Pastoral Education Initiative in South Sudan: A constructive approach to create positive social change among the pastoral communities

By Ustaz Abraham Mabior Rioc, Kuajok, Gogrial State

Cattle keeper in Jonglei [photo] Jongkuch Jo Jongkuch

Thursday, September 19, 2019 (PW) — In his own words, one of the great world iconic statesmen Nelson Mandela had pointed out that “Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world”. His popular quotation has been adopted and advanced far and wide by education actors and partners to encourage human kind to purse education exclusively. This is also in line with the commitment of the UN Agencies and other international organizations to posit that education promotes peaceful and inclusive societies as well as preventing conflicts and heals its consequences.

In the context of South Sudan, pastoral communities have been primarily depending on traditional subsistence farming activities for survival, which is discernibly of poor yield. Indeed, some of the pastoral communities in South Sudan include Nuer, Dinka, Murle, Mundari, Atuot, just to mention a few. 

repatriated Dinka Cattle camp in Bor

However, the most striking examples with frequent communal conflicts include Tonj sections among themselves and with their neighboring states such as former unity, former westerner Bahr El Ghazal, and former Lakes states. In the same vein, communal conflicts extended to Twic state with cattle raiders from northern liech state, Aguok and Apuk in the recent years of confrontation which claimed hundreds of lives in Gogrial State as well as Murle versus Dinka Bor, Nuer versus Murle, and Dinka versus Bor, mention them.

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By Zack Mayul, Aweil, South Sudan

Shading the Talent in South Sudan

Thursday, September 19, 2019 (PW) South Sudan, for example, is a free country. By free, we mean really free, not “free”. Don’t get it twisted dear readers. I did not switch off my sanity, yet. So, without mixing things, there are two words that exists; at least here in our case of today: the free and the “free”.  “Free”, for example, is when you say things or do things voluntarily, expecting something in return. I don’t know but Francis Fukyama might categorize it under clientelism.

With “free”, for example, I would be writing on my blog anything that to impress, everything – everyday about STA that’s happening soon in December so that I get nominates as the best blogger or social media enthusiast of the year when they do their selection. On top of that, I have to gang up with the management to shut down any criticism that is directed to them because I know what I will get in return.

This is the “free” I meant. In leadership, if I’m not wrong, this is called affiliate power. This is mostly apply by the people who want themselves associated with certain people of a given standard or class in a society. In the other case of free, you do things from your utmost heart. You expect nothing in return nor should you ever ask for favors. Critical thinking and assertiveness are highly involves when judgments are made in this case: be it in politics, in religion, or business.

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Instead of the controversial 10, 21, 23, 32 or 39 states, South Sudan should be divided into six regions, each headed by Governor General elected by the people with full decentralized or federal powers. The 32 States shall be increased and turned into Counties according to the local available population and size as per local government act

By Kanybil Noon, Juba, South Sudan

Do Not Confuse a Camouflaged Call for Confederation for Call Federalism

Historical Perspective of South Sudan

Wednesday, September 18, 2019 (PW) — Before the Turko-Egyptian invasion of 1821, the Sudan consisted of Kingdoms and tribal communities without modern forms of government as we have today. In other words, Sudan in its present boundaries did not exist. The Turko-Egyptian occupation of 1821 was promoted by the expansionist ambitions of the Ottoman Empire and its craving for wealth and markets. The main commodities of interest were slaves, gold, ivory and timber. South Sudan and her people became the main source of these commodities.

The Turko – Egyptian and the North Sudanese collaborated in their raids against the South Sudan for slaves resulting in millions of South Sudanese people being taken into slavery in the Arab and new World. Although the Turko – Egyptian rule lasted for a period of sixty years, it did not control all the Sudan. South Sudan in particular was not fully brought under the administration of the invading alien power. Similarly, the Mahdist administration of 1883 – 1898 did not succeed to impose its full authority on the whole of South Sudan.

The Belgians in 1892, advancing from the former Belgian Congo (now Zaire), captured Western Equatoria up to Mongalla and established the Lado Enclave as part of the Belgian Congo. During the same period (1892) the French led by Major Marchand occupied large parts of South Sudan (Bahr el Ghazal, Western Upper Nile up to Fashoda) and by 1896 they had established a firm administration in these areas.

