Archive for the ‘History’ Category

R.I.P Gen. Andrew Makur Thou: The Revolutionary Freedom Fighter of Anyanya One War of Liberation

Greater Yirol Youth Union


March 13, 2018 (SSB) — We received with deepest shock the departure of our capable man Gen. Makur Thou, which occurred early this morning in Khartoum, Sudan.

Gen. Makur was a dedicated Freedom Fighter and a proud son of Yirol who was there from the beginning of struggle and was amongst the few liberators God blessed to witness the birth of our new nation.

The Greater Yirol Youth Union -Kenya Chapter wishes to express its deepest sympathies to the family, the people of Yirol, and South Sudan at large for this devastating lost.

A hero and liberator, his massive contributions to the attainment of Independence will not be forgotten in the history of our country.

Makur was a nationalist and peace lover; the best way for South Sudanese to mourn the demise of a hero of his caliber is to embrace peace and unity among ourselves.

May our condolences bring comfort and ease pains for the family at this time of grief.

Sincerely yours

Makoi Majak,

Acting Chairperson and

Sec. General.



By Joseph Akol Wek Kuanyin, Juba, South Sudan

Construction of the Jonglei Canal in Sudan on February 24th,1983

Construction of the Jonglei Canal in Sudan on February 24th,1983

February 20, 2018 (SSB) — A more ambitious project not included in the interim programmes was the excavation of the Jonglei Canal. With reference to the statement made by an Egyptian political commentator Samir Faraj on Egyptian TV dated 28th January 2018 and was circulated on national courier social media and Facebook, during the interview in an Arabic, the former military commander and governor of Luxor said that “the digging of canal would give Egypt 30 billion cubic metrics of water per a year, he also said the water would greatly benefit Egypt and Sudan and ease their problems.”

Egypt is embroiled in a row with Ethiopia over the building of a dam across one of the tributaries of the Nile. Egypt is worried that, the dam affect the flow of Nile downstream, Egypt has tried for many years to woo South Sudan to restart the digging Jonglei canal. I would like to refer you back to the year of 1901 when Sir William Garstin undersecretary of the state of public works in Egypt, had proposed the excavation of the Canal, the Garisten cut, that would transmit fresh water from Equatorial Lakes to the White Nile that otherwise would be lost by evaporation and transpiration in the Sudd.


Michael Makwei Lueth: We Didn’t Fight for Independence to Handover Government to Foreigners

protest at the american embassy in Juba

protest at the american embassy in Juba


February 20, 2018 (SSB) — South Sudan’s Information Minister Michael Makuei said they went to Addis Ababa “with open heart and commitment to ending the suffering of the people but the opposition groups united themselves with one position block”

A proposal to dissolve South Sudanese security and allow United Nations peacekeepers to takeover for a transitional period is unacceptable, the country’s Information Minister Michael Makuei says.

The armed opposition in the just ended second phase of peace talks in Addis Ababa had requested for the U.N. takeover until the country is able to canton its ragtag militias and create an inclusive professional army.

Makuei says the move would create “statelessness” during the establishment process. “The opposition groups united themselves with one position block and demanded the dissolution of all institutions of governance in South Sudan including the security organs and that is impossible,” he said.



By the southern Sudanese communist leader, Joseph Garang

Joseph Garang

The southern Sudanese communist leader, Joseph Garang


February 19, 2018 (SSB) — This pamphlet was written in 1961 and present the development of the views of the author up to that time. It appeared as a series of the articles in the underground paper, the Southern, which was then being published by a number of southern communities. The object was to offer to the Southern people an alternative course of action leading to the solution of their problems. In other words a tactical line of alliance with the Northern democratic movement against imperialism and for progress.

It is clear that many points did not receive sufficient treatment. South-North relations in the past still requires a thorough examination including the exact extent of the exploitation of the Southern people by Northern merchants. Owing to difficulties caused by police persecution at that time, the author was unable to complete the pamphlet and so the question on page 14, namely the Communist view as to the solution of the Southern problem, could not answered. It was only after October 1964 that the author was able to put out in greater details his views on regional autonomy. These appeared in Advance newspaper early 1965.

The author believes that the course of events since 1961 has confirmed the correctness of the tactical line suggested. Regional Autonomy is now official policy. It remains for all talented Sudanese to examine the solution in a creative way and suggest methods of practical execution in a creative way and suggest methods of practical execution. Despite all the short-comings in the pamphlet, the author believes that it should be published as a historical document without any alterations.



