and Martyrs of the Liberation Struggle

By Gad Abraham Majak Makur, Juba, South Sudan

Gen Pieng Deng Kuol, Gen Paul Malong Awan and Gen Malual Ayom Dor, January 2014, after the recapture of Bor from SPLM-IO
Gen Pieng Deng Kuol, Gen Paul Malong Awan and Gen Malual Ayom Dor, January 2014, after the recapture of Bor from SPLM-IO

Sunday, June 15, 2019 (PW) — June 14th, 1997, was the day Yirol fell to the SPLA, under the overall command of the CDR Oyai Deng Ajak, and CDR Pieng Deng Kuol and several other commanders, among them were: Cdr Deng Monydit Mon, Cdr. Anyar Anyar, Cdr Gier Chuang Aluong, Cdr. Daniel Ayual Makoi, Cdr. Mangar Buong Aluenge, Cdr. Matur Chuot Dhuol, who I was with in his base following A/Cdr. Thuc Lual’s demise, just to mention the few.

The operations under the Operations Deng Nhial (ODN) Campaign, captured Yirol garrison with serious casualties and later on, after ten days of reorganization of the forces went and assaulted Tali garrison under the command of A/Cdr. Thuc Lual Aleth.

A/Cdr. Thuc Lual fell at evening of 27th of June, 1997, along with 72 others. It was very unfortunate, when the current CDF of the SSPDF, Gen. Jok Riak, who was by then alternate commander (A/Cdr) in charge of armour tanks, informed him of the enemy being far away, which could hamper the entrance of the tanks to the enemy shooting line.


By Athian Aduol Yel, Aweil East, South Sudan

The baby of the baby nation

Friday, June 14, 2019 (PW) —- My writing begins by defining lowland and highland. Lowland is an area near the sea, river and no mountains or hills and it usually flooding meaning more water either by raining or flood. Elongated lowland between ranges of mountains, hills, or other uplands, often having a river or stream running along the bottom. An extensive area of land drained or irrigated by a river system. A depression or hollow resembling or suggesting a valley, as the point at which the two slopes of a roof meet highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.

Generally speaking, upland or uplands refers to ranges of hills, typically up to 500–600 m. Highland (or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains. In related to our cultures we refer our Northern site of Abiem who doesn’t experiences more water or flood during the rainy season or flood seasons as highland or upland though there is no mountains or hills. Our home village Dhiak Yai Weeth is situated in the South East from Wanyjok main capital of Aweil East state especially in lowland site and it is distance of 9 miles, which can take nearly 2 hours footing approximately.

This year alone we have more than 8 children who are going to join secondary school this year 2019 after winning the primary examination with flying color and they move with their humility face hoping that they will overcome next stage to other site of University. The details of candidates who passed primary leaving examination are as follow:


Biography of Gen. George Athor Deng, former SPLA Deputy Chief of staff in Juba and an Accomplished and highly Decorated former Commander of the SPLM/SPLA

Friday, June 14, 2019 (PW) — George Athor Deng, was born in (1962) in Wunlang, Atar upper Nile. He attended Adong primary school (1970-1976), Malakal junior school (1977-1979), and Kassala secondary school (1980-1982) he successful passed his Sudan school certificate examination and gained a place at the University of Cairo,s Khartoum branch (1982-1983).

However, as a political activist in Khartoum, in June 1983, George Athor abandoned his University studies and joined the SPLM/A rebellion of South Sudan. He received his military training in Bonga and was commissioned as a Lance corporal in the SPLA Jamus battalion in 1983.

In January 1984, in recognition of his educational attainment and performance in the field, George Athor was promoted to first Lieutenant in the SPLA and took part in the attack on Jekou. He also fought Anya nya ll forces in Abuteng. Lt. Gen George Athor then commanded Sobat battalion.


Truth be told, What is happening to my Brother Kerbino Wol is a Tonj issue; it has nothing to do with President Kiir or the whole government.

