By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, Kampala, Uganda

Paul Malong

Paul Malong Awan, Aweil

May 22, 2017 (SSB) — May 9, 2017 will be remembered in history of South Sudan. It is a day which has become a turning point in the history of ruthless and inhuman decree of the President of the Republic of South Sudan, General Salva Kiir Mayardit.

President Kiir has become obsessed with the power to the extent that he can issue the decree to stop the birds flying over Juba. What is peculiar about all the decrees that are issued by the President is that they are issued even without his knowledge. This is because the president has pre-signed all decrees and other documents which are just kept in his office ready to be issued at any time.

With those decrees pre-signed what remains only are the words to be written on them and then issued by his employees even without the Master’s instruction or decision. The employees use the powers of the President to coerce every government officials.

As explained in the above paragraph, in order to remain in job or to be appointed in government one has to worship or be a slave to those working in the State House.   This explains why the game of lobbying has become very important and highly priced game in South Sudan and the State House in Particular.

Hence, the ability or capability or qualifications of a person do not determine the employment as what determines it in South Sudan is who one knows and who is known by those working in the offices.

In that respect South Sudanese like me and others who are free minded will never dream of being employed by the Government of the SPLM in South Sudan since we do not believe in serving any person but South Sudan itself.

The whole process can be summed up in the following sentence: South Sudan is a country where snobbish, miscreant and sycophants rule the country and consequently, these snobbish, miscreants and sycophants have destroyed the country as their visions, objectives, goals and mission is to destroy the country for their own benefits hence ruining the establishment of a nation and SPLM party which is a historical party.

The snobbish, miscreants and sycophants who are in the heart of the Government of South Sudan thought this time that they would do the same with General King Paul Malong Awan. However, they were mistaken as they did wrong miscalculations. They thought that Malong would be removed in obscured manner like what they do to other individuals who believe in their power and just accept what is done to them without questioning the method and procedure followed in removing them.

Nonetheless, Malong who is a true Dinka and a true Bhar El Ghazal person and citizen could not accept such a bullying through the use of visionless, missionless, objectiveless, selfishness and goalless decrees.

Thus, Malong shows the President that there is limit to his powers and in running the country there is a need for dialogue at different levels. In my opinion, Malong was right to have reacted the way he reacted towards the action of the President in removing him due to the following reasons—

First of all, the President took side in the conflict between Akol Koor and General Malong Awan. For instance, recently, Malong has quarreled with Akol Koor before his removal. The quarrel resulted into a physical fight during the meeting in the presence of the President. This shows that there was a deep animosity between the two men and as a matter of fact and for the sake of justice and fairness, the president should have remained neutral in this conflict.

Nevertheless, by removing Malong after they have fought with Akol Koor and allowing Akol Koor to be in charge of security as it was shown by the fact that Akol Koor on that day deployed national Security personnel in the whole town and around Malong’s house clearly showed that the President took side.

What made the action by the President to remove Malong unfair is the fact that he treated Malong in degrading manner contrary to the general rule of army in which junior officers must respect senior officers. By putting Akol Koor in charge of security over Malong during the removal while he is a junior officer to Malong in term of the army ranking. This was unfair and unreasonable.

It was unfair and unreasonable because despite the removal of Malong, he has not lost his rank as an army officer and the rule of the army should have been followed by the President to respect Malong’s status but not to treat Malong as if they are at the same level with Akol Koor.

 The action of Malong was, therefore right because it is a measure to protect himself and also to maintain his dignity and personal security until when it is assured by the State. This is true because where there is no law or where the authorities do not follow the law, the individual has to protect him or herself. Malong, therefore, justified to use the public law (which are people) to counter the president’s misuse of Powers.

Second it, the action of Malong was justified to show the President that he was not supposed to be used as scapegoat in appeasing the international community. There have been many calls for the President to remove Malong from the international community. This is because International community and the oppositions have been associating Malong with the mass atrocities and by removing Malong in such a hastily manner, it appeared that Malong was being made as a sacrificial lamb to appease international community.

One thing the oppositions and international community did not understand is that if there is evidence that Malong killed innocent people but not rebels then Malong and the President together should be held accountable as General Malong was acting on the orders of the President.

