Archive for the ‘History’ Category

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Anei Madut Kuendit resigns and joins Malong.jpg3Anei Madut Kuendit resigns and joins Malong


This is an excerpt from the introduction to the speeches, before and after independence, of President Salva Kiir, “Salva Kiir Mayardit: The Joshua of South Sudan,” edited and published by Simon Yel Yel and PaanLuel Wel in February 2016

By PaanLuel Wel (Juba) and Simon Yel Yel (Kampala)

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Wednesday, May 16, 2018 (PW) — May 26, 1983, marked the day President Kiir revolted against Khartoum’s repressive regime and joined his comrades in the bush. By then, Captain Salva Kiir was a mid-level military intelligence officer in the Sudanese army stationed in Malakal, Southern Sudan. His rebellion came in the wake of the May 16th Bor and May 20th Ayod Uprisings led by Major Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and Major William Nyuon Bany respectively.

Why did it take that long—from May 16th up to May 26th —before Salva Kiir rebelled against Khartoum? This was mainly because he was the one coordinating the security and intelligence of the Underground group. For example, when Khartoum decided to launch a dawn attack on Bor, it was Salva Kiir who passed that message to John Garang in Bor informing them that Khartoum had finally decided to attack Bor. Using that insider information which only an officer in the Sudanese military intelligence could have access to, John Garang and Kerubino Kuanyin were able to strategize and repulse the dawn attack with minimal casualties on their sides.

Secondly, when Khartoum dispatched a battalion from Malakal to take reinforcement to Bor, Salva Kiir passed that crucial message to John Garang and William Nyuon. After the troops arrived in Ayod on their way to Bor, Nyuon lured their officers into a bogus meeting during which they were arrested and killed. Their soldiers were then attacked and scattered, never to reach Bor. (more…)

On the peace agreement: “They think that I’m the obstacle to peace and if I am removed after signing the agreement then there will be no problem. They want me to sign the agreement and then step down immediately. What is my incentive in bringing peace if it is the peace that I will bring and then I step aside? Nobody can do it. Bashir did not do it when we were fighting with him,” said President Kiir while paying his last respect to Gen Ajonga Mawut in Juba, South Sudan. “They ask me to sign a peace agreement with them (rebels) and step aside, but innu what would be my incentive of bringing the peace that I will not be part of?”

Regarding the G-10 or SPLM-FD: “I thought I was dealing with brothers that’s why I arrested them and kept them in a safe place but I was pressured and told to release them and hand them to another country for their safety, only to see them on national television SSTV (SSBC) being received in a red carpet. It was there I regretted why did I release them and not punish them according to laws of the country”

The opinion expressed here is solely the view of the writer. The veracity of any claim made is the responsibility of the author, not PaanLuel Wël: South Sudanese Bloggers (SSB) website. If you want to submit an opinion article, commentary or news analysis, please email it to PaanLuel Wël website (SSB) do reserve the right to edit or reject material before publication. Please include your full name, a short biography, email address, city and the country you are writing from.

Breaking News: South Sudan’s Chief of Defence Force, Gen. James Ajonga Mawut Unguech dies today, 4.30am, at a military hospital in Cairo, Egypt, after a long illness. 


SPLA Chief of General Staff, Gen James Ajongo Mawut

SPLA Chief of General Staff, Gen James Ajongo Mawut Unguec


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The Commissioner of Kongor County, Gen. Garang Bul Pageer, announces the establishment of four Payams (4) and sixteen (16) Bomas of Kongor County in Jonglei State, South Sudan

By PaanLuel Wël, Kongor, Jonglei State

Customary book, final cover July 2017

The Customary Laws of the Greater Bor Dinka Community: Legal and Basic Rules for Self-Administration, 2017 Paperback – 28 Jul 2017, edited by Makwei Mabioor Deng (Editor), available on Amazon