By Anyar Agok Wol, Juba, South Sudan

Wednesday, June 12, 2019 (PW) —- Our community has failed us, cowards. For almost 13 months, my family has gone through untold sufferings from emotional and physical torture, harassment, and intimidation from the National Security Service without simple Sympathy from our community, Konggor In Toni.

Last night we stayed up until morning, thinking that our brother was going well to be released but sadly, the government again dashed away the little hope we had after the judges in Juba sentenced my Kerbino Wol Agok, Peter Biar Ajak and others for years in prison because some people are scared to let them go free.

Peter Biar with his wife

By Dut Deng Kok, Juba, South Sudan

Tuesday, June 11, 2019 (PW) — Dear Minister, I am honored that you have agreed to serve South Sudanese as Minister of Labour Public Service, & Human Resource Development. You made a commitment to invest in human Resource sector, strengthening the middle class, and helping those working hard to join it. We want you to commit to provide more direct help to those who need it by giving less to those who do not. We committed to public investment as the best way to spur economic growth, job creation, and broad-based prosperity. We committed to a responsible, transparent fiscal plan for challenging economic times.

Below is ten areas for improvement of public service: Classification and Occupational Group Structures; Training and Development; Compensation and Benefits ; Works Force Adaptiveness ; Management Category ; Administrative Policy and Common Service Agencies; Staff Relations ; Resource Management and Budget Controls ; Staffing ; Service to the Public 

One of the major goals is to alter the way that the public service delivered services to the public. If we are to tackle the real challenges we face as a country – from a struggling middle class to the threat of war South Sudan need to have faith in their government’s honesty and willingness to listen. I expect that our work will be informed by performance measurement, evidence, and feedback from South Sudanese.


The Unhealthiest Practice among Greater Wunkuel Youth, Which May Mount to Political Crisis in Greater Wunkuel Youth Affairs

By Akuiz Ngong Yai-keragany Anei, Juba, South Sudan

Tuesday, June 11, 2019 (PW) — “In politics, nothing happens by accident.  If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way”-Franklin D. Roosevelt (32nd U.S President, 1882-1945).Greater Wunkuel is a subsection of former Kuac South County in Gogrial State. It now falls under Kuac West County which is headquartered in Maluil-tït. It is further subdivided into six bomas of Wunkuel-dit, Wunkuel-thii, Warkou, Pantit, Malek-Kuei and Baai-Nhom (2013 data). The creation of these lower administrative units is not for division purpose. But it is for fair and adequate distribution of services and job opportunities among people.

What is happening here is a complete reverse of this obvious logic. This unjust practice has been in progress for ages now. I thought my fellow peers and Greater Wunkuel youth members would understand they are going astray. I thought they would apply what they have acquired from school over time to its real practice, but all in vain. It is indeed a humiliating, disgraceful and unfair act.

There is a certain cluster of people that I would call in this article as “Hok Kïk” (individualists) who act as “all youth decisions’ drivers”. The Hok Kïk group has been operational since existence of Greater Wunkuel and its bomas. It is a chronic malpractice that had never undergone diagnosis and remedy. The Hok Kïk group is a political unit made up of a bench of young gentlemen who entitle themselves as “high-level judges or judging masters”. What are they judging in the first place?


By Malith Alier, Sydney, Australia

Tuesday, 11 June, 2019 (PW) —  Get it right. This is not Jubba, Somalia, it’s Juba, South Sudan where Yasir Arman and lieutenants have reportedly been deported to. Deportation according to Wikipedia is defined as expulsion of a person or group of people from place or country. Notable reasons for deportation or expulsion include: serious crimes, illegal entry in to a country, overstaying visitors’ visa, and loss of legal status to remain in the country.

I have no idea which criteria the junta in Khartoum used to expel the long time Secretary General, now deputy chairman of the SPLM North. Yasir Arman, Ismail jalab and Mubarak Ardol calculatingly entered Khartoum days after ouster of long time president Bashir on April 11, 2019. The outsiders may not know the exact reasons that prompted the SPLM North under Malik Agar to take this dangerous path in the absence of peace accord.