On that ground Malong wanted the president to give him more protection and if not, then, they must go together to the ICC but not Malong alone. By being ambiguous on the reason he removed Malong and also by tightening the security around town and Malong’s house, the President sent a clear message that Malong was not protected and because of that Malong was justified to act as he did.

Thirdly and related to the above, Malong deserves to be given special respect and appreciation by the President. Instead of the President demanding special appreciation from General Malong, the President was supposed to appreciate the role of General Malong in protecting him and keep him in power from 2014 to date.

 If it was not because of Malong, the wave of the White Army of Nuer Lou would have swept away the president from power in 2014. But for General Malong, the White Army was devastated and completely destroyed.

In addition, Malong is a true nationalist and he is one of the rarest loyalists to the president though the President did not see this fact. Malong, for instance, if he wanted political power, he would have overthrown the president as the President from 2014 to date was at his mercy.

Moreover, Malong sacrificed his personal interest and Bhar El Ghazal children in form of Mathiang Anyoor to protect the President as shown by the fact that majority of Mathiang Members are from Aweil, his home town. Among Mathiang Anyoor members, many were killed and some are still being killed today while some of them are currently begging on the streets in Juba. This because Mathiang Anyoor are uprooted from their home town where they can manage to survive on their own by thrown into a new environment.

Sufferings of Aweil and other Bhar El Ghazal children as explained above shows that Malong sacrificed the lives of Bhar El Ghazal to protect the lives and power of the President of South Sudan. It also shows that Malong is capable in mobilizing masses to fight for him and others.

In disregard to the above fact, the attempt of the president to throw out Malong as if he is just an ordinary General was a form of humiliation. How would Malong have explained to the parents of those Mathiang Anyoor members who are killed in defending Kiir’s presidency?

What the President was supposed to have done was to accord Malong special honour and thanks because he is one of the capable army officers.  Malong has all right to demand from the President and South Sudan, special thanks and honour, which must be accorded to him as a special General in the history of South Sudan.

Contrary to that it appears that the President does not observe the ability of those who are working under him but concern only with how to keep and maintain power, which is a bad sign for a country like South Sudan.

In that respect, South Sudan needs personal sacrifice and capable personalities as seen in case of general Malong. This is what South Sudan needs if the unity is to be achieved in the country. This is not the case as the President is against capable individuals.

Malong, in fact, despite his little education is by far better than other highly educated people. This is due to the fact that he knows what to do and this is why his interest was to protect the safety of South Sudan from rebels and external powers.

South Sudan was able to fall apart in 2013 and 2014 had it not been General Malong Awan who devoted himself into protecting South Sudan. The reality is that if Malong were interested in power he would have overthrown the president since he was in realm of power and the President was at his mercy from 2014 to May 09, 2017 but he did not make use of that chance.

Thirdly, as explained in the above paragraph, it is important to note that Malong did not rebel against the Government as many people believed. If Malong was fighting against his removal to protect his post, he would have overthrown the Government while in his position as Chief of General Staff or on that day immediately after his removal while he was still in Juba since he has a lot of support and influence as we saw in Yirol and in Juba after his return from Yirol.

For the above reasons, Malong, by leaving Juba peacefully he was not interested in fighting for the post but he was acting tactfully as he was taking precautionary measures to protect himself against unforeseen move and plan by the President and Akol Koor.

One of the reasons Malong left Juba on that day was that the situation in Juba was not safe for him to remain in Juba given the fact that the President and Akol Koor created unnecessary tension through employing contingency of national army and security forces around town, on all the streets and around General Malong’s house a day before announcing his removal.

 Because of that any reasonable person would have acted the way Malong acted since there is no law to protect his personal right and security once arrested. For that reason, Malong was justified to react as he did.

Before I conclude this article it must be observed that this article is written in expectation of any benefits from any General Malong or anybody but to explain the truth behind Malong’s removal. The motivation for writing this letter is, therefore, to support the truth not any person.

In conclusion, based on the above reasons and other underlying factors not explained in this article, Malong was justified to act the way he acted because he had to protect himself against the plan of the president and Akol Koor. Therefore, the lies being spread that Malong was fighting against his removal were not true but his intention was to reduce tension that was growing in Juba in the aftermath of his removal that might have resulted into disastrous war among Dinka.

The action of Malong shows that he loves people of South Sudan and Dinka in particular which shows that he is a real leader who is full of humanity and compassion for people of South Sudan.