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Taking town to the people would have been a good idea if there are no other obstacles

By Athian Aduol Yel, Aweil East State, South Sudan

John Garang, Deng Alor and PM Hamdok of the Sudan during the war of liberation
John Garang, Deng Alor and PM Hamdok of the Sudan during the war of liberation

Wednesday, September 18, 2019 (PW) — The SPLM vision of taking the town to the people rather than people to the town would have potential ideas and well credited by every citizen hence the vision has been interrupted by so many obstacles which give citizens worry some.

The vision of taking the town to the people was derived out from the former chairman of SPLM late Dr. John Garang and it was well said only that, we don’t know up to now whether that vision would have been done on the tribal basis or systematic way of right governance.

I have seen the vision has drawn a mix reaction with different definition which gives low understanding to some citizens across the nation. Though the presidential decree 036 2015 gave more administrative organ which was the wish and vision of the SPLM more things needed to tackle before we move to other stages.

The definition contains different opinion:

1. Taking town to the people means creating more administration organs closer to the people by promoting the junior administrative organ to the highest level with a plan to play the following as the roles of the administrative organ:

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Hypocritical Impersonation by Mr. Luke Thompson in the Meeting of Great Minds at Nile Fortune hotel in Juba, South Sudan

By Hon. Malek Cook-Dwach, Juba-South Sudan

President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019
President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019

Wednesday, September 18, 2019 (PW) — It was last Sunday 8/09/2019 at Nile fortune Hotel in Juba, we had taken a picture with my brothers for weekend recap. That memory photo was posted in Facebook social media and it’s attracted very wonderful commentaries by colleagues and our sympathizers in which we equally applauded to.

On one hand, one guy called Luke Thompson Thoan Teny come-up differently in what appeared in our inbox conversations as tarnished/hypocritical impersonation to disqualify and degrade myself in what the poster regarded as the memory and meeting of great minds! I got to know more about what criteria and attributes in what constitute to be great mind from challenger (Luke Thompson) by asking him question to teach the general public to know about it. The photo consisted of three men and his ambiguous degradation was not specified to whom he was directing his comment to.

In his response to this inquiry; according to him, a person with less great mind is one whose moral uprightness is compromised by materials gains in expense of issues affecting public can’t be regarded to have great mind. I deliberately intended to question the veracity of the statement of the first poster. However, it is true that a human person knows himself/herself better amids millions. My response is that at this juncture, your statement becomes clear and your illustration ran short of what constituted to be great mind. Judging people having great mind couldn’t be determined by political alliances or political different, it is manifested in personal capacity of reasoning and how he/she can construe things at hand. Difference in politics is seasonal and could amount somebody to have great mind or small mind.

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By Prof. Simon El Hag Kulusika, Lusaka, Zambia

President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019
President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019

Wednesday, September 18, 2019 (PW) — The title of this article is both inspiring and speculative.  It is used in response to Media reports, in Juba, telling the inhabitants of the city that Dr. Riek Machar was in the city but departed to safe heaves.  Since Dr. Machar is a key player in the Peace Agreement (PA) that has recently been activated in Khartoum, then his coming to Juba, means Peace is ‘just around the corner’ however his sudden exit betrays this optimism.

To a critical observer, this is merely a spectacle.  Because, Dr. Machar arrived in Juba in the company of foreigners, including Generals from Khartoum Government, rather than Generals, such as Paul Malong, Thomas Cirilo Swaka, Col. Bagosoro, Ikong Mboro, Razakuluwa and so on, who have stakes in the Peace in our country.

Pagan amum, Paul Malong Awan, Thomas Chirillo, Chirino Hiteng and Oyai Deng Ajak launch the South Sudan Opposition Movement in the Netherlands
Pagan amum, Paul Malong Awan, Thomas Chirillo, Chirino Hiteng and Oyai Deng Ajak launch the South Sudan Opposition Movement in the Netherlands

Be it as it may, the people of our country want true Peace, which way or how it may be actualized.  For them coming of Dr, Machar is a first step in the difficult walk to Peace.  But, what are the prerequisites for restoring Peace in our country?  This article tentatively answers this question in this orthodox fashion:

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“What makes one sleepless is one’s own cause.” Says the Nuer.