High-level Revitalization Forum: IGAD Propose one President, and FOUR Deputy Presidents for the Revitalized transitional Gov’t of national unity (PDF)


By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Aggrey Jaden

February 9, 2018 (SSB) — After the fall of General Abboud’s regime in October 1964, a caretaker government was formed under the leadership of Sirr al-Khatim who was sworn in as Prime Minister. At this time, William Deng wrote to Sirr al-Khatim stating that a conference be held on the Southern affair. The Sudan government agreed with the suggestion and se the t delegation to Kampala to talk to SANU members in exile. However, the division among SANU and Southern leaders ran deep. First, William Deng advocated for federation.

Second, Aggrey Jaden who was elected President of SANU favored the talk with the government since his group called for the political independence of the Southern Region. Third, Joseph Oduho who was recently replaced as president of SANU and appointed as SANU Secretary for Constitutional Affairs rejected talks with the government; he believed nothing fruitful would develop from the discussions. Fourth, the Southern Front called for self-determination of the Southern region with the authority of the South to determine its relations with the North. After extensive discussions, delegations from both the Southern region and Sudan government came to an agreement to hold talks.

On March 16, 1965, the Round Table Conference began with delegates from Southern region and Sudan government convening in Khartoum. Observers from the countries of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria and the United Arab Republic (U.A.R.), attended the Round Table Conference. In the past, these countries played a neutral role and provided limited support to SANU since Sudan was a member of the Organization of African Union (O.A.U). Uganda was the only country that offered significant sanctuary to a large population of Southern refugee many of them students.


Government of South Sudan Opening Remarks at the Commencement of the Second Phase of the IGAD High-Level Revitalisation Forum (HLRF) 

As delivered by

Hon. Nhial Deng Nhial- Head of the TGONU Delegation to the IGAD HLRF

Monday, 5th February 2018 

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) Headquarters 

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

RSS coat of ARMS

South Sudan’s coat of arms, in which the eagle symbolizes vision, strength, resilience and majesty, and the shield and spear the people’s resolve to protect the sovereignty of their republic and work hard to feed it.

Amb. Ismail Wais- Special Envoy of the IGAD HLRF,

Distinguished Facilitators,

Excellencies, Distinguished Delegates;

Government of South Sudan Opening Remarks at the Commencement of the Second Phase of the IGAD High-Level Revitalisation Forum (PDF)

1. The Government of the Republic of South Sudan unreservedly embraces the IGAD-led High-Level Revitalization Forum (HLRF) for the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCSS). Its objectives are crystal clear and to that extent, the delegation of the Government of South Sudan has come fully prepared to utilize this opportunity to bring about the achievement of comprehensive peace and launch the country on the path to peaceful transition and free and fair democratic elections at the end of the transition period.

2. The purpose of the (HLRF) as stated by the Extra-Ordinary IGAD Heads of State Summit of June 12, 2017 held here in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is threefold. First, to institute a Permanent Ceasefire, second to give fresh impetus to the inclusive implementation of the provisions of the (ARCSS) and third, to agree new realistic timelines and implementation schedules towards democratic elections at the end of the Transitional Period. It is critically important not to lose sight of the purpose of the (HLRF) otherwise the exercise could easily unravel even before it starts. And there is a real danger of that happening if some of the demands elicited by the pre-forum consultations and the unsolicited proposals and comments on governance by some South Sudanese think tanks and academics, are anything to go by. The suggestion by some that the (HLRF) should lead to an interim Government of technocrats with or without a sprinkling of “politicians” clearly indicates that there are still those among us who do not understand what Revitalization is all about. Worse still, their proposals may not be borne out of ignorance about the aims of Revitalization but rather out of a disingenuous attempt on their part to circumvent the entire process with the ultimate objective of precipitating its eventual collapse.


US slaps arms embargo on South Sudan, urges UN to do the same as civil war rages on.

WASHINGTON (AP) — The Trump administration is imposing a U.S. arms embargo on civil war-torn South Sudan while urging the United Nations and other countries to do the same.