Nobody at least in South Sudan is counting years of liberation any more. The SPLM North was originally part of the SPLM which was purported to be fighting for the united secular Sudan. The 2011 separation of the Sudan compelled those who geographically fall in the north to either continue the fight or adhere to the CPA terms and remain under the unjust system of the old Sudan. They chose the former. Therefore, the SPLM North has been fighting the government of Sudan for close to 29 years!


By Dut Deng Kok, Juba, South Sudan

Monday, 10 June 2019 (PW) — When people say there are no employment opportunities in South Sudan, I beg to differ. What people refer to as unemployment is the lack of the particular jobs they want.” Let’s go on to elaborate on this saying,” Such people fail to diversify the scope of labour they are willing to engage in, and so they keep looking for white collar jobs when there are other types of jobs that can provide for their needs.

Unfortunately, they consider such jobs to be beneath their status as graduates or professionals and hence remain unemployed.” I agree with the author’s point of view because I know many young people who suffer looking for jobs in this country (South Sudan) and do not consider the opportunities that are available to them, example; digging of latrine is a job, cultivation is a job.

Especially since most of our families in Uganda and Kenya live on the land and subsist on what their land produces. Let’s look at the site of the scripture Genesis 26:1-14, which tells the story of Isaac the son of Abraham, who lived on the land and fed his family on what he produced from the land. The Bible brings us this classic story of Isaac sowing seed during a time of famine and reaping a hundred-fold return in the same year, and God blessed him.


By Dut Deng Kok, Juba, South Sudan

President Kiir with his look-alike, Hon Mayen Wol
President Kiir with his look-alike, Hon Mayen Wol

Friday, 07 June 2019 (PW) — Dear Mr President, I am writing to offer you best wishes, following your recent mandate for a new term, as a result of your commitment to peace and open a national dialogue to the people of South Sudan. I congratulate you on the unbelievable and critical role you have played during signing of Realized peace agreement in this wonderful nation (South Sudan) and I firmly believe that you will continue to do so.

I congratulating you on leading your Party’s success at this critical time of war, I should note that we support your government in public commitment to address any and all corruption within your Government. I want South Sudan to be a beacon’ for not only the continent of Africa, but globally.

The legacy of the founding leadership the new South Sudan provided an important example; we wish you well in ensuring that your generation can build on that foundation in the new challenges of these times. In the same line, I would like to thank you for what you have done for South Sudanese people previously during struggle till independent time, but it is time to move into greener pastures.


By Malith Alier, Perth, Australia

Bona Malwal with Bashir.jpg

Thursday, June 6, 2019 (PW) — A dictatorship or autocracy shrouded by instruments of democracy such as elections, parliament, judiciary and other institutions will eventually always come out in its true colour at the end. Any government led by individual over 20 years and counting is a true dictatorship by the standards of democratic world. Stories of dictatorships are not hard to cite and enumerate.

We had seen the one in Zaire, now Democratic Republic of Congo. We have seen it in Libya under Muamar Gadafi. We saw it in Egypt under Hosni Mubarak. We witnessed it in Burkina Faso under Blaise Campaore. We found it in Zimbabwe under Robert Gabriel Mugabe.

The Algerians are to be congratulated for peacefully and bloodlessly removing Abdulaziz Buteflika dictatorship before it could get out of hand. The countries above that went through dictatorships most of them always solicit warfare politely referred to as “civil war.” The oppressed citizens are always seething with anger and vengeance to free themselves from the fangs of the agonizing dictatorship.


SPLM Reunion at Crossroads

Posted: June 5, 2019 by aljokd in Junub Sudan

By Malith Alier, Perth, Australia

Pagan Amum, Mustafa Biong, and Telar Ring Deng, at the house of Telar in Nairobi, Kenya, during the funeral of Gen Andrew Makur Thou

Wednesday, 5 June, 2019 (PW) –— It’s in children’s blood to play most of the time. In a single day the play can take a large chunk of time which nobody cares about. Time is on their side! To help the kids kill off their idle time, adults or minders have created playgrounds and toys of various shapes and colours for the amusement. On the playground there is the seesaw.

