Archive for the ‘History’ Category

The National Dialogue – New Proposal on the Reorganization of the South Sudanese State (PDF)

National Dialogue, concept reflictions by Mading Deng

“In this polarized and polarizing conflict, perceptions can overshadow reality, and whatever the equation of the power structures, the Dinka are being seen as having replaced the Arabs as the rulers in an ethnically unjust system. As the various ethnic groups converge against what they perceive as Dinka domination, the Dinka in turn begin to perceive themselves as targeted and paradoxically as in imminent danger of a genocidal onslaught. They therefore strive to mobilize themselves in self-defense.” – Dr Francis Mading Deng – SOUTH SUDAN NATIONAL DIALOGUE; Conceptual Reflections page 43


31st October 2018: President Kiir’s and Dr. Riek Machar’s Speeches during the Celebration of the R-ARCSS in Juba, South Sudan

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Speech of H.E. The President on the Occasion of the Celebration of the Revitalized Peace Agreement, 31st October 2018, Juba

-H.E. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Republic of Uganda
-H.E. Omer Al Bashir, President of the Republic of the Sudan
-H.E. Uhuru Kenyatta, President of the Republic of Kenya
-H.E. Sahle-Work Zewde, President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
-H.E. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, President of the Federal Democratic of Somalia
-H.E. Mustafa Kemal Modbouly, Prime Minister of the Arab Republic of Egypt
-H.E. Nasser Bourita, Foreign Minister of the Kingdom of Morocco
-H.E. Deputy Chairperson of the African Union
-H.E. Leader of Delegation of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
-H.E. Ambassador Ismail Wais, IGAD Special Envoy to South Sudan
-H.E. Gen. Taban Deng Gai, First Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan
-H.E. Dr. James Wani Igga, Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan
-H.E. Dr. Riek Machar, Chairman of the SPLM-IO
-Excellencies the Representatives of the Parties signatory to the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS)
-Excellencies members of diplomatic Corps
-Invited Guests

My Comrades, Ladies & Gentlemen

Thursday, November 1, 2018 (PW) —- First and foremost, allow me to sincerely congratulate all of you on this joyous occasion in which we are celebrating the signing of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) under the theme; Celebrating the Dawn of Peace, appreciating friends, cherishing reconciliation and unity.

Allow me also to express my deepest appreciation to each of you for attending this very important function. In the spirit of promoting peace and stability in our beloved nation, I ask you all to join me in welcoming and congratulating Dr. Riek Machar Teny and all the opposition leaders who have shown their commitment to the peace deal by coming to celebrate it with us today. Their presence is a strong proof to all that war is ending and a new era of peace and prosperity is breaking. Please welcome them wholeheartedly and make them feel proud at home.

As you all know, our celebration of the revitalized Agreement would not be possible today without the support of the region and the broader international community. In recognition of this support, please join me in welcoming to the Republic of South Sudan dignitaries from Africa and the entire world. Their coming to grace this dignified celebration speaks volumes, and I personally would like to register my heartfelt appreciation to each one of them for being here.

I want to especially recognize the presence of my elder brothers, H.E. President Omar El Bashir of the Republic of Sudan and H.E. President Yoweri Museveni of the Republic of Uganda, whose particular efforts helped in making this occasion a reality. (more…)

By Wol Deng Akech, Lucknow, India

Salva Kiir

President Kiir paying his last respect during the public viewing of the body of the late Gen. James Ajonga Mawut, chief of general staff of the SPLA

Thursday, 04 October 2018 (PW) — On Tuesday, 2nd 2018, H.E President Salva Kiir issued a presidential decree which changed the name of the nation’s national army from Sudan people’s Liberation Army to South Sudan People Defence Forces. It is not known what triggered for this prompt change. The change of the name seems to have come into the power of President as Commander-in-Chief of the SPLA. Many critics have been commenting on the name SPLA and appealed for the change of the name of the army to meet what they think may be the conformity of the army to its national duty. As it appears from the decree itself, the decree came as a result of the SPLA 6th Command Council Conference held on 3rd August 2017.

With such circumstantial developments, one has to look at it and find out as to where does such power fall under or originated from within the Constitutional scheme(i.e powers of the president and Commander-in-Chief under Articles 10, 151-154 and the Schedules provided in the constitution) and the statutory framework provisions under the SPLA Act(Amended), 2009.   In both frameworks, nowhere it is mentioned specifically whether the naming of the armed forces shall be exclusive power of the national executive/the president.