The State Department said Friday the U.S. is restricting all sales of defense equipment and services to all parties to South Sudan’s conflict, saying it is “appalled” by the continuing violence that has defied a cease-fire. It’s mostly symbolic since the U.S. has almost no defense trade with the East African country in the first place.

The United States is also calling on South Sudan’s neighbors to implement similar arms restrictions and urging the U.N. Security Council to support a global embargo on the country. “The message must be clear – the United States, the region and the international community will not stand idly by as innocent South Sudanese civilians are murdered,” the statement said.


SPLM-IO Official Position: Riek Machar demands 42% of the government of national unity at the High-Level Revitalization Forum in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Riek demands 42% of the government1

SPLM-IO Official Position – Riek Machar demands 42% of the government of national unity at the High-Level Revitalization Forum in Addis Ababa


Rumormongers will one day stop what they are spreading about my rebellion. I am still an Ambassador accredited to Russian Federation and if I want to rebel, there are two things a politician of my standing would do.(1) I will first submit my resignation as an Ambassador as stated above to HE the President of the Republic through Hon. Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Republic of South Sudan.(2) I will make a public statement stating reasons for my rebellion. Those rumour mongers should wait until that day of my rebellion, they are praying for comes. What our country is craving for today is not rebellion, but how we as leaders bring peace through a negotiated settlement. Thanks.” Ambassador Telar Ring Deng via WhatsApp messenger on 17 January 2018


  1. Letter of Resignation

Resignation letter of Telar Deng

2. Letter of Recall

Recall of Ambassador Telar Deng

Dear All,

This is for your publication.

Telar Ring Deng, later South Sudan President Salva Kiir’s nominee to become the new justice minister, 21 June 2014

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Who was the Late Dr. Mark Majak Abiem?

Posted: January 21, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël in Atem Yaak Atem, History, Junub Sudan, People

By Atem Yaak Atem, Australia

Walter Rodney and Mark Majak Abiem

Picture of Mark Majak Abiem and Professor Water Rodney at the School of African and Oriental Studies (SOAS), London, 1976. Both were later murdered in cold blood in their respective home countries in 1977 and 1980 respectively.

January 21, 2018 (SSB) — Late Mark Majak Abiem was an extraordinary and pleasant human being, an outstanding student and a very promising scholar. He was my roommate at the Barracks (University of Khartoum’s hostels on the Blue Nile) from 1971-2.

When he passed his neatly organized notebook of lectures on Archaeology he took while a prelim student to me, there was no surprise that I was able to score the top marks in that subject. Although only two of my colleagues knew about the “inheritance” I openly gave credit to Mark.

After the History Dept., Faculty of Arts took Mark Majak as a teaching assistant the dream that the history of the future South Sudan was then going to be written by its own sons and daughters as well as other scholars who love the people and their land was almost becoming a reality.


The Episcopal Church elects Bishop Justin Badi Arama of the Diocese of Maridi to replace Archbishop Dr. Daniel Deng Bul as Primate and Archbishop of South Sudan

By PaanLuel Wël, Juba, South Sudan

Justin Badi, elected Primate of the Anglican church in south Sudan and Sudan

The Episcopal Church elects Bishop Justin Badi Arama of the Diocese of Maridi to replace Archbishop Dr. Daniel Deng Bul as Primate and Archbishop of South Sudan

January 20, 2018 (SSB) — The Episcopal Church of South Sudan has elected Rt. Rev. Justin Badi Arama, the bishop of Maridi Diocese, as Primate and Archbishop of South Sudan. Initially, there were four candidates vying to succeed Archbishop Dr. Daniel Deng Bul as the Primate and Archbishop of South Sudan: Bishop Francis Loyo of Rokon Diocese and the Dean of the Province of the Episcopal Church of South Sudan; Bishop Monday Bismark Avokaya of Mundri Diocese; Bishop Justin Badi Arama of Maridi Diocese, and Bishop Abraham Yel Nhial of Aweil Diocese.

However, on the eve of the voting day at the All Saints Cathedral in Juba, Bishop Francis Loyo and Bishop Monday Bismark Avokaya dropped out on their own volitions. Thus, it became a hotly contested, two horse race, between Bishop Justin Badi Arama of Maridi Diocese and Bishop Abraham Yel Nhial of Aweil Diocese. There were 159 eligible Electoral College voters. When voting was conducted, counting done and results announced, the two candidates were separated by a mere single vote. Bishop Justin Badi Arama of Maridi Diocese won with 80 votes, while Bishop Abraham Yel Nhial of Aweil Diocese got 79 votes.