By Matai Manuoi Muon, Nairobi, Kenya

Riek Machar Teny, the armed rebel leader

The Nuer and Politics

Monday, September 16, 2019 (PW) — The Nuer (formerly Nath) is a significant political unit strategically located at the northern most part of South Sudan. It is the only nation out of more than 63 political units of the world’s nascent country that borders two foreign lands. The Nuer borders Ethiopia in the East and Sudan in the northwest. This is a strategic geographical advantage in political terms. By some measures, the Nuer is the second largest political unit by demography and land mass. The Nuer’s major occupation is farming; cattle herding in particular. Although the Nuer has some tradition in crop farming and fishing, nothing beats the Nuer’s love of and desire for cattle. The rest serves as a supplement to the Nuer’s cow.

In historical context, it was in the Nuerland that the “southern problem” as it was known then was first contextualized. The Nuer’s contributions in political and social foundations of what is now South Sudan does not require a lecture. It is abundant in our national archives. The Nuer, like no any other nation in South Sudan has paid the biggest price before, during and even after the war of struggle. Its proximity to Sudan and Ethiopia both served as a strategic advantage and at the same time, a disadvantage. The war of struggle for example, cost the Nuer heavily both in material and human terms. At the same time, it had opened up the Nuer to the life of modernity especially the eastern and central Nuer.

Riek Machar and his wife, Angelina Teny

The trillion dollar question that begs every analyst for answers then is: why is the Nuer here? Why for over 70 years since the times of John Both Diu, has the Nuer languished in endless political dilemmas? A dilemma is a situation in which one has to make a difficult decision. In this situation, the dilemma for the Nuer is to either diversify their politics or perish altogether as a misled political organism in the 21st century. Let us begin this debate with some rhetoric. If the Nuer does make up such a strategic position in South Sudan, why are they suffering politically? Is it because someone hates the Nuer? Is it because the Dinka does not want the Nuer in leadership? Has the Nuer been cursed into this?

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By Deng Vanang, Kampala, Uganda

President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019
President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019

Sunday, September 15, 19 (PW) — Kiir and Machar have once again warmed up to each other bosoms, at least for now, since this future of unwilling buyer and willing seller business is increasingly less promising. Many are not fooled, except bewitched hard-line followers who resigned themselves to idiocy on every ugly twists and turns of current political dynamics.

Every thinking person knows Kiir signed a peace pact that disregards all reforms elements he never wanted. He detained his archrival Machar and virtually feeds him helpless in his open cell in Khartoum. Only to briefly release him whenever he so wishes to be frogmarched to Juba or Addis before him as he sits up tight and pretty a satisfied man in a mocking mood in dark glasses.

This man is none other than his subdued prisoner rival {Machar} whom he duped into turning on oil tapes which once ran dry. Filled with cash to the brim all pockets of possible fair thinking foreign mediators and would be sympathizers.  He beyond reasonable doubt won the war he fought long and hard for six good years against SPLM/A-IO. What is left of vanquished and disgruntled Machar is total surrender without reservation as evidenced in the recently announced transfer of IO’s H. quarters from Pow state to capital Juba.

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By Biong Deng Biong, Melbourne, Australia

Kerbino Wol Agok and Peter Biar Ajak

Saturday, September 14, 2019 (PW) —- On the 4th December 2012, Isaiah Abraham was tragically gunned down in cold blood outside his residence in the South Sudan capital, Juba. The gunman was apparently ‘unknown’. Many quickly concluded that Abraham’s tragic murder was connected to his habit of openly expressing anti-government opinions. This incident, and many to follow, gave birth to what become the new normal in South Sudan.

The ‘Unknown Gunman’ struck again, on multiple occasions, killing only citizens actively engaged in politics. Recently I wrote a piece equating President Kiir to Nelson Mandela. The reaction I received prompted me to think a lot about citizen-participation in South Sudanese politics. I expected the article to be controversial, aware that I was discussing a sensitive subject, but I was surprised by the reaction to it.