NB// the author is a human rights lawyer and can be reached through:



History does not reward good people, but it rewards these who always cause destruction to the nation

By Santino Aniek, New York, U.S.A.

Malong Awan Anei

May 27, 2017 (SSB) — President Kiir has tired down a relationship between the man who helped him during the 2013 when madness consume Mr. Mayardit’s humanness by dissolving the entire government and dismiss some of the seniors members of the SPLM Party. There is, obviously, much we do not know about what has just happened between President Kiir and General Paul Malong Awan, why it happened and why now. Just as obviously there is much more, so much more that we need to know the firing of General Paul.

In addition, we need to damn the dishonesties and expose the truth now to avoid another conflict because South Sudanese people are tried of wars. In fact, I really do not get it, I mean, I expect it because every thing is possible in South Sudan, but I do not get it. As of today, no one understands the psychology of Juba, because it seems like there are many people in that country who are not only uninterested in peace and security, but will actually get angry with you for displaying any interest in peace and security of our citizens. And so this happens on both sides, government as well as opposition by the way.

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The Dinka and the Cow

Posted: May 27, 2017 by PaanLuel Wël in Poems., Taban Abel Aguek

By Taban Abel Aguek, Yirol, South Sudan


high dowry price in south sudan

My friend got a new name

Just yesterday.

Many years ago,

He was called Jier,

The name his Dinka father gave him.

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By Elbow Chuol, Kampala, Uganda

paul malong

President Salva Kiir, Governor Paul Malong Awan (Blue suit) and Cabinet Affairs Minister Martin Lomuro (black suit) during the public rally in Aweil, NBeG

May 19, 2017 (SSB) — PAUL Malong Awan’s four days Rebellion was badly miscalculated. This is where principle of mathematic seriously went wrong. So I wasn’t the only one who didn’t do well in high school after all-Malong is a colleague in this cryptic universal problem.

Malong Awan the nightmare of the South Sudanese civilians didn’t choose to rebel but his four days rebellions was carefully set in motion.  His appointment as a tool to be used by Kiir and Akool to kills South Sudanese didn’t fade away in just four years rigorous military leadership campaign. The man went furious but mechanism were put in place to control him. It is called leadership placement. You are put somewhere to achieve the most wanted desires.

But Malong was given anything and everything to become everything and anything including an authority rape, displacing civilians, killing, and obstructing the humanitarian workers to reach the purposely starved Nuer civilians in Greater Upper Nile-Unity State in particular. All the wrongs will be counted on his head.

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By Kur Garang Deng, Nairobi, Kenya

Kur Garang Deng

Kur Garang Deng

May 16, 2017 (SSB) — Thank God for some of us, who have survived to tell this story. It is a story of my fallen comrades who have donated their precious lives for this nation of ours, the Republic of South Sudan.

In this piece, I congratulate my heroes and acknowledge the great work they have accomplished for us. These are our freedom fighters, revolutionaries, compatriots, liberators and other contributors to this great day and nation of the South Sudanese people under the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Army/Movement.

The SPLA/M was started today 34 years ago! As we used to sing: SPLA Noor a Sha’ab Sudan (SPLA the Light to the People of the Sudan).

It was not an easy task. That is why we must always commemorate and celebrate the lives of our great leaders and men and women of history since May 16, 1983. I am proudly humbled to be one of them today. Not me alone but with my other colleagues, both alive and dead. But heroes do not die.

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By Deng Mayik Atem, Arizona, USA

Cholera in Ayod

Deadly Cholera Outbreak in Jiech and Mogok Payams of Ayod County

May 23, 2017 (SSB) — Dr. John Garang de Mabior stood in the middle of the soccer field at Pinyudo. Dressed in military fatigues and spoke carefully in Dinka and paused for the translators to repeat his words in Nuer and Arabic. “I give you the pen in the right hand and a gun in the left hand. You are the future. You are the seed for the new Sudan.”

We students were ready for the military training. Led by Kiir Chol, we sang our readiness.

Our Commander-in-Chief said, “You, Red Army, when you are going to do this training together, but for now you need to study for your education. Your war will be a war of tomorrow, a war of development.” During my years in Pinyudo I took both sides of John Garang’s message seriously. I worked hard at my military training and I worked just as hard to master my books. I tried to harden my body to be ready for battle while I tried to develop my mind to be ready for the challenges of the future.