“As a result, given the absence of a clear political ideology, the SPLM/A remained a military movement during the conflict while its political organisation was never properly institutionalised. The SPLM, as a movement was really only used as an institutional cover for diplomatic initiatives, for mobilisation throughout Sudan and abroad, and for humanitarian assistance in the liberated areas but not as an ideological vehicle.” —From Malual Ayom Dor’s PhD Thesis, page 54.

By J. D. Garang, USA


January 13, 2018 (SSB) — This note is to correct one false notion being leveled at the original SPLM vis-a-vis the history of South Sudan, especially the casual charge that the Liberation Movement never had any developed political ideology whatsoever. But first, I have said this before and I will say it again: those historians who will be entrusted with producing South Sudanese history have their work cut out for them, for I’m afraid they might end up having a really hard time agreeing on the basic primary sources or even the best approach to writing history as it is, much less teaching our common history to schoolchildren.

Judging by the way things are now if the history of South Sudan is going to be written in the same manner in which the people ran the country aground, I’m equally afraid we are going to have a huge mess, one that could be punctuated by years of political hiccups. Because if the recent proliferation of political writings are any guide, it is safe to conclude that most historical analyses we have seen either miss the mark or are shockingly ignorant, with some that are devoid of historical contexts and/or serious, evidence-based scholarly analysis.


Sayed Bona Malwal: A Sudanese Desperately Dreaming of Re-Annexing South Sudan

By Justice Deng Biong Mijak, Juba, South Sudan

Bona Malwal

Bona Malwal Madut, Advisor to President Bashir of the Sudan

January 6, 2018 (SSB) —- Recently, Sayed Bona Malwal held a press conference in Khartoum on December, 4th, 2017, where he said, inter alia, that Abyei is part of Sudan and that it has never been claimed neither by the SPLM nor by South Sudan. Those utterances angered people of Abyei and other South Sudanese who described them as not only irresponsible from an elder but amounted to a betrayal to South Sudan national interest. Abyei people expected me, as in charge of Abyei file in the South Sudan Government, and other leaders who hail from the Area to immediately respond to Sayed Bona utterances.

Some radicals even went as far as accusing us of having chosen silence in order to maintain our positions in Government despite the fact that they know Sayed Bona is not formally part of the Government of South Sudan. But since Sayed Bona was saying neither the SPLM nor GOSS has ever claimed Abyei as part of South Sudan, we preferred responses to come from the SPLM Party, the official Government spokesman or from the President’s press secretary since Sayed Bona mentioned H.E. President Salva Kiir in name in his audio clip.

Since there is no official response so far, I am offering this personal response by virtue of being a citizen of this country and a member of the SPLM Party, hoping the official response will later shed more light and clarify some serious allegations made by Sayed Bona.


Circular for the Re-organization of Traditional Authority in Jonglei State: The Selection, Re-election and Confirmation of Traditional Chiefs in the Greater Bor, Greater Twic East and Greater Duk areas

Circular for the Re-organization of Traditional Authority in Jonglei State: The Selection, Re-election and Confirmation of Traditional Chiefs in Greater Bor, Greater Twic East and Greater Duk areas. 

Circular for the Re-organization of Traditional Authority in Jonglei State: The Selection, Re-election and Confirmation of Traditional Chiefs in Greater Bor, Greater Twic East and Greater Duk areas.

Circular for the Re-organization of Traditional Authority in Jonglei State: The Selection, Re-election and Confirmation of Traditional Chiefs in Greater Bor, Greater Twic East and Greater Duk areas. 

Circular for the Re-organization of Traditional Authority in Jonglei State: The Selection, Re-election and Confirmation of Traditional Chiefs in Greater Bor, Greater Twic East and Greater Duk areas.

Circular for the Re-organization of Traditional Authority in Jonglei State: The Selection, Re-election and Confirmation of Traditional Chiefs in Greater Bor, Greater Twic East and Greater Duk areas. 

Circular for the Re-organization of Traditional Authority in Jonglei State: The Selection, Re-election and Confirmation of Traditional Chiefs in Greater Bor, Greater Twic East and Greater Duk areas.

