Archive for the ‘Health’ Category

Al-Sabah Children’s Hospital in Juba: A shocking experience of the dilapidated state of healthcare system in the Republic of South Sudan

By Rajab Mohandis, Juba, South Sudan

A view of Juba City, South Sudan

Tuesday, April 2, 2019 (PW) — Al-Sabah Children’s Hospital is the largest and one of the best-funded children’s health centers in South Sudan. Unfortunately, it could also be ranked as one of the most poorly manned healthcare centers in the country. I chose to go public because of my shocking and sad experience with this hospital. May be this alarm will help save one life.

I had no knowledge of the level of ineffectiveness of health facilities in Juba until I had a practical experience trying to save the life of my child. My little son was born on March 12, 2019 at a health center in Gudele, a suburb of Juba City. The midwife who attended to my wife refused to accept my sister and a couple of elderly female relatives who wanted to witness the birth of the child and provide any help during the delivery. This particular midwife was unprofessional and very arrogant.

I am told this is a common behavior among midwives in Juba. Unfortunately, I have heard of terrible experiences of women on labour in the hands of these midwives.


By Ayuen J. Awan, Juba, South Sudan

HIV-AIDS prevention: Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

Monday, November 26, 2018 (PW) — I was in one of clinics in Juba couple of months ago for routine HIV test, something I do after every end of three months to establish my status on this incurable epidemic posing threat to human lives in the world today. It is advisable by medics to test after every three months because new HIV infections become detectable by lab tests after that period. In 2017, there were 36.9 million people living with HIV in the world, of which 180,000 were from South Sudan.

Although there is no data clearly comparing prevalence of HIV in villages and towns, it can be basically assumed that the disease is evenly distributed among populations. Regional data show greater disparity depending on geographical location and the nature of neighborhood. South Sudan population movement is very dynamic – producing a uniform mix of urban and rural people – living side-by-side, socializing, sexualizing and trading together throughout the year, in towns and villages.

Even without such data, it is still extensively held in South Sudan that town people are more exposed to HIV than the rural inhabitants who live in villages and informal settlements like cattle camps and fishing grounds. This is a notion more ingrained particularly in villagers which the urbanites also uphold leading to the rise in the demand for village girls over their civilized and educated counterparts in urban areas. Villagers strongly believe that AIDS is endemic to Urban settings just like urbanites believe that virgin girls are in the village.


By Ater Yuot Riak (PhD), Juba, South Sudan


Wednesday, September 5, 2018 (PW) — The American Oil Company Chevron discovered the oil in Southern Sudan at the end of 1970s and tried to utilize it. However, in 1984 the company stopped its activities because of the war that stared in 1983 between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). During fighting, the government of Sudan used not to consult with local communities when oil companies want to work in their villages. After the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) which was signed in 2005, these practices had stopped and communities are consulted when their land is to be used by the oil companies.

After independence in 2011, South Sudan holds more than 75% of the total oil reserves of the previous Sudan. New consortia (operating companies) were formed for oil production and further exploration. South Sudan created Nile Petroleum Corporation (NILEPET) to replace Sudan Petroleum Corporation (SUDAPET) in consortia. With Dar Petroleum Operating Company (DPOC) operating in Northern Upper Nile State, Sudd Petroleum Operating Company (SPOC) and Greater Pioneer Operating Company (GPOC) are operating in Ruweng State and Northern Liech State respectively.

Oil fields facilities were built in the areas of Melut, Pariang and Tharjath. These facilities include, rigs, pipelines, roads, oil base camps (OBC), wells, electrical power lines, power plant, oil manifold gatherings (OGM), airports, etc. All these facilities were built on communities’ lands as a result they were forced to leave their lands and villages to oil companies. Usually, communities who lost their lands and villages relocate to nearby villages. In new residents, they are not allowed to own a land but only build houses or cultivate. Some communities relocate to nearby towns where they experience difficulties in coping with the urban life that includes owning a plot, schools for children in addition to the daily live expenses.