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By Deng Kur Deng, Pennsylvania, USA


May 23, 2017 (SSB) —- As far as how the future of South Sudan looks, there are few things to keep in mind among many South Sudanese —it is definitely looking dull, unpredictable. To many, life is worthless, and it is quite worrisome to many of us who love this country dearly. One thing is clear, which you deserve to know is that, President Kiir will never reconcile the people of South Sudan.

Deal with that fact by reflecting on what has been going on for years now. There isn’t much in the way of options left as the people of South Sudan have tried and initiated peace, but kept going back to war, tried collaboration after collaboration, and peace after peace with various groups, and nothing seems to come out of that.

Weak peace treaties were negotiated—some of which were finally and loosely signed. I had felt at some point that this peace was going to work, but it didn’t. Imagine, since the war started, many human rights watch dogs have estimated over 50,000 South Sudanese people have perished and it is continuing to add up as war continue to engulf many areas in the country. And for what?

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By Kuach Loch Garang, Calgary, Canada

Generals Pieng Deng Majok, Paul Malong Awan and Malual Ayom Dor at the Bor Airport during the second liberation of Bor, 2014

Generals Pieng Deng Majok, Paul Malong Awan and Malual Ayom Dor at the Bor Airport during the second liberation of Bor, 2014

May 17, 2017 (SSB) — May 9, 2017 Marks the new beginning in South Sudan political development the day the President of the Republic of South  Sudan 1st Let.Gen.Salva Kiir Mayardit issued a decree to fire Gen.Paul Malong Awan who was then the Chief of General Staff of the SPLA Army. Replacing him with Gen. James Ajongo Mawut of the bravest and  the toughest Generals in the history of South Sudan struggle.

Gen. Ajongo was one of loyalists and patriot generals who stood in face many challenges since the civil war  broke out in 2013. Therefore, no doubt about is commitment and competitiveness to handle his new assignment. However, Change of General Malong had caused havoc because of some controversial administration conflict it’s associated with.

This change was expected by the members of  general public but the way it happened caught many South Sudanese people with great surprise.In fact, it should have not surprise anybody because South Sudan has been ruled by gossip and there is no classified information from top to bottom.The way the President handle was misguided.

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Dear President, Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit, affable greetings to you and blessings.

By Sunday de John, New Delhi, India

Kiir, Ajongo, Kuol, Wani, Awet

May 17, 2017 (SSB) — It has been long since the team and I met you personally in Nairobi on your way back from United States of America. The meeting that we had with you was on developmental pillars. As a group we didn’t meet you so as to solicit for any material gains. Our thirteen point document was meant for the good of South Sudan. It was not based on any culpable conspiracies.

We gave you our multi-million dollar points on the national agenda for free. Categorically, we stressed for the need to harness our oneness as South Sudanese, the need for static security, the need for reforms, the need for lasting peace, the need for development and particularly on the serviceability of roads network, electricity and water.

We too stressed on the need for a grand goal of quality health care and quality education. Each of the big desired goals was hinted on well. With you we felt at home, you had not shown any supercilious character. For your information, you are a cordial president.

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By Deng Akech Deng, Juba, South Sudan

Gogrial state

May 18, 2017 (SSB) — Gogrial State communal conflict has reached its climax and if not addressed urgently, it may cause unrepairable damages. Gogrial is one of the states embroiled in a communal conflict since 2004 but as of recent, the conflict has taken an ugly turn.

As you may be aware, there has been a dispute between Aguok and Apuk communities of Gogrial which can be traced back to 2004 when Gogrial County split into two Counties namely Gogrial East and Gogrial West Counties. The administration of Gogrial County and the processes leading to the division of Gogrial County into two counties are sometimes believed to be the causes of this conflict.

Differences began to develop between sons of Aguok and Apuk in Gogrial County Administration before the split in 2004. The grudges started as some people were complaining and accusing one another of less representation in the County as a result of ill intention of one community to marginalize the other. This disagreement between intellectuals or rather politicians widen when the county split.