It is therefore pertinent to be said that such powers are incidental in the exercise of the constitutional powers expressly and impliedly provided under the constitution. Thus, the question is whose power is it? The answer to this question is the purpose of this article. Another question which poses itself as a result of the name effected is whether the name changing guarantees a “reform or transformation” of the army or promising? (more…)

“Do not squander this opportunity again”- JMEC tells parties

Posted: September 13, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in History, HLRF, Junub Sudan

“Do not squander this opportunity again”- JMEC tells parties
The Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC) outgoing Chairperson, H.E. Festus Mogae, on Wednesday appealed to the South Sudan parties not to squander the opportunity to bring lasting peace in South Sudan.

The former President of Botswana was speaking at the 33rd Extra Ordinary Assembly of the IGAD Heads of State and Government held in Addis Ababa. The main agenda of the meeting, was the signing of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (RARCSS) by all Parties.

In his last speech to the Heads of State as the Chairperson of JMEC, President Mogae said, “It is my earnest hope that the signing of the Revitalized Peace Agreement will herald a new chapter for the Republic of South Sudan”.

“It is important to underline that the HLRF process has afforded all the parties and stakeholders every opportunity, to make their case and reach compromises.  The outcome we are witnessing today is therefore a reflection of a thorough and inclusive process”, he added.

In addition, the President also noted the immense contribution and involvement from various stakeholders that had made the Revitalization Forum a success. In particular, he applauded the South Sudanese parties and Stakeholders, the IGAD Council of Ministers, the IGAD Special Envoy for South Sudan, the High-Level Facilitators, the Mediators of the Khartoum phase of the HLRF as well as the International Partners.

“In particular, I want to also acknowledge the contribution of my staff, the JMEC members of the HLRF taskforce, without whom this progress may not have been achieved as timeously as has been the case”, he stated.

While making the remarks, the outgoing Chairperson also used the opportunity, to thank the IGAD Heads of State for his appointment as the Chairperson of JMEC in 2015 as well as the support extended to him during his tenure. He noted how proud he was of the many challenges that the JMEC members had collectively overcome in discharging the mandate of monitoring and evaluating the progress of the implementation of the 2015 Peace Agreement, over the last two years and eight months.

“I am also proud, that through my leadership, we recommended the revitalization of the ARCSS 2015 and today we conclude with a more inclusive peace agreement. This revitalized agreement, if fully implemented, promises sustainable peace and prosperity in the Republic of South Sudan”, he added.

President Mogae steps down as the JMEC Chairperson at the end of September.



The Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC) was established by terms decreed under Chapter Seven of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCSS), signed on 17th August 2015 in Addis Ababa.
Under the terms of the Agreement, JMEC shall be responsible for monitoring, overseeing and supporting the implementation of the Agreement and the mandate and tasks of the TGoNU (Transitional Government of National Unity), including adherence of the Parties to agreed timelines and schedules; and in the event of non-compliance, shall recommend appropriate corrective action to the TGoNU.
JMEC is responsible for overseeing the work of CTSAMM (Ceasefire and Transitional Security Monitoring Mechanism), EFMA (Economic and Financial Management Authority), and other transitional institutions created by the Agreement.

National Dialogue Steering Committee Report – Final Report from the Sub-Committee on Central Equatoria states (PDF)

National Dialogue, concept reflictions by Mading Deng

“In this polarized and polarizing conflict, perceptions can overshadow reality, and whatever the equation of the power structures, the Dinka are being seen as having replaced the Arabs as the rulers in an ethnically unjust system. As the various ethnic groups converge against what they perceive as Dinka domination, the Dinka in turn begin to perceive themselves as targeted and paradoxically as in imminent danger of a genocidal onslaught. They therefore strive to mobilize themselves in self-defense.” – Dr Francis Mading Deng – SOUTH SUDAN NATIONAL DIALOGUE; Conceptual Reflections page 43

National Dialogue Steering Committee – Final Report from Central Equatoria Sub–Committee

Executive Summary

1.1 Introduction

The Central Equatoria Sub-Committee of the National Dialogue was in the field for 45 days, beginning in Yei River State in October 2017, and proceeding to Juba, Capital of Jubek State. The team continued with consultations in Terekeka State and finalized the assignment by conducting meetings in Ganji and Lokiliri counties of Jubek State and in Tali County in Terekeka State in March 2018. The estimated total number of the people consulted, in 37 meetings, is 3,200, inclusive of all sectors of the communities targeted.