HIV/AIDS is Real; Don’t COMPROMISE your life away

Posted: August 20, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Health, Junub Sudan


By Alaak Daniel Atem, Juba, South Sudan

Monday, August 20, 2018 (PW) — First of all I want to applaud those who openly discussed the recent trend and report on the number of people living with HIV virus in Jonglei state in particluar, knowledgeably or ignorantly. Knowledgeably, I mean people who have tested and are aware about their status and taking medication or being taken care of by health professionals. Ignorantly, I mean those who are living with the virus without knowing. You can only know about your HIV status only through Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT).

I know there is a lot of stigma in our society in regards to how we deal with people living with HIV. There are still a lot of assumptions about HIV, other believe that it is caused by being bewitched or bad luck. While others believe that it doesn’t exist, that it is a conspiracy by he west to discourage sex. Notably, there are no guiding principles governing sex worldwide though there are some cultural norms to be adhered to depending on a particular community you are dealing with.

It is absurd that sex education and reproductive health is still treated as obscene and taboo in our community that has encountered a lot of dynamic changes due to our exposure to different parts of the world with diverged cultures. Our natural culture of #TRUST has always put us to the edge of the world’s deadliest stuff like diseases and worst part of civilizations. (more…)

By Pal Chol Nyan, Juba, South Sudan


Diktoor Dau Riak, Palotaka

March 29, 2018 (SSB) — Thank you brother Michael Koma for your kind compliments. We appreciate your acknowledgment of the services we offer to our needy people especially the sick for which we have been trained. The Administration is grateful to the Dawn newspaper for advertising how we render the medical services.

We didn’t just choose to treat people out kindness. It is our noble profession with rules governing us in how we carry out our medical duties.

Medical ethics and Hippocratic Oath provide that practicing medicine is first and foremost about saving lives. The money comes second. Sick people deserve to be treated without fear or favour. That is what the Hai Mawuna Medical team is trying to do. The Administration of Mawuna Medical Complex understands and knows the current imposed economic hardships the people face.


By Pal Chol Nyan, Juba, South Sudan

HIV-AIDS prevention: Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

March 26, 2018 (SSB) — With war and hunger; everything is possible. We cannot be surprised to see the ills now happening. Poverty is the cause of all evils. It is the cost of prostitution which brings about transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections.

It is good to bring it to the attention of those who want to live long that it is not only HIV/AIDS that is sexually transmitted. Hepatitis B and C are also transmitted through sex, blood transfusion and sharing of sharp needles just like HIV/AIDS. They have different ways of leading to death. B causes liver cirrhosis and C causes cancer of the liver.

There are also other sexually transmitted infections like syphilis and gonorrhea besides other viral infections sexually transmitted too. They are many. We need to be careful and stick to our partners. Why do people want to die when they know the cause?  I know we are mortals and will eventually die no matter how long we live on earth but let us help God to safeguard our lives.


By Philip Thon Aleu, Juba, South Sudan

food poisoning in Bor1food poisoning in Bor2


Bleeding Eye Fever Outbreak Kills Three in South Sudan, One in Uganda

Posted: January 15, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Health, Junub Sudan

‘BLEEDING Eye Fever’ that’s deadlier than the plague has killed four and infected dozens in East Africa, as health chiefs warn the spread could be “catastrophic”.

Bleeding Eye Fever kills three people in South Sudan

The horrific new disease could be about to bring fresh misery to the continent – so soon after the deadly Ebola outbreak of 2014-16.

Fears are growing that the deadly disease could spread across Africa

The virus – which leaves people bleeding from their eyes, mouth, and anus – is thought to be spreading in South Sudan.

Three people have already died – a pregnant woman, a teenage boy and a teenage girl – in Eastern Lakes State.