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The 34rd anniversary of May 16th

Posted: May 16, 2017 by PaanLuel Wël in History, Junub Sudan

Peace and reconciliation in South Sudan is the only rewards we can offer to our martyrs who sacrificed everything for our freedom and liberty

May 16th anniversary

Readings for the 34th anniversary of May 16th:

  1. Dr. John Garang and the May 16th Bor Uprising, by PaanLuel Wel
  2. Glimpse of History: Maker Jool Deng was not the only Martyr of May 16th Bor Uprising, By David Aoloch Bion

  3. Dr. John Garang’s Last Speech Marking the 22nd Anniversary of May 16th, 2005, By Dr. John Garang

Garang and Kiir

Garang and Kiir, with Aguer Manyok Aguer Deng (young man)

Kiir and Garang, liberation day

Dr. John Garang and Commander Salva Kiir Mayaardit, during the liberation era


kiir and garang

Commander John Garang and Commander Salva Kiir in Rumbek, during the war of liberation struggle

in the company of Dr. John Garang: once upon a time, we were united.

Garang, Kiir, Riek and Wani

John Garang, Salva Kiir, Riek Machar and James Wani Igga

pagan and john garang

Commander Pagan Amum Okiech, with Chairman Dr. John Garang and Commander Yasir Said Arman, Rumbek Senior, 2003

By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, Kampala, Uganda

Hagana Festival

Hagana Festival

May 15, 2017 (SSB) — It has been a while since I thought about this topic concerning the role of money in crisis of South Sudan. When Comprehensive Peace Agreement (the CPA) between the Sudanese People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and National Islamic Front (NIF) regime, Southern Sudan was created, which was administered as an autonomous region from Northern Sudan.

The autonomy of Southern Sudan was to last for six years (2005-2011), which should be followed by referendum, in which all South Sudanese or sixty four tribes currently in South Sudan have to decide whether to become independent nation called South Sudan or continue to be part of larger Sudan.

Indeed, after six years South Sudanese decided to vote for separation. Consequently, they voted for independent South Sudan and in July 2011 the current Official Flag of South Sudan was raised and the Flag of Sudan that many of us associated with all predicaments that were facing South Sudanese under Khartoum was lowered. As the Official Flag was being raised, the crowd was wild with joy while braving simmering sun of Juba.

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We’re currently running a campaign for South Sudanese Australians to encourage them to get tested for hepatitis B. To give some background, our campaign features Doctor Garang Dut, who was born in South Sudan and is now a doctor in Australia. Dr Dut is encouraging everyone from the South Sudanese community to talk to their doctor and get tested for hepatitis B

Get tested, hepatitis B can be treated if it_s found early (PDF)

As many as one in 18 South Sudanese Australians have hepatitis B. If left untreated, one in four of these people will develop liver cancer. The good news is that hepatitis B can be treated if it’s found early.

For more information about the campaign please refer to:


Gok State governor

Gok State Governor relieves and appoints new state government officials

May 15, 2017 (SSB) — Gok state Governor, Madhang Majok Meen, on Saturday this week end has issued an order, relieving state Minister for Agriculture and Forestry, Hon. William Manyuon Wantok and Marial Nyuar Meen from the commissionership of the newly created Anyar Nguan County.

Governor also issued another Order, Appointing William Manyon Wantok as the Commissioner of Anyar Nguan County, Gabriel Akot Chirong as political Advisor, Daniel Awet Majuec as Education Minister replacing John Marik Makur, who had resigned earlier January, 2017 due to lack of accountability and Mismanagement of state resources including road renovation by the state Governor, Joseph Maker Mathiang, a former political Advisor and now appointed as Technical Advisor for Economic, Mario Dongrin Bol, Technical Advisor for Health and Apollo Madok Chol, Technical Advisor for  Education and Angelo Mabor named as Director General for the Ministry of Agriculture .

The positions of Ministry for Agriculture and Security Advisory remain vacant and the reason for changes was not cited in the order. The order comes into effect from 13th May, 2017.

The new changes have been received with mixed reactions, some people said that, the governor has undermined power balance, while others are saying that, some are not the technocrats but accommodated for the sake of self-services delivery.

The opinion expressed here is solely the view of the writer. The veracity of any claim made are the responsibility of the author, not PaanLuel Wël: South Sudanese Bloggers (SSB) website. If you want to submit an opinion article or news analysis, please email it to SSB do reserve the right to edit material before publication. Please include your full name, email address and the country you are writing from.