The mandate of the Sub-Committee was to guide the process of the National Dialogue, listen and document the concerns raised by the participants and ensure an environment of inclusivity, transparency, freedom of speech and full participation in the consultations.

The stakeholders were asked: What, in their opinion, are the causes of the political and communal violence in the country that has caused unnecessary deaths, displacement into the bush, refugee camps as well as the suffering from hunger and disease? What, in their opinion, is the solution to bring the Republic of South Sudan back to peace, stability, and development?

The process of consultations was highly successful, due to the cooperation and support from Governors of Yei River State, Jubek State and Terekeka State. The Sub-Committee would like to convey its gratitude for the popular reception accorded to the team by the Governors of these three States. Each of the State Governments formed a committee to mobilize, coordinate and facilitate the work of the Sub-Committee. In each State, the committee was provided with transport, security escort to counties and lecture halls. Their support extended to contribution of fuel, feeding and accommodation of the team in Morobo, Kaya, Lainya and Tali Counties.  The participants were very keen to meet with the National Dialogue Sub-Committee and they responded enthusiastically. (more…)

Khartoum Declaration Agreement: The Initialed Revitalized ARCSS, August 2018.pdf


27 years later, the poisoned legacy of the 1991 Nasir coup

Posted: August 28, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in History, Junub Sudan

1991 Nasir Coup

“Today marks 63 years since the Torit Mutiny took place when a group of Southern Sudanese soldiers of the Southern Equatoria Corps revolted against the Sudan government. The rebellion of August 18th, 1955 led to decades of armed conflict between South and North Sudan which ended when South Sudan gained its independence from North Sudan in July 2011,” Hon. Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan.

By Prof. Peter Tingwa, Nairobi, Kenya  

Torit Mutiny

The 63rd anniversary of the August 18, 1955, Torit Mutiny that launched the 50 years revolutionary struggle of South Sudanese against Khartoum, culminating in the independence of South Sudan in July 2011

Situation in South Sudan before the Uprising

Saturday, August 18, 2018 (PW) — In order to understand the causes and events that led to the Uprising, a brief look at the situation obtaining in the Sudan, particularly Southern Sudan, both politically and administratively is necessary. Those were as follows:

Firstly, Sir Alexander Knox Helm, the British Governor General was still the supreme power in the country. Secondly, The British army was still in the Sudan, in Khartoum and Port Sudan. Thirdly, Ismail El Azhari was the Prime Minister (PM) in charge of the Self- Government (Executive).

Fourthly, the National Unionist Party of PM El Azhari was the majority in the Parliament of 97 members. For Southern representation in the Parliament, there were 23 seats. Out of those 23, 11 were members of the Liberal Party while the other 12 were either Independents or members of Northern political parties, especially of PM El Azhari’s National Unionist Party.

Fifthly, Sudanization of senior posts in the administration, police, military, and prisons had been completed. But Southerners were very disappointed with the outcome because, out of about 900 such posts, only four went to the South. (more…)

The “SPLM/SPLA Factor” in the fundamental root causes of the December 2013 Crisis and the present civil war in the Republic of South Sudan (Part 4)

By PaanLuel Wël, Juba, South Sudan

The Flag of the Republic of South Sudan

The Flag of the Republic of South Sudan

  1. Introduction

Saturday, August 18, 2018 (PW) — “Politics,” declares Carl von Clausewitz, the former Prussian general and military theorist, “is the continuation of war by other means.” The great Athenian historian and general, Thucydides, the author of The History of the Peloponnesian War, added that, in warfare, as in politics, “the strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must.” And like any other forms and means of warfare, politics invariably produces both losers who “suffer what they must” and winners who “do what they can”. The acrimonious political fallout within the ruling SPLM party, which preceded and triggered the December 2013 crisis and the present destructive civil war in South Sudan, is a classic case study of Carl von Clausewitz’s aphorism that politics is war by other means, with sullen losers and haughty winners.