April 8, 2018 (SSB) —- In a decree entitled, “Establishment of Kongor County Structure in the level of Payams and Bomas”, the Commissioner of Kongor County, Gen. Garang Bul Pageer Alaak, announces the establishment of four payams (4) and sixteen (16) Bomas in Kongor County, Jonglei State, South Sudan. As per the stipulations of the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, in regard to traditional authorities, a Paramount Chief is in charge of a County, a Head Chief is in charge of a Payam, an Executive Chief is in charge of a Boma while a Sub-Chief is in charge of a Village. In Jonglei state, each county is allocated four payams, with each Payam comprising of four Bomas. Therefore, Kongor County has four head chiefs, one of whom also doubles as the acting paramount chief – acting because the selection of new paramount chiefs (as well as all other traditional posts) is pending general election. Head Chief Duot Ajang Duot (Duot-mang’ai) is the acting paramount chief of Kongor County while Thon Diing Duot, Chol Tor Deng Yong and Dau Tor Akuei are the acting Head Chiefs. The four head chiefs in charge of the four payams are assisted by 16 executive chiefs in charge of 16 Bomas. Each Boma consists of one executive chief and three sub-chiefs, a total of four.

The four (4) payams of Kongor County announced by Commissioner Garang Bul Pageer are: Pakuor Payam (Piom-Wun-Aguer, Piom-Awan, Than-Anyieer and Pachol) under Paramount Chief Duot Ajang Duot; Payom Payam (Mabior, Duk-Peeny, Khiir and Dier-Roor) under Head Chief Thon Diing Duot; Garalei Payam (Piom-Bioor, Manyang, Badhoot, and Agom) under Head Chief Chol Tor Deng Yong, and Pageer Payam (Pamot, Pajomba, Piom-Ang’uet and Agher-Rot) under Head Chief Dau Tor Akuei. The sixteen (16) Bomas of Kongor County are: Piom-Awun-Aguer Boma under Executive Chief Chol Alaak Pageer; Piom-Awan Boma under Executive Chief Barach Aruei Barach; Than-Anyieer Boma under Executive Chief Bol Nyuon Akoi; Pachol Boma under Executive Chief Kulang Dau Lual; Mabior Boma Executive Chief Maluk Chol Bul; Duk-Peeny Boma under Executive Chief Makwei Bior Awuol; Khiir Boma under Executive Chief Agoth Ajang Aguer; Dier-Roor Boma under Executive Chief Bul Gak Bul; Piom-Bioor Boma under Executive Chief Ajang Dhieu Ajang; Manyang Boma under Executive Chief Dhieu Maketh Deu; Badhoot Boma under Executive Chief Ariik Bol Ariik; Agom Boma under Executive Chief Atem Achuoth Panyagor; Pamot Boma under Executive Chief Awuol Deng Awuol; Pajomba Boma under Executive Chief Akoi Apiook Bol; Piom-Ang’uet Boma under Executive Chief Akol Mabior Jok, and Aghek-Rot Boma under Executive Chief Aguer Ajang Kuir.


Dr John Garang, SPLM/SPLA and the Spirit of Pan-Africanism

Posted: April 4, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in History, Junub Sudan, Philosophy


An Open Letter to the President of the Republic of South Sudan, His Excellency General Salva Kiir Mayardit

By 1st LT Lual Akeen Akeen, Nairobi, Kenya


April 4, 2018 (SSB) —- Mr. President, we were engaged and working for the liberation of South Sudan, some of us for decades, as soldiers in the SPLA. Today, however, we are deeply worried about the current state of affairs in South Sudan. We are worried of the lack of credible progress for the future.

The cost of the war is now beyond the words but there seems to be no change as things keep on deteriorating every hour. This situation is not sustainable in the long run. In addition, human sufferings and loss of life is increasing all the times. Over fifty thousand citizens have died since the beginning of the war. Soldiers who sacrificed their lives to defend your post are not considered once they are gone.