Kerbino Wol Agok and Peter Biar Ajak

While I received overwhelming support through my messenger and emails, my public posts on Facebook did not receive anywhere near the same attention. This raised questions for me around our people’s willingness to participate in South Sudanese Politics. I don’t want to draw conclusions here, but I sense people are not comfortable discussing political issues in public, particularly if the issue is of a sensitive nature. It seems that it is becoming worse and I found myself wondering: are people fed up or scared?

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With the new and friendly government of Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok in the Sudan, President Kiir should revisit the September 2012 Nine Agreements signed between Juba and Khartoum

By Comrade Deng Bol Aruai, Juba, South Sudan

John Garang, Deng Alor and PM Hamdok of the Sudan during the war of liberation
John Garang, Deng Alor and PM Abdalla Hamdok of the Sudan during the war of liberation

Saturday, September 14, 2019 (PW) — With the new and friendly government in the Sudan, I urge President Salva Kiir Mayardit to return to CPA and Post-CPA and Independence arrangements with the Sudan. South Sudan can begin with the Nine Agreements between Sudan and South Sudan as follows. On 27 September 2012, Sudan and South Sudan successfully signed nine agreements on a range of pending issues that they have been negotiating since 2010, initially in accordance with the post-referendum agreement negotiations. The parties have also been engaged in the negotiations of outstanding CPA issues, and have now reached several agreements relating to the CPA and the post secession issues. In this regard, the Embassy has the honor to summarize these nine agreements, as follows:

Sudanese PM Abdalla Hamdok and President Kiir, 13 September JUBA

1. The Agreement on Security Arrangements

This Agreement reaffirms the commitment of the two states to renounce war and to implement all the security agreements and arrangements reached in previous negotiations. There include Agreements relating to the immediate withdrawal of any forces to the side of the border. Specifically, the two states agree to immediately operationalize the Safe Demilitarized Border Zone (SDBZ) in accordance with the administrative and security map, presented to them by the AUHIP in November 2011. The Agreement makes provision for special arrangements for the “14 Mile Area”, which involve the complete demilitarization of the area, overseen by the Joint Political and Security Mechanism (JPSM) and supported by the mechanisms under the JPSM. The parties will maintain the status quo of the joint tribal mechanisms for the resolution of disputes. The parties agree immediately to open the ten agreed border-crossing corridors linking the two states.

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The face-to-face meeting in Juba between President kiir and Dr. Riek Machar has done nothing to break the political deadlock in South Sudan.

Peter Adwok Nyaba, Juba, South Sudan

Thursday, September 12, 2019 (PW) — The arrival in Juba on Monday 9 September, 2019 of Dr. Riek Machar at the head of 69-man delegation, and his meeting with President Salva Kiir did nothing either to break the ice, as observers of the situation expected, or add any value to the work of his Advance Team. If anything, the visit spurred bad memories of the July 2016 fighting in J1, it raised the political temperament to complicate their chemistry of the two men, and indeed clogged the gears of the R-ARCISS implementation machinery. 

Travelling with such a huge delegation with his security guarantor, Mohammed Daglo (Hemiti), who was in Juba on an entirely different mission, Dr. Riek Machar spent three days and returned to Khartoum on Thursday. He had an agenda-less meeting with President Salva Kiir on Wednesday. To observant spectator, the face to face meeting was more of a public relations stint than anything serious warranted by the gravity of the political situation in South Sudan. This is gleaned from the casual and informal the two leaders constituted a committee to follow up on the issues they failed to address. It is not clear whether that unnamed committee would play the role of National Pre-Transitional Commissions. 

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By Samuel Reech Mayen, Juba, South Sudan

President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019
President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019

Thursday, September 12, 2019 (PW) — For a start, this piece is an introduction to the series of articles which the constant readers will be consuming on weekly basis under the theme “Streamlining thoughts and Actions for Peace.” These pieces of writing are purposely for peace building. With the nation still in a fragile state, trapped in deep conflict and hatred, the citizens are divided along ethnic and regional lines. There is no trust amongst the people. The notion of “us versus them” defines the relations amongst the citizens.

The propaganda continues to fuel the conflict. This situation has paralyzed and retarded the economy and social progress. To join the voices which are committed to address and mitigate these issues, I have chosen the above theme to help the readers think for the betterment of this country. Human actions are driven by thoughts. Those who think positively act in a similar manner and vice versa. Thoughts affect a society in form of actions. As we begin the journey of reading the series of articles which will be appearing in this column weekly, I urge readers to embrace peace as a mechanism for recovery from the devastations of war.