Underpinning the power struggle that precipitated the ongoing civil war is the prevailing contention from the opposition groups, as advanced and defended by Comrade Mabioor Garang de Mabioor, that the December 2013 crisis was generated by President Kiir’s fateful decision to eschew democratic institutions and processes by resorting to draconian and undemocratic means to preserve and exercise power in the country. To the government, the seditious machinations by the power hungry Riek Machar to take power by force define and constitute the fundamental root cause of the December 2013 crisis and the raging distractive civil war. In contrast, the veteran South Sudanese journalist, author and politician, Hon. Arop Madut Arop, maintains that the fundamental root cause of the December 2103 crisis was the institutional failure by the SPLM party to attain democratic transformation, as exemplified by the ambiguity of the presidential term limits which triggered political wrangling within the ruling party.

Therefore, this article will constructively respond to, and critically analyze, both Hon. Arop Madut Arop’s article, “How Political Wrangling in the Ruling SPLM Party Wrecked South Sudan Apart in 2013” and Comrade Mabioor Garang de Mabioor’s article, “The Root Cause of the December 2013 Crisis in South Sudan: The SPLM/SPLA Factor.” The evaluation and critiquing will be done on the basis of what is legal and democratic as the opposition leaders are fond of presenting their political actions preceding the December 2013 crisis, and what is a threat to national security as the government often portrays the political maneuvers of the opposition leaders on the eve of December 2013 crisis and the current conflict.



Apaak Resolutions – Declaration of Apaak community to be considered as a subsection of the Dinka Tribe in South Sudan (PDF)

Date: July 27Th, 2018














Saturday, August 18, 2018 (PW) — Apaak Community is found in Bahr el Ghazal Region, Lakes Province. Presently it falls within western part of Eastern Lakes State. Apaak Community inhabits Greater Aluak-luak which currently comprises of two counties namely:

  1. Aluak-luak County, headquarter in Aluak-luak.
  2. Geer County, centered at Geer


By Hon. Jacob Akech Dengdit, Bor, Jonglei state


Hon Akech Deng Kanyin, former Jonglei state information minister

Tuesday, August 14, 2018 (PW) —- This marks my first ever endeavor into  cyber space as the great resource to both international and local partners in term of long-term planning, and as well as on the social ground in evaluating developmental achievements of a community. I have herein this document presented the general logic behind the establishment of gubernatorial administrative order which confirmed the establishment of Duk Padiet as a Municipal location that only follows Bortown Municipality.

It’s all attached to SPLM vision of taking town to the people of which Jonglei state governor H.E. Philip Aguer Panyang extended to people of Duk inform of municipal area. I think on my personal point of view, we, the people of Duk should stand and embrace such an incredible agenda brought to us in silver plate. Yes, it might sound to someone who is not exactly informed about the merits of Municipal area differently but honestly take your time and understand what I distinctly analyze in this piece of writing.

Duk Padiet is currently the headquarter of Duk Padiet County which is part of the former Duk County and is located about 172km (103miles) from Bor, the headquarter of Jonglei State. The current demographic population of Duk Padiet can be broken down into 4 groups including Dinka host community (from Padiet), Dinkas displaced from other areas of Greater Duk (from Duk Payual County, Duk Panyang County and Duk Pagak County), Lou and Gawaar Nuers displaced from Former Ayod and Uror counties. (more…)

By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

South Sudanese veteran politician, Uncle Clement Mboro

Friday, August 10, 2018 (PW) — The veteran politician Clement Mboro, fondly referred to as “Uncle Clement” inspired many Southern Sudanese during the many years of armed struggle from the 1940s till his passing. Uncle Clement was born on January 3rd 1920 in a small village twenty miles west of Wau to Chief Mboro Bekobo of the N’dogo. He completed his early years of education at Bussure and received a diploma in public administration from Gordon Memorial College in Khartoum, Sudan.

For a number of years, Uncle Clement worked in public service before becoming a political activist. During the Juba Conference of 1947, Uncle Clement gained prominence for being among the only three educated Southerners to participate in the conference. However, he was blamed with other Southern leaders who participated in the conference for not articulating separation of the South from North Sudan. It is important to note that prior to the Juba Conference of 1947, the British had already decided to keep the South united with North Sudan regardless of the call for separation by Southern Sudanese.