However, what appears to be clear despite the suffering of the people is the fact that some of those who are tasked with keeping the security of the people of South Sudan are using the power to achieve their own personal political goals. To be specific, I am talking of the National Security (ISB)and its Director General, Akol Koor.


By Abuoi Jook Alith, Sydney, Australia          


March 31, 2018 (SSB) — The significant origin of Jesh Al Hamer is dated back to 1987 after the idea was reported to SPLA leader Dr John Garang De Mabior by one of his zonal commanders around 1986-7. That commander (name withheld) raised the issue to Dr John Garang that schools have gone none operative across Southern Sudan for over 4 years since the onset of liberation war in 1983. Dr Garang wholeheartedly received such proposal a brilliant idea and wasted no time in sending the message to all units, ordering his zonal commanders to immediately mobilize boys and sent to refugee camps, to be established at Ethiopian border late 1987-1989.

Subsequent group mainly from Bor and Nuba Mountain areas only was later sent to Polataka in Eastern Equatoria in 1989. Those zonal commanders comprised of Cdr. Kuol Manyang Juuk commanding the Southern Upper Nile mainly Bor area, Cdr. Daniel Awet Akot for the entire Bhar Al Ghazal region, Cdr. Riek Machar Teny in Western Upper Nile mainly Bentiu and Cdr. Yousif Kuwa Mekki for the Nuba Mountain. All responded positively and sent massive numbers of boys to Ethiopia as per orders from their Commander in Chief Dr Garang.

Although the numbers were not the same across those zones, this author could squarely assert the named commanders contributed overwhelming in sending the current jesh al hamer, unaccompanied minors or lost boys as they later became to school as communicated then. The vast number of those boys largely settled at Fugnido and Dima refugee camps though few went to Itang at later years of settlement.


Duplicitous Duality: Policies That Have Hampered South Sudan’s Transition to Statehood

By Peter Adwok Nyaba, Nairobi, Kenya

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March 24, 2018 (SSB) — I define socio-political duplicity as the attitudes, behaviours and psychological syndromes that emerge from severe conditions of power asymmetry, which play out in political chicanery, backtracking on promises, political exclusion, economic marginalisation and social discrimination based on race, ethnicity, religion, language or gender, as well as in inferiority and superiority complexes. The socio-political duplicity of the South Sudanese political elite plays out these days as a dichotomised identity that underpins South Sudan’s traumatising predicament.

The Republic of South Sudan became independent, or seceded from the rest of the Sudan, in July 2011 after nearly two centuries of common problematic history. To bring the reader to the same level of understanding, it is imperative to shed some light on the history of the Sudan, which started with the Turco-Egyptian invasion and occupation of northern Sudan in 1821. The Turco-Egyptian state in the Sudan, popularly known as Turkiya, thrived on extraction and plunder of its natural resources, such as gold, elephant tusks, ebony, ostrich feathers and African slaves drawn mainly from southern, central and western Sudan.

The regime was very corrupt and oppressive to both Muslims and non-Muslims. This provoked and united the Sudanese across racial and ethnic lines in a nationalist revolution led by a Muslim cleric called Mohammed Ahmed el Mahdi. This revolution started at Abba Island on the Nile south of Khartoum in 1881 and garnered support from parts of the Sudan, especially Kordofan, Dar Fur, Upper Nile and northern Bahr el Ghazal in the south. The Mahdist forces captured Khartoum in 1885.


By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Anyanya one in the upper nile

Revisiting the Past: The History of Anya-Nya One Movement in the Upper Nile Region

March 23, 2018 (SSB) — This is the history of the Anya-Nya One Movement in the Upper Nile Region under the leadership of Paul Ruot, Paul Adung, Paul Awel and Paul Nyingori.

PART 1: ANYA-NYA MOVEMENT IN UPPER NILE – History indicates that the region of Upper Nile in South Sudan played a pivotal role during the Anya-Nya Movement. Border tribes of the Nuer and Anuak saw extensions of themselves in both Sudan and Ethiopia as their communities neighbored each other. These distinct tribes possessed weaponry which was availed to them by the British administration in order to repel raids by Ethiopians.