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By Clement Maring Samuel, Kampala, Uganda

Pagan amum, Paul Malong Awan, Thomas Chirillo, Chirino Hiteng and Oyai Deng Ajak launch the South Sudan Opposition Movement in the Netherlands
Pagan amum, Paul Malong Awan, Thomas Chirillo, Chirino Hiteng and Oyai Deng Ajak launch the South Sudan Opposition Movement in the Netherlands

Wednesday, September 11, 2019 (PW) — When I read a tripartite agreement signed by Gen. Thomas Cirilo; Gen. Pagan Amum Okiech; and Gen. Paul Malong Awan who represented their parties of SSNDA; R-SPLM, and SSUF in the Netherlands on August 30th 2019, it was a surprise to see Gen. Thomas Cirilo Swaka succumbing to the philosophy of “the enemy of my enemy is my friend”. At last he has come to realization that joining hands with a political foe is strength. NAS has swallowed its bitter pills of describing some Equatorians who join hands with Gen. Paul Malong weirdly. When the FDS were arrested in Juba and kept in detention for couple of weeks, it was Dr. Riak Machar who heralded for their release, but after they were released, they abandoned him and treated him as a war monger disregarding the effort he did for them. Their decision has led to prolongation of the war. Had they join hands together with Dr. Riak Machar; the war would have ended long time ago. They haven’t use the philosophy of the enemy of my enemy is my friend.  

When Dr. Riak Machar was detained in South Africa, the SPLM-IO became a standstill Movement. In this period, on 27th March 2018, SSUF conceives eleven members from Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile to form a revolutionary Movement. These eleven members constitute the founding body of SSUF/A. On 28th March 2018, SSUF gave birth to a new Movement called “South Sudan united Front and Army (SSUF/A)” in Nairobi, Kenya. After its formation, the members chose Gen. Paul Malong Awan from greater Bahr el Ghazal as Chairman and commander in Chief. SSUF/A was committed to remove the regime in Juba militarily and the task requests joint efforts from all opposition forces which took arms against Juba regime. Gen. Paul Malong relied heavily to make alliance with Gen. Pagan Amum Okiech; Gen. Oyai Deng Ajak; and Gen Thomas Cirilo including the non armed groups headed by Gabriel Sangsong Sang. There wasIntellectual resistance from SSOA members who described Gen. Malong as an uneducated leader to ally with. Besides, they were afraid of being targeted by TROIKA on the issue of sanction of Gen Paul Malong. The long awaited Generals made SSUF/A a standstill Mill which delayed the Military and political structures. This contributed to the founding members of SSUF leaving the Movement like Ambassador Telar, Lino Ajang, Clement Maring, Ambassador Lumumba, Elly Magok, Ambassador Ayok, and Simon Wieu, later followed by Ustaz Lewis Anei.

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By Biong Deng Biong, Melbourne, Australia

Salva Kiir Mayaardit: The Joshua of South Sudan. Grab your copy at Amazon.com

Monday, September 9, 2019 (PW) — There is no reservation that Nelson Mandela was a great leader, but how does President Kiir fair? More often, we focus on the negative performance of leaders while forgetting 70% plus of their largely positive actions. Consequently, we end up creating a leader of our own imaginings rather than enabling a potentially great leader to thrive. In this piece, I aim to pit President Kiir against a strong leader like Nelson Mandela and determine if Kiir has the capacity to steer his nation with the same power and purpose as the South African revolutionary. I hope that this will help to identify areas of improvement for President Kiir and more importantly, identify where his energy needs to be focused in order to rescue his legacy. And so, the real question is, is it too late or still possible for Kiir to become the Nelson Mandela of South Sudan? I offer my thoughts on the matter below.

It costed Nelson Mandela his entire life, his family, friends, comrades and often his patience to undertake what later became the greatest political legacy of the modern era. In 1994, while in Kakuma refugee camp, members of SPLA/M staged a large screen in a field in Kakuma for us to watch the inaugural of Nelson Mandela elected as the first black President of South Africa. I did not know who he was at the time but the admiration he elicited from our leaders compelled me to find out more. I soon discovered he was an exemplary leader to those fighting the freedom struggle in South Sudan before her independence. Hence, we can compare the mighty Mandela to our own leader.