Up to 60 people are now feared to be infected, and are each undergoing tests by a team from the Sudanese healthy ministry and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

And medics are now concerned they are on the verge of a health emergency —  worse that the Black Death outbreak last year — after the sudden death of a child in the Nakaseke district of neighbouring Uganda.

A child’s death has sparked fears of deadly new plague with dreadful symptoms

The nine-year-old girl died after displaying the nightmarish symptoms of the extremely infectious virus that kills up to 40 per cent of those affected.

And tests have now confirmed she died from the disease – officially named Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever – according to Xinhua news agency.

The disease is transmitted to humans through tick bites, or through contact with the blood of infected animals especially during slaughter.

By Pal Chol Nyan, Juba, South Sudan

tribalism in rss

October 25, 2017 (SSB) — Medical profession is like any other discipline. Medicine is an evidence-based practice to diagnose and treat diseases. It is therefore not meant to generate wealth; mammon. It is humanitarian and those who practice it must show love and trust, they must be humble, co-operative and not be hot-tempered. That is what is translated that doctors should not get angry which is wrong. They have sentiments.

Those are, among others, the desired characteristics and qualities of somebody who practices medicine. They show remorse. They care and put themselves in the place of the sick. Medics do not prevent death. They save and try to prolong lives. As you are well aware, they die too. They are immortals and have their weaknesses.

They practice their profession guided by medical ethics and Hippocratic Oath. The purpose of writing this is to inform the people, those enslaved by ignorance, that doctors have no divine powers to block and prevent the superpowers of the Omnipotent God from calling His subjects; when and where necessary.


The Tragedy of Hepatitis B among the South Sudanese people

Posted: August 5, 2017 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Health, Junub Sudan

By Adol Akuei, Eldoret, Kenya

Adol Akuei

Adol Akuei

August 5, 2017 (SSB) — “The secret of good health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, not to worry about the future, or not to anticipate troubles, but to live the present moment wisely and earnestly.”

It is with deep sympathy and empathy that I am writing this article address to the public based on; the ongoing sufferings of our people back home. This is especially in the health sector, not political sector or rather arena as you may think of it.

Besides, it is mainly to create awareness unto the victims and those that are in the status of being “victims” of this disease that I called “the second HIV/AIDS”, that is HEPATITIS. It has been reported that the disease is quite rampant in our country and it needs direct address and awareness since most of our people are melting away with their hope buried in the stigma of the disease and would rather think that all is done and that they can easily die.


Deadly Cholera Outbreak in Jiech and Mogok Payams of Ayod County

Posted: May 14, 2017 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Health, Junub Sudan

CMD Rapid Response to Cholera Outbreak in Cattle Camps and around Jiech and Mogok Payams, Ayod County

By CMD Team, Ayod, South Sudan

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May 14, 2017 (SSB) —- A CMD Rapid Response Team was deployed fast in Ayod County- Jonglei State to respond to cholera outbreak around the cholera camps in Jiech and Mogok Payams. 45 deaths had been reported, 40% of those being children and youth before this swift intervention.

The CMD team is supporting the County Health Department that had been overwhelmed by the number of cases; coupled by lack of supplies and capacity to contain the spread of cholera in the location. The situation is worsened by accessibility challenges as these are hard to reach and often-insecure areas.

A team from CMD responded fast with limited resources, and with the support of the health cluster embarked on collecting samples from suspected patients that were brought to Juba for laboratory tests and examination.


The drug, meant to protect HIV-negative people from contracting the virus, is targeted at high-risk groups

By DOROTHY OTIENO, May 1, 2017

HIV-AIDS prevention: Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

Sexually active young women and girls aged 15 to 24 are among the high-risk groups targeted in the May 4 rollout of a new method meant to protect HIV-negative people from contracting the virus.

The approach, known as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), involves people at high risk of contracting HIV taking an antiretroviral pill, Truvada, daily to lower their chances of getting infected.