Along the period of 1962 and 1963, the call to Southerners to fight for the freedom of Southern Sudan by Sudan African National Union (SANU) and the formation of SANU’s plebiscite branch in Ethiopia galvanized many soldiers, policemen and prison wardens in Upper Nile to join the movement. Upon deserting their respective posts, they formed the “Southern Sudanese Land Freedom Army.” The primary persons who initiated the recruitments of the Southerners were Paul Ruot, Paul Adung, Paul Awel and Paul Nyingori. To discuss these four men, in brief, Paul Ruot, was a Nuer from Thul region close to Waat who graduated from Juba Commercial Secondary School in 1962. He was the only secondary educated recruiter among his three peers. Ruot joined the freedom fighters after being trained as a military cadet. Paul Adung, a Shilluk and the former sergeant of the police in Kodok, organized a camp near Kodok and recruited many Shilluk men to join the freedom fighters. Paul Awel, a Dinka and police corporal, left his station in Akobo alongside 75 other men and joined the freedom fighters in July 1963. While Paul Nyingori, an Anuak from Akobo, had completed intermediate school in 1958 and finished a course in farm management, before becoming a farmer. He left his farm in Akobo and joined the freedom fighters in 1963. In August of 1963, these four military recruiters and many others gathered at the Anya-Nya base that was seven miles from Pachalla. In August, the number of men at the base numbered 300 and by October it had increased to 700.


Names of the 15 South Sudanese Oil Operating Companies and Ministries Sanctioned by the USA gov’t

A Rule by the Industry and Security Bureau on 03/22/2018


President Bush with President Salva Kiir at the Oval Office, White House

This final rule adds the following [15] to the Entity List:

South Sudan

(1) Ascom Sudd Operating Company, a.k.a., the following one alias: —ASOC.

 (2) Dar Petroleum Operating Company, a.k.a., the following one alias: —DPOC. Zhongnan Hotel, on UNMISS Road, South Sudan;

(3) DietsmannNile, Tomping District opposite Arkel Restaurant, two blocks north of Airport Road, Juba, South Sudan;

(4) Greater Pioneer Operating Co. Ltd, a.k.a., the following one alias: —GPOC.

(5) Juba Petrotech Technical Services Ltd, South Sudan;

(6) Nile Delta Petroleum Company, Hai Malakai neighborhood, Juba, South Sudan;

(7) Nile Drilling and Services Company, Hai Amarat, Airport Road, West Yat Building, Third Floor, Juba, South Sudan;Start Printed Page 12477

(8) Nile Petroleum Corporation, a.k.a., the following one alias: —Nilepet. Tomping District opposite Arkel Restaurant, two blocks north of Airport Road, Juba, South Sudan;

(9) Nyakek and Sons, Jubatown District near the Ivory Bank, Juba, South Sudan;

(10) Oranto Petroleum, Referendum Road, Juba, South Sudan;

(11) Safinat Group, South Sudan;

(12) SIPET Engineering and Consultancy Services, a.k.a., the following one alias: —SPECS. Tomping District opposite Arkel Restaurant, two blocks north of Airport Road, Juba, South Sudan;

(13) South Sudan Ministry of Mining, Nimra Talata, P.O. Box 376, Juba, South Sudan;

(14) South Sudan Ministry of Petroleum, Ministries Road, Opposite the Presidential Palace, P.O. Box 376, Juba, South Sudan; and

(15) Sudd Petroleum Operating Co., a.k.a., the following one alias: —SPOC. Tharjath, Unity State, South Sudan.