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Young people who lived in Kakuma Refugee Camp will remember uncle Aquila as a senior teacher, leader, mentor and a wise elder who was supportive of their educational needs even in bad times. The cause of death was a motorcycle’s accident in Uganda while he was processing a visa to Australia to attend the wedding of his son. He was hit by a motorcycle, and was admitted to the hospital with serious injuries that later claimed his life.” South Sudanese Australian Radio journalist, Ajak Deng Chiengkou

By Atem Yaak Atem, Gosford, Australia

Ustaz Aquila Kelei Madol
Ustaz Aquila Kelei Madol

Sunday, September 8, 2019 (PW) — I have been saddened by the news of the passing of Aquila Kelei Madol. The veteran school teacher lost his life through a road accident this week. Aquila Kelei was my contemporary at Malek Elementary, Atar Intermediate and Rumbek Secondary School, respectively.

In those schools, he was one class ahead of me. A kind and friendly student, Aquila condemned and refrained from bullying, which was a common phenomenon in schools those days.

For example, at Malek, older and stronger students terrorised the younger boys among entrants from what were known as bush schools. The arrivals were dubbed as “New Boys”, and in Atar as “Blue Boys”.

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The Legends of Dinka: A double orphan who rose from the ashes of poverty

By Kur Wël Kur, Adelaide, Australia

Aesop’s Fables in Dinka, translated by Atem Yaak Atem

Saturday, September 7, 2019 (PW) — In a century, 10 years shy ago, a widow, the mother of four sons, suffered from a crippling sickness. She wallowed in a rheumatism, and she couldn’t care for her four sons. Her sons were 12, 10, 8 years and 6-months old. For several years, the degenerative disease deteriorated her health to the point that she couldn’t move by herself.

Her eldest son would help her move. A lot of her duties such as pounding and milling sorghum grains, farming and weeding, tidying and maintaining her homestead were passed on to her next two sons automatically. The two sons who were 10 and 8 years old were overwhelmed by the duties. So, some duties slipped out of their responsibilities. Their family’s hut in which their mother was immobilised on her sickbed was caving in. Her older son would prop up the falling side with logs.

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Image  —  Posted: September 6, 2019 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Junub Sudan


Setting records straight: Press Statement from the Disbanded National Revenue Authority (NRA) Board

salary

Introduction

Friday, September 06, 2019 (PW) — We the members of the defunct NRA Board of Directors wish to express our gratitude to the President and the entire government for the opportunity to serve as the founding Board of NRA. We have served our country with honor and dignity and as a team, we have been committed to advance the reform agenda of the President and in doing so, we have for the first time, managed to mobilize our people to voluntarily pay their taxes to the government.

We have also closed so many loopholes and as we speak, public money is not leaking as it used to be. We have also mobilized international support for the reform in the country and for the first time, international organizations have been paying taxes. We have pursued with diligence, the East African Community integration process and we were moving closer meeting our Custom Union and Common Market obligations under the EAC Accession Treaty.

The press statement is released to clarify to the public what actually happened at the NRA, and why Commissioner General and the Board were fired by the Hon. Minister of Finance & Planning. This is warranted because the Ministerial Orders terminating the services of the Board and the Commissioner General did not specify the reasons for the Minister’s decision. However, in recent engagements with the media, the Minister opened up to explain why he took the decision. Being party to the affairs of the NRA, we strongly feel that the President and the public would be well-served by setting the records straight.

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“In this polarized and polarizing conflict, perceptions can overshadow reality, and whatever the equation of the power structures, the Dinka are being seen as having replaced the Arabs as the rulers in an ethnically unjust system. As the various ethnic groups converge against what they perceive as Dinka domination, the Dinka in turn begin to perceive themselves as targeted and paradoxically as in imminent danger of a genocidal onslaught. They therefore strive to mobilize themselves in self-defense.” – Dr Francis Mading Deng – SOUTH SUDAN NATIONAL DIALOGUE; Conceptual Reflections page 43