Becky: The Missing Key

Posted: May 15, 2017 by PaanLuel Wël in Awuol Gabriel Arok, Poems.

By Awuol Gabriel Arok, Juba, South Sudan

John Garang wih the family of Jambo

John Garang wih the family of Jambo

My living ghost; tell the world my distress,

I am alone in the desert, among deadly scorpions,

Their tails like summer’s barks,

My bag is locked; and I have no key to open it;

Yes, Becky; the missing key.

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Communique from Taban-led committee to Jonglei

Communique from Taban-led team to resolve the Dinka-Murle conflict

By Yom Mayen Awan, Bor, South Sudan


Yom Mayen Awan, Bor, South Sudan


May 14, 2017  (SSB) — South Sudan is a country handicapped by the competing interests, a country where truth are hard to be told, a country where political issues are taken as ethnic issues and at the same time where thousands of people died every year.

Currently, there is a question of why we are fighting. It is a bit hard to understand what it is that is behind all these extraordinary death. We should all know that the root cause of these dreadful violent is simple: Political influence.

Political influence has been the greatest hazard to the death of our innocent citizens in the sense that some politicians are taking advantage of these innocent citizens for their own benefits. Listening to our politicians in the name of leaders, their followers and sycophants, you get very worried.

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The End of Bullying, Harassment and Humiliation: The Sacking of Gen. Paul Malong Awan has changed the meaning of Mutiny and Rebellion in South Sudan

By Mayak Deng Aruei, California, USA

Generals Pieng Deng Majok, Paul Malong Awan and Malual Ayom Dor at the Bor Airport during the second liberation of Bor, 2014

Generals Pieng Deng Majok, Paul Malong Awan and Malual Ayom Dor at the Bor Airport during the second liberation of Bor, 2014

May 14, 2017 (SSB) — At a very young age, children are told to remember the Golden Rule: “Treat others how you want to be treated.” The headlines for the news outlets in South Sudan, and in the Region of East Africa was about the sacking of the SPLA (South Sudan) Army Chief of the General Staff. For a country that celebrates nothing other than big names, the firing of General Paul Malong Awan caught millions South Sudanese by surprise.

The actual facts as to what transpired on May 9, 2017 can be traced to fundamental of security in the country. Adding to the fading trust among the high-ranking members of the SPLM & the SPLA, the 32 federal states are proving something else. It was a rumor until General Paul Malong Awan was relieved, his well guarded place couldn’t be infiltrated, all attempts thwarted and “he ran away to Yirol before handing over the office to the incoming Chief of the General Staff” according to the President.

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CMD Rapid Response to Cholera Outbreak in Cattle Camps and around Jiech and Mogok Payams, Ayod County

By CMD Team, Ayod, South Sudan

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

May 14, 2017 (SSB) —- A CMD Rapid Response Team was deployed fast in Ayod County- Jonglei State to respond to cholera outbreak around the cholera camps in Jiech and Mogok Payams. 45 deaths had been reported, 40% of those being children and youth before this swift intervention.

The CMD team is supporting the County Health Department that had been overwhelmed by the number of cases; coupled by lack of supplies and capacity to contain the spread of cholera in the location. The situation is worsened by accessibility challenges as these are hard to reach and often-insecure areas.

A team from CMD responded fast with limited resources, and with the support of the health cluster embarked on collecting samples from suspected patients that were brought to Juba for laboratory tests and examination.

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By Wol Deng Atak, Nairobi, Kenya

Kiir, Ajongo, Kuol, Wani, Awet, Malual Ayom

Kiir, Ajongo, Kuol, Wani, Awet, Malual Ayom

May 13, 2017 (SSB) — I expected National address from President Salva Kiir Mayardit, but instead I heard hate speech against media and the former Chief of Staff. In short the president’s speech was punctuated by numbers of hate remarks and complains rather than directives to the nation.

Kiir’s speech today confirmed that national security in Juba has been acting on his orders to crack down on the media. This is made clear in his reference to media as the causes of violent in South Sudan. Is it, sir?

Perhaps this claim is not true. Surely when President Kiir disagreed and exchanged bitter words with his colleagues at SPLM leading to a bitter fight with his arch rival, Dr. Riek Machar in 2013, did the media give them the choice of words that led to violent confrontations?

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