The Root Cause of the December 2013 Crisis in South Sudan: The Riek Machar Factor – A Response to Hon. Arop Madut Arop’s Article “How Political Wrangling in the Ruling SPLM Party Wrecked South Sudan Apart In 2013

By Mabior Garang de Mabior, Nairobi, Kenya

Mabioor de Garang with Riek Machar in the bush

Armed rebel leader Riek Machar with Mabior Garang de Mabior in Pagak, July 2014


March 21, 2018 (SSB) — The current civil war in the Republic of South Sudan is now entering its sixth year and a negotiated resolution to the conflict seems more elusive with the passage of time. There are various challenges to the peace process, however, the most immediate challenge has been the chronic failure to address the root cause of the conflict. The social sciences teach us that in order to resolve a difficult problem, one of the best approaches is the “root cause analysis”. In order for us to overcome the uncertainty currently surrounding the prospects for peace, it is important to revisit the genesis of the problem we are trying to mitigate, so that we can approach the solution to the crisis in a scientific manner and not based on our personal opinions. The following shall be an attempt by the authors to address the known facts leading up to the December 2013 crisis. It is in the analysis of this that we may perhaps be able to find a way out of the current abyss.

Historical Background

The SPLM crisis of 2013 was a culmination of several months of tension within the SPLM Political Bureau (PB) caused by the then forthcoming SPLM National Convention, scheduled for May 2013. The SPLM Convention was set to discuss among many issues, the Constitution, Basic Documents, Code of Conduct, term limits of office holders (including the SPLM Chairman) and the flag-bearer for the 2015 general election. The crisis escalated when the Chairman of the SPLM/SPLA, Salva Kiir, acting in his capacity as the President of the Republic, decided to sack the Vice President, the National Ministers and their Deputies, and the SPLM Secretary General, on July 23rd, 2013. The president also dissolved all the SPLM structures during a speech at the opening of the SPLM House in Juba on the November 15th, 2013.


R.I.P Gen. Andrew Makur Thou: The Revolutionary Freedom Fighter of Anyanya One War of Liberation

Greater Yirol Youth Union


March 13, 2018 (SSB) — We received with deepest shock the departure of our capable man Gen. Makur Thou, which occurred early this morning in Khartoum, Sudan.

Gen. Makur was a dedicated Freedom Fighter and a proud son of Yirol who was there from the beginning of struggle and was amongst the few liberators God blessed to witness the birth of our new nation.

The Greater Yirol Youth Union -Kenya Chapter wishes to express its deepest sympathies to the family, the people of Yirol, and South Sudan at large for this devastating lost.

A hero and liberator, his massive contributions to the attainment of Independence will not be forgotten in the history of our country.

Makur was a nationalist and peace lover; the best way for South Sudanese to mourn the demise of a hero of his caliber is to embrace peace and unity among ourselves.

May our condolences bring comfort and ease pains for the family at this time of grief.

Sincerely yours

Makoi Majak,

Acting Chairperson and

Sec. General.


By Joseph Akol Wek Kuanyin, Juba, South Sudan

Construction of the Jonglei Canal in Sudan on February 24th,1983

Construction of the Jonglei Canal in Sudan on February 24th,1983

February 20, 2018 (SSB) — A more ambitious project not included in the interim programmes was the excavation of the Jonglei Canal. With reference to the statement made by an Egyptian political commentator Samir Faraj on Egyptian TV dated 28th January 2018 and was circulated on national courier social media and Facebook, during the interview in an Arabic, the former military commander and governor of Luxor said that “the digging of canal would give Egypt 30 billion cubic metrics of water per a year, he also said the water would greatly benefit Egypt and Sudan and ease their problems.”

Egypt is embroiled in a row with Ethiopia over the building of a dam across one of the tributaries of the Nile. Egypt is worried that, the dam affect the flow of Nile downstream, Egypt has tried for many years to woo South Sudan to restart the digging Jonglei canal. I would like to refer you back to the year of 1901 when Sir William Garstin undersecretary of the state of public works in Egypt, had proposed the excavation of the Canal, the Garisten cut, that would transmit fresh water from Equatorial Lakes to the White Nile that otherwise would be lost by evaporation and transpiration in the Sudd.