A seesaw balanced on a single pivot enables the merry inclined kids to sit on either side. As one goes up on one side the other goes down until they no longer feel the thrill. The child moves to the swing and does the play. And then tries the toys, turns them upside down, assemble them.

And finally, build castles in the sand. Two conditions must first exist in a child who seeks this kind of thrills; good health and full tummy. With this perfect conditions, the child would repeat over and over again the play scene until the bored parent says enough is enough, let’s go home!


Among the South Sudanese to graduate from the University of Khartoum, Jaden was the achitect of South Sudan’s independence.

By Dr. Sam L. Laki, Ohio, USA

Tuesday, June 4, 2019 (PW) — Aggrey Jaden (1924-1985), an administrator and a politician was born to the Pojulu clan of Nyomuding at Loka, Lainya County, South Sudan in 1924. His father Ladu Wani was a soldier in the British army. Jaden married Sara Reja and the couple produced seven children two of whom are now deceased.

Jaden attended Village School Loka (1936-1938), Yei Elementary School (1938-1940) and Loka Intermediate School (1940-1944). He excelled at school always performing at the top of his class. In 1939 he won an award in a bible reading competition at Yei. This led to the promotion of his chief, late Elia Kundu, among all the 17 chiefs in Yei district.

There were no secondary schools in the whole of South Sudan during those days so he was sent to Nabumali secondary school in Uganda (1944-1947). He joined the Gordon Memorial College (University of Khartoum) in 1947 majoring in economics and public administration. Jaden was the first South Sudanese to graduate from the University of Khartoum in 1952.



By Peter Madol Cien, Juba, South Sudan

Al-Sabbah Children's Hospital is the largest and one of the best-funded children's health centers in South Sudan.
Al-Sabbah Children’s Hospital is the largest and one of the best-funded children’s health centers in South Sudan.

Saturday, June 1, 2019 (PW) — Children’s hospital – Al SABBAH, where my son was admitted for 2 weeks (fourteen days) to save him from a lethal bacterial infection, medically referred to as sepsis. Before he was referred to Al SABBAH, I took him to YAFA, a specialized private children’s clinic in Juba, so that one of the highly regarded pediatrician, if not, experienced children’s doctor in Juba could attend to him who later, after Yirol State Hospital failed, diagnosed him of SEPSIS.

In AL SABBAH, I lost my son on 15th May 2019 at 2am when he developed dyspnea, a condition that suddenly arose in midnight. He was helped with oxygen until 2am when the generator that was supplying power was switched off. It was a management policy that it has to be off by 2am. So, with my wife, we had to sit and watch the last lights in his eyes. Helpless but energized by a voice, hopefully from Almighty God who received the soul of my son in eternal peace, who told me, “I have no call for your son.”


By Manyuon Dhieu Chol, Kongor, Jonglei State

The body of the late Maj. Gen. Atem Aguang Atem being received at Juba airport by the national army; he passed away in kampala on 27 May 2019 after a short illness

Friday, May 31, 2019 (PW) — It is the saddest and huge blow to our beloved country South Sudan, our national army, South Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SSPDF), Jonglei State and the Greater Bor Dinka community to lose an icon of liberty, a powerful pillar of freedom, a revolutionist, a bold protector for the marginalized people from the hands of successive oppressive regimes in Khartoum, Maj. Gen. Atem Aguang Atem Deng who fall on Monday, 27/05/2019 in Kampala.

Gen. Atem was a significant commander and a fierce fighter who was cherished by his troops and comrades in arm. The unfortunate demised of Gen. Atem at this critical juncture where our country is at a cross-road in need of peaceful settlement of conflict leading to national stability is a tragedy. Our borders are still being encroached in by neighboring countries, the socio-political and economical institutions still need strengthening and presence of skilled human resources personnel like Gen. Atem.

Maj. Gen. Atem Aguang Atem
Maj. Gen. Atem Aguang Atem

The greatest part of his contribution is that he wholeheartedly achieved the missions entrusted upon him. Gen. Atem won many battles against the enemy and most importantly during deadly battles of Pagei, Ashwa Bridge, Parajok, Raja, Kurmuk and Maban.