Following the Torit Mutiny in 1955, when Southerners soldiers refused to be transported to North Sudan and revolted against their Northern commanding officers which then led to large scale conflict and saw many Southern civilians, soldiers and politicians face persecution and even death. Among those detained and tortured was Uncle Clement who was then the Assistant District Commissioner in Yirol. (more…)

CEPO Fact Sheet on the Signed Khartoum Peace Agreement on the Revitalization of the 2015 ARCSS

CEPO Fact Sheet on the Signed Khartoum Peace Agreement on the Revitalization of the 2015 ARCSS




Sunday, August 5, 2018 (PW) —- A jilted Gen Julius Tabuley has reportedly declared a bloodless coup against Gen Thomas Chirillo of the National Salvation Front (NAS) for failing to initial and sign the Khartoum peace agreement. This is nothing less than the replay of Taban Deng vs Riek Machar scenario in July 2016.

However, the political self interest driving Thomas Chirillo must be understood and appreciated. One, he has little chance of clinching one of the 5 VP positions since Dr Wani Igga, a Bari like him, is retaining his seat.

Two, Equatorian politics revolves around land rights and federalism, and no unifying leader has so far emerged to champion them.

Since the Khartoum peace agreement has not adequately addressed the two issues that are dear to the Equatorians and since there is a gaping leadership vacuum on these issues, it is easy to see where Thomas Chirillo is going with his uncompromising opposition to Khartoum peace agreement.

He has nothing to lose personally and everything to gain politically. By the end of the three years of the TGONU, assuming it lasts that long, Thomas Chirillo may finally emerge as a serious force to reckon with – along with Kiir, and Riek.

But that is not all: just as Kiir is generally perceived as a Dinka leader and Riek as a Nuer leader, Thomas Chirillo will inevitably become an Equatorians leader, not a South Sudanese leader.

And that is the fundamental problem of South Sudan – losing our heroes and national leaders to tribalism.

The “Big Tent Policy Factor” in the fundamental root causes of the December 2013 Crisis and the present civil war in the Republic of South Sudan (Part 3)

By PaanLuel Wël, Juba, South Sudan

The Flag of the Republic of South Sudan

The Flag of the Republic of South Sudan

  1. Introduction

Saturday, August 04, 2018 (PW) — On the 4th of July, 2013, the Vice President of South Sudan, Dr. Riek Machar, few hours after returning from Khartoum, summoned the Guardian newspaper into his office, denounced his boss, President Kiir, as incompetent and corrupt, and then declared his interest in contesting for the office of the president in the 2015 presidential election. While few people had any inkling as to why Dr. Riek Machar would declare a public revolt against his boss of 10 years, what is crystal clear though was that this was at a time when the Nuer was at the peak of their military predominance in the Republic of South Sudan, both at the top echelon, as well as among the rank and file, of the national army.

Gen. James Hoth Mai was the Chief of Staff of the SPLA, while John Koang Nyuon was the Minister for Defense. Of the three (3) sectors of the SPLA, two were headed by the Nuer. Gen. Charles Lam Chuol was the commander of the SPLA Sector Three in Torit, while Gen. Johnson Gony Bilieu was the commander of the SPLA Sector Two in Malakal. Of the eight (8) divisions of the SPLA, three were headed by the Nuer. Gen. James Koang Chuol was the commander of SPLA Division 4 in Bentiu; Gen. Peter Gatdet Yak was the commander of SPLA Division 8 in Bor, while Gen. Yien Makuach Mut was the commander of SPLA Division 6 in Yambio. Of the two directors of national security (internal and external), Gen. Thomas Duoth was in charge of external security. Moreover, 70% of the national army was reportedly composed of Nuer soldiers. And the vice president of the republic was also a Nuer.

How was it possible that a single community whose percentage share of the national population is merely 19% would account for such a lion share of the national army in a nation of “64 tribes”? The spectacular and magnificent success of the South-South dialogue, what the South Sudanese intellectual and politician, Dr. Luka Biong Deng, has dubbed as the “Big Tent Policy” of President Salva Kiir. (more…)

By Yasir Arman, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



Saturday, August 04, 2018 (PW) — 30th of July marks the 12th commemoration of the departure of Dr John Garang and his absence is felt in the two Sudans. Many would agree that if Dr Garang was alive today, the course of action in history would have taken a different path in both Sudans.