Michael Makwei Lueth: We Didn’t Fight for Independence to Handover Government to Foreigners

protest at the american embassy in Juba

protest at the american embassy in Juba


February 20, 2018 (SSB) — South Sudan’s Information Minister Michael Makuei said they went to Addis Ababa “with open heart and commitment to ending the suffering of the people but the opposition groups united themselves with one position block”

A proposal to dissolve South Sudanese security and allow United Nations peacekeepers to takeover for a transitional period is unacceptable, the country’s Information Minister Michael Makuei says.

The armed opposition in the just ended second phase of peace talks in Addis Ababa had requested for the U.N. takeover until the country is able to canton its ragtag militias and create an inclusive professional army.

Makuei says the move would create “statelessness” during the establishment process. “The opposition groups united themselves with one position block and demanded the dissolution of all institutions of governance in South Sudan including the security organs and that is impossible,” he said.


Joseph Garang – The Dilemma of the Southern Intellectual (1961)

Posted: February 19, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in History, Junub Sudan, Philosophy


By the southern Sudanese communist leader, Joseph Garang

Joseph Garang

The southern Sudanese communist leader, Joseph Garang


February 19, 2018 (SSB) — This pamphlet was written in 1961 and present the development of the views of the author up to that time. It appeared as a series of the articles in the underground paper, the Southern, which was then being published by a number of southern communities. The object was to offer to the Southern people an alternative course of action leading to the solution of their problems. In other words a tactical line of alliance with the Northern democratic movement against imperialism and for progress.

It is clear that many points did not receive sufficient treatment. South-North relations in the past still requires a thorough examination including the exact extent of the exploitation of the Southern people by Northern merchants. Owing to difficulties caused by police persecution at that time, the author was unable to complete the pamphlet and so the question on page 14, namely the Communist view as to the solution of the Southern problem, could not answered. It was only after October 1964 that the author was able to put out in greater details his views on regional autonomy. These appeared in Advance newspaper early 1965.

The author believes that the course of events since 1961 has confirmed the correctness of the tactical line suggested. Regional Autonomy is now official policy. It remains for all talented Sudanese to examine the solution in a creative way and suggest methods of practical execution in a creative way and suggest methods of practical execution. Despite all the short-comings in the pamphlet, the author believes that it should be published as a historical document without any alterations.



Revitalized TGONU: IGAD Proposes one President, and FOUR Deputy Presidents

Posted: February 16, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in History, Junub Sudan

High-level Revitalization Forum: IGAD Propose one President, and FOUR Deputy Presidents for the Revitalized transitional Gov’t of national unity (PDF)


By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Aggrey Jaden

February 9, 2018 (SSB) — After the fall of General Abboud’s regime in October 1964, a caretaker government was formed under the leadership of Sirr al-Khatim who was sworn in as Prime Minister. At this time, William Deng wrote to Sirr al-Khatim stating that a conference be held on the Southern affair. The Sudan government agreed with the suggestion and se the t delegation to Kampala to talk to SANU members in exile. However, the division among SANU and Southern leaders ran deep. First, William Deng advocated for federation.

Second, Aggrey Jaden who was elected President of SANU favored the talk with the government since his group called for the political independence of the Southern Region. Third, Joseph Oduho who was recently replaced as president of SANU and appointed as SANU Secretary for Constitutional Affairs rejected talks with the government; he believed nothing fruitful would develop from the discussions. Fourth, the Southern Front called for self-determination of the Southern region with the authority of the South to determine its relations with the North. After extensive discussions, delegations from both the Southern region and Sudan government came to an agreement to hold talks.

On March 16, 1965, the Round Table Conference began with delegates from Southern region and Sudan government convening in Khartoum. Observers from the countries of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria and the United Arab Republic (U.A.R.), attended the Round Table Conference. In the past, these countries played a neutral role and provided limited support to SANU since Sudan was a member of the Organization of African Union (O.A.U). Uganda was the only country that offered significant sanctuary to a large population of Southern refugee many of them students.