An Open Letter to H.E Salva Kiir Mayardit, the President of the Republic of South Sudan on the Deteriorating Insecurity between Apaak community of Eastern Lakes State and Agaar community of Western Lakes State.

By Majok Gang Nek Lang, Nairobi, Kenya

Friday, May 31, 2019 (PW) — Your Excellency, I believe you will not mind my scant courtesy. It is due to the sense of urgency with which I am writing this letter. However, it does not take away from you the very high regards that many peace loving youth of this country have for you. That is not to say that there are not many who are pathologically opposed to your person and will therefore not see anything good in your policies and efforts in making South Sudan a peaceful and cohesive nation for her people with diverse religious and socio-economic backgrounds.

While one may ignore this category of naysayers, there is this other category you must not ignore. They are those who wear faces that make them identify with you and what you are advocating for. Peaceful South Sudan when they found themselves in an unfortunate situation of having to see you in the eye, and after they successfully make you believe that they are true to your course (I am by no chance accusing you of being a poor judge of character Mr. president), they retire to their bases and take off their masks and do contrary things that make you look like a failed leader in the eyes of pessimists and the aliens.  

Mr. president, I am pretty sure you must have been made to believe that all is the way you would want it to be across the 32 states and in particular in Eastern Lakes State by my governor, Gen. Mangar Buong Aluenge in his recent visit to Juba but as I write this, vulnerable people of Aluak-luak and Geer counties of Eastern Lakes State which domicile the Apaak people are being slain, houses burned and property looted by the neighboring community of Agaar and nothing is being done by the state’s government to suppress the situation.


Has the position of Bari Community regarding the relocation of the Capital City from Juba to Ramchiel changed?

By Roger Alfred Yoron Modi, Kampala, Uganda

Monday, May 27, 2019 (PW) — In March 2011, Bari Community BC issued their position rejecting to offer land to the South (thern) Sudan government to build a national capital in or around Juba.

Gen. Alfred Lado Gore, who was the chair of BC at the time, officially submitted the document containing the Community’s stance on the government’s proposal to establish a Capital City in Juba, to Gen. Oyay Deng Ajak, the then GoSS Minister of Investment who led the committee to investigate the site for the new capital, in the presence of the then Minister of Housing and Infrastructure, Jema Nunu Kumba, the then Minister of Culture and Heritage, Gabriel Changson Chang, Juba Paramount chief and other government officials, at Kator B Court.

The territory for the Capital City in Juba proposed by the government was 19,000 km sq. It is important to note that the five largest cities in the World by land area, according to worldatlast, are New York (8,683 km sq.), Tokyo (6,993 km sq.), Chicago (5,498 km sq.), Atlanta (5,083 km sq.), and Philadelphia (4,661 km sq.).

In comparison with South Sudan’s neighbours, Addis Abba is just 527 km sq., Nairobi is 696 km sq., and Kampala is 189 km sq., according to Wikipedia. So, anyone can clearly see that the proposal by the South (thern) Sudan government to establish a 19,000 km sq. Capital City in Juba was completely unreasonable.



By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, Kampala, Uganda

Monday, May 27, 2019 (PW) — One of the problems facing citizens in South Sudan is the extent of the duty of the government towards citizens. This problem has also made government to terribly fail in her duty to protect citizens as understood in the modern context.

According to Evan Centanni on Duties and Responsibilities of a Government, modern thinking is that a government’s right to rule comes from a “social contract” with the people, who trade some of their independence for protection and other services. The basic idea of the government duty including the duty to protect which the government owes to citizens has been around for a long time. Even the time for “Mandate of Heaven” that backed ancient Chinese Emperors could be revoked if those emperors did a bad job.

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming literally means “the will of the sky” which was a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China. Mandate of Heaven was the theory that heaven embodies the natural order and will of the universe, which bestows the mandate on a just ruler of China, the “Son of Heaven” of the “Celestial Empire”. Hence, if a ruler was overthrown, it was interpreted that the ruler was unworthy, and had lost the mandate.