“By having these medications in the bloodstream, HIV may be unable to establish infection,” said Dr Elizabeth Irungu from the Partners Scale-up Project.

Truvada costs Sh3,700 per month and its generic equivalent is Sh413.

However, the cost of access is higher due to transport cost, consultation and laboratory fees.


Ministry of Health in Collaboration with South Sudan HIV/AIDS Commission Organized one Day Participatory Workshop in Bor- Jonglei State

By Achiek de Mabior, Bor, Jonglei state


April 21, 2017 (SSB) — Jonglei State Ministry of Health in Collaboration with HIV/AIDS Commission Conduct one Day Consultative Workshops in Bor town, the workshops is aiming at the State and County level for the NSP review/Development and Dialogue for GF application. Dr Achol, the D/Chairperson for the HIV/AIDS Commission in South Sudan call upon the Citizen of South Sudan and Jonglei state in Particular to give the Generation of this time a chance to enjoy their live but should be protected such that they remain alive for the next Generation.

Dr Achol further said that, the most Dangerous place in Juba with high Population with HIV/AIDS infection is Shirkhat, and the most people who are staying in Shirkat are the people from this State of Jonglei and they think that they are save from the Disease while most of the people have contracted it from the bordering areas of Nimule, Kaya, Nadapal, Uganda, Kenya and DR Congo, Dr Achol call upon the citizen of Jonglei State through their Participants to provide theirs Sons and Daughters with Condoms such that they can be able to protect themselves from the Dangerous Disease (HIV/AIDS)


It takes more than one person to transmit HIV. It takes more than one person to fight HIV. Affected or infected this is our fight. Let’s come together to fight HIV. KNOW YOUR STATUS Today. Together we can combat HIV.

By “Together We Can”, Juba, South Sudan

December 12, 2016 (SSB) — HIV/AIDS: HIV stand for human immunodeficiency virus, HIV can lead to the disease call AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Unlike some others viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely. So once you have HIV, you have it for life.

HIV attacks the body immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cell), which help the immune system fight off infection. If left untreated, it reduces the number of T cell in the body, making person more likely to get infections, over time it can destroy so many cell that body can’t fight off infections and diseases.

These infections are called opportunistic infections or diseases. Cancer take advantage of weak system too, and this is when a person develop AIDS, it the last state of HIV INFECTIONS.


Joint Commentary by Dr. Thoi and Diktoor Pal Chol, Juba, South Sudan


Stop assuming

September 16, 2016 (SSB) — Comment by Dr. Loi: There is no medical diagnosis known as “Malaria typhoid” in the conventional medicine. Please be careful in terms of where you go for treatment in Juba. It is very unfortunate that South Sudan Medical Council is silence about the malpractices in the country. Malaria is a parasitic disease transmitted to human by mosquito. Typhoid is a bacterial infection acquired through dinking contaminated drink or eating   contaminated food.

Avoid mosquito and you will not get malaria. Ensure that you drink clean water and eat clean, well cooked food and you will not experience symptoms and signs of typhoid in your entire life. Those who are inventing a new medical diagnosis known as “malaria typhoid” need to check their medical knowledge and probably check their medical qualification as well.


“There comes a time when the nation is more important than an individual,” said former vice president of Kenya, Professor George Saitoti.

By Pal Chol Nyan, Juba, South Sudan

Interns helping the wounded at Juba Teaching Hospital

May 29, 2016 (SSB)  —-  In a surprise move and according to a well-placed source, the Health Authority circulated a strongly worded letter to all the Heads of Departments in Juba Teaching Hospital directing them, with threats of a carrot and stick policy in case of non-compliance, not to allow the interns to practice in Juba Teaching Hospital. To quote it verbatim, the letter reads” The house officers are not allowed to practice in Juba Teaching Hospital until further notice”. The house-officers or interns by definition are the fresh graduates from the medical school or college of Medicine who are therefore required by law to do a rotational training in the hospitals under the supervision of a senior medical officer or a consultant for a specified period of time to qualify them to become medical officers or competent medical practitioners.