Dr Garang’s vision of the New Sudan, in essence, is an international vision. Its basics would work everywhere. It is a vision that calls to celebrate diversity and embrace social justice and democracy. The fundamental of this vision is truly what the two Sudans and Africa need; it addresses the nationality and the religion questions, calling for a new socio-economical political dispensation in the interest of the poor and marginalized, who constitute the massive majority of our country and elsewhere.

Dr Garang was a true revolutionary and a great Pan-Africanist who left no doubt of his commitment to the unity of Sudan on a new basis, and the unity of Africa as a fundamental issue for Sudanese, and Africans too to face the stormy world and its injustices, as well as for the African continent being the master of their resources and destiny. (more…)

By Gabriel Kucdit Kachuol, Nairobi, Kenya

founders of the splm

Commemorating the 33rd Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Revolutionary Movement—the SPLM/SPLA

Founders of Anyanya one

Founders of Anyanya one – Father Saturnino Lohure (Patron), Joseph Oudho (President) and William Deng Nhial (Secretary General)

Tuesday, July 31, 2018 (PW) — Today is our martyrs’ day! I believe it’s a day to commemorate and also reflect on what, why, how,….questions entailing how far we have come as a nation to the stature we are in today – for better or for worse. It starts with “who am I” that South Sudan question bothers me?

I identify myself as concerned South Sudan citizen akin to one of the ten (10) anecdotal blind men sent to feel and describe the “elephant.” They all gave variant but, more or less, an accurate description of the gargantuan animal depending on the part each one of them touched. (more…)

1990 Torit Speech: The Prophesy of Dr. John Garang

Posted: July 30, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in History, Junub Sudan

Dr. John Garang de Mabioor’s speech in 1990, a year after the SPLA’s capture of Torit in 1989.

John Garang

John Garang’s prophecy

The Late SPLM/A Leader, Dr. John Garang de Mabioor Atem Aruai.

Dr. John Garang de Mabior, Co-Founder of SPLM/A

Nationalists, Patriots, Comrades, Fellow Countrymen:

“We are not anybody’s burden; we are masters in our own house. We are confident in ourselves and of the future. There are those who might entertain the false beliefs that we cannot govern ourselves, we should not and cannot let their thoughts patterns influence us. Let us collectively go down in the history as the generation of South Sudanese that turned Sudan around by putting an end to discrimination, racism, inequality, division, exploitation, and marginalization at best, and slavery and causal murder at worst. Let us unite against ethnic, religious, and racial divides to restore personal dignity for all. Let us move from total economic dormancy to total vibrancy; from relegation and resignation to a cycle of poverty, destitution and misery to activism, hope, and excitement.

Let us reject being mere spectators in life, to becoming masters of our own destiny. A Bishop friend of mine yesterday told me a joke that three people went to see God, and the Almighty asked them what what they wanted. One of them said he wanted wisdom, the second said he wanted riches, and the third, a Southern Sudanese, said he was just accompanying the two. You will guess who wanted wisdom and who wanted riches, but what i wanted to tell Southerners is to stop accompanying others and be masters of their own destiny; i say the same for all Sudanese and for all people of Africa. (more…)

Today in history: The July 26, 1995 Nzara demonstration that heralded the August 18, 1955 Torit Mutiny and altered the course of South Sudan history

By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Nzara Demonstration

Thursday, July 26, 2018 (PW) — On July 26, 1955, a demonstration took place in the small village of Nzara in the Zande District of Equatoria Province. The demonstration would alter the course of Southern Sudan history. A month earlier, the Equatoria Projects Board managed by the Sudan government had dismissed 300 Southern Sudanese from the Zande cotton scheme and hired Northern Sudanese to replace them.

During this period, Northern Sudanese were occupying administrative positions across the Southern region that was once held by the British and other European nationalities; this certainly gave the impression to Southerners they were losing jobs to Northerners.

On the morning of July 26, sixty of the Southern workers who had not been dismissed threatened to strike if they did not receive a pay increase for their labor. A crowd of 250 people which included Southern workers who were still employed at the cotton factory and those who had been dismissed staged a demonstration. (more…)