By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Founders of Anyanya one

Founders of Anyanya one – Father Saturnino Lohure (Patron), Joseph Oudho (President) and William Deng Nhial (Secretary General)

January 5, 2018 (SSB) — The creation of the Sudan African National Union (SANU) is among the oldest political parties that emerged from Southern Sudan. The party was founded by Fr. Saturnino Lohure, William Deng Nhial and Joseph Oduho. In 1961, the three leaders visited different African countries to advocate for the cause of the Southerners. In January 1962, Fr. Saturnino and Oduho attended the all African People’s Congress in Lagos (the ‘Monrovia Group’), where they were not allowed to present a petition but met African heads of state and held a press conference.

Returning to Leopoldville in February, they were joined by Deng and founded the ‘Sudan African Closed Districts National Union’ (SACDNU) with Oduho as president and Deng as Secretary General. This was not a secret organization but an open political movement; by June, all the well-known Southern politicians in exile had joined it.

After a lucky escape in Leopoldville in April when Oduho had avoided being deported back to the Sudan by jumping out the window of his hotel, he and Fr. Saturnino went on to several African countries including Congo Brazzaville and the Central African Republic. They then met up with Deng again in Europe, where Deng wrote a letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and Oduho gave an interview which was reported in The Observer.


By Peter Wal Athiu Madol Anyar, Kampala, Uganda

Customary book, final cover July 2017

December 28, 2017 (SSB) — Today, the 28th of December 2017, marks the 50th year of the death of our father, Chief Athiu Madol Anyar (1910-1966) and his cousin, Chief Malual Khang Makuei, both were from Koch subsection of Jourkoch people of Bor country.

In that doomed day of December 1966, government truck full of soldiers arrived at Makuach court centre purposely to arrest the chiefs who were accused by the government agents of being supporters of the Anyanya One Movement

According to an eyewitness who was present at the time in Makuach court centre, the government soldiers called out for the chiefs and started questioning them about the rebels, accusing the chiefs of collaborating with the rebels.


The traumatic shift from our society formations to military formations. This is a story about how we were mixed up – separated from our lineages- and village-mates and sorted out in groups of kids from different sections and villages – for the first time upon arrival in Ethiopia.

By Deng Diar Diing, Mombasa, Kenya

December 27, 2017 (SSB) — We were to be mixed with kids of various diversities in early 1988. This was the first move away from social formations where we were organized into lineages, clans and sections during our journey to Ethiopia from our various villages.

It was around April 1988 (not specifically sure of the time) when Capt. Pieng Deng-majok announced that we should be sorted out in military formations to allow for integration of kids from various backgrounds of South Sudan. This was meant to initiate us into National Agenda of Liberation that was transcendent of any social association.

It was also meant to rid us of social ignorance and stigmas that were stereotypically bound into us by various social bigotries. There were stories of this community eats people and others are this and that, causing unnecessary suspicions.


This serialized article is a remembrance dedication to those former lost boys whom we lost on our journey to Ethiopia and beyond…narrated from my personal experience when I left Pawel, Kongor, to Ethiopia in 1987.

By Garang Yong Deng (Kede Miakduur), Alberta, Canada


December 25, 2017 (SSB) — Before leaving Pawel, Kongor, we had to go for the traditional blessing at Luangde Loor (Mayom Shrine) in Pakuor. In case you all don’t or didn’t know that MAYOM WAS JUST A DRUM idolized to a shrine, then know it that wasn’t for entire Kongor but Mïthke Ajääng! It didn’t include the entire Apiölöc. The rest of Környin and Palek ë Leek were excluded in this matter.

Those of Tungke Padool has their own like Dhiën Padool has Werawiër; Këbaar with Pathiong; Pawïïr with Amot/Pamor and Pareng with Werakiir or Akeknhiaan. Biöö’dït section: Anyang and Payaath have Atëdal and Wun ë Yong respectively. To cut it short, most of the other sections of Kongor had no chances of seeing Loor-e-Mayom. This was because everyone was busy with their own kinds of stuff and not everyone believed what others believed.

Fast forward: during our departure from Pawel for Paliau at around 3 pm, we ran on Pawel-Wangulei road and before reaching to Luangde Loor (Mayom Shrine), we were told to stop and visit Mayom to bless us. We were all jubilant but those who were baptized by then were instructed not to think about going there!