When you graduate from the college of medicine, you have got to do, as an obligation, a clinical training for you to efficiently attain skills in the basics of medicine, paediatric, obstetrics/ gynaecology and surgery. After finishing all the shifts, in principle, you sit for exams and once you pass, you are thereafter registered as a qualified and a proficient medical officer or General Medical Practitioner (GP)/Clinician. Therefore, you can decide whether or not, you want to go and specialize after having acquired enough knowledge or experiences. You cannot be called a medical officer once you just graduate and have not gone through this channel.


By David Matiop Gai, Kampala, Uganda

Nuer white army

South Sudan Rebels: Nuer White Army Fighters

January 26, 2016 (SSB) — With the long suffering and pain of civil war in the Sudan, the longest civil war in Africa, millions of South Sudanese lived with different types of mental illness, and mental health problems such as alcoholic addiction, drugs addiction, personality disorder, defense mechanism or representing problems, social anxiety, insecure and fears, nightmare, survival of rape, and family dysfunctional. All these huge problems were not handled and addressed after comprehensive peace agreement (CPA) in 2005 until today in 2016.

The reasons why are demands of psycho-social counseling remained as the main factor for South Sudan today than tomorrow is because a healthy mind is life; a healthy mind is wealth, and a power point for development. Always sound-minded, mental health and physical fitness, and normality of mind are incorporate development of individuals, families, and the country.  Dr. John Garang said in the past that, “Weak people represent weak government, because where will government get its resources without people?” which mean healthy people in term of brain functioning produce strong productions of government ability. It is also correct to mention that mental treatment is part of government priority when healthy minds know what to do, and not to do, and if South Sudan wants healthy people in the country, they should go along this treatment otherwise the whole nation is not healthy in mind.


By Lino Lual Lual, Juba, South Sudan


The city of Juba, South Sudan

December 6, 2015 (SSB)  —  Water is essential for human life and environmental as the source of life development on earth. Life is tied so much to water, air and food, while food is tied to water too, but their both shortage are becoming a global issue due to increasing of population and climate change which need new strategies sources of water beside its efficient use together with conservation measures to be an important component of the country’s national water plan.

There are major huge of demanding water resources in South Sudan’s population growth, in industrial development, expansion of irrigated agriculture, massive urbanization and rising standards of living. However, half of the world’s rivers and lakes are seriously polluted of the waterways and surrounding river basins have created millions of environmental refugees. Some of the world’s biggest cities like Beijing, Dhaka, and Mexico City depend heavily on groundwater for their water supply.


The Trouble with Handshake (Greeting) in the Era of Ebola

Posted: October 21, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Health, Malith Alier

By Malith Alier, Juba

President Kiir and Museveni in Kampala, October 2014

President Kiir and Museveni at the state house, Entebbe, October 2014

In South Sudan, one can encounter tens or even a hundreds of handshakes in a good day like Sunday or SPLA Day celebrations.

Greeting through handshake is an induced affair among family, friends and colleagues as a gesture of social “meeting of the minds.” It goes beyond acceptance and understanding across humanity.

Greeting as a social tool for communication can be done in various ways. It can be through hand wave, signal, verbal or handshake.

It happened that handshake is preferable to all these other mode of passing good wishes. Handshake and bodily contact are very common among close friends and family members who have stayed apart without seeing each other for quite some time. It is not uncommon to see a couple patting their backs with their chests in complete contact. Seen at this portrait, the ones in such contact are in complete meeting of minds as in business agreement. Some people kiss one another as is the case with Ethiopians. Other people or societies have the habit to tapping their fingers in unison to show rhythm.

This writer went to a courtship one day in Juba and was mesmerised by ladies from Ngok Lual Yak who insisted that we should tap our thumbs in the way they do it in that community. This style of greeting made us refresh our traditional handshake to something worth remembering for life.

The handshake we have come to cherish so much has its dangers as exhibited by the recent outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa. Specifically, the countries of Liberia, sera Leone, guinea among others have known that the virus is spread through body fluid like sweat, saliva and other fluids.

The Ebola outbreak reverberates throughout the world and many people originating from West Africa, the epicentre of the virus carry it to far away nations like Belgium, USA and France. This has prompted many countries, South Sudan included, to take precautionary measures against the deadly super virus.

Last Tuesday, the government of South Sudan through a Council of Ministers resolution, banned handshake as a precaution against Ebola virus. Whether the ban will be observed by anyone is another matter altogether considering the fact that the masses have come to live with handshake for very long. For South Sudanese society, refusal to shake hands is considered mean.

This year, the country experienced the outbreak of cholera for the first time since CPA. Cholera is another contagious disease just like Ebola. It can be spread through contact with a patient and kills within a short period if not treated.

Shaking hands further comes with other nuisances like waste of time as well as being an obstacle to other people in public places. On many occasions, individuals who bump into each other would stand just where they met to shake hand and exchange a few words about everything though trivial.

The West African nations are well aware of those dangers associated with shaking hands. Particular individuals who have no custom of using hankies or serviettes blow and rub their noses and swipe the fluid on their clothes. This category of people is the one quick to offer “free” handshake with anyone without warning.

Stories abound about some people who have fore knowledge of the dangers of handshake and decided to use gloves or handkerchiefs to protect themselves from the people above. These self conscious people are often ridiculed for being aware of the unintended consequences of shaking dirty hands. To them, their motto is caveat emptor or simply let the buyer beware.

However, this approach is absentmindedly used against them by complacent traditional supporters of handshake.

Perhaps it is now time to consider further measures beyond handshake. Some people have already decided not to share beds with partners until their country is totally declared free of Ebola.

Final precaution; don’t drink too much, you might forget yourself and unknowingly come in to contact with Ebola carrier travellers in the pubs!


By Malueth Jacob Guet

Our south Sudanese society and especially the dinka are deeply immersed in many superstitious beliefs.they have been tied/glued to these beliefs to the extent that any enlightened person /scientist finds it very hard to demystify such long held beliefs as such individuals have and continue to live in fear.

Some of them are harmful because they create unnecessary fear while others are harmless. Here are some of the major superstitious beliefs in Dinka & by the way some of these are common across many tribes in South Sudan

‘Peeth/ Beny e nyin’: it is widely believed by many dinka that some people have evil eyes/ piercing eyes.these people who are called apeeth are thought to be the causes of diseases/ such they believe they can put gravels into someone’s eyes to make that person blind or into the stomach to make her/him have abdominal discomfort

When a epidemic strikes like the current cholera outbreak in Juba, it’s considered a curse from the deadancestors which might be angry for one reason or the other

Sudden death is explained as the work of an evil, jealous brother, relative, friend, former business associate or a perceived curse by angry grand parents

When any person experiences visual or auditory hallucinations (seeing things and hearing sounds that are not real , its believed he /she is being tormented by angry dead relatives , in laws , parents, for not either carrying out certain obligations or other reasons

When a person is born with any gross congenital abnormality like deformed fingers, ears, six fingers, they call it ‘chieek’. The elders usually go head to carry out a ritual to appease ‘chieek’ less the child dies

Some of the minor ones are

Don’t cross the body of a person lying down or you will be wishing her /him death

Don’t whistle at night or you will invite ‘kaa pinny’ or snakes

When you stumble using your right or left foot , something bad or good awaits you some where

Don’t beat a child with a broom or child becomes a bed wetter and to stop the bed wetting habit, cane the child using electric fish (deer)

If your teeth fall off, throw them on top of a roof ( i have forgotten why )

That when a child fails exams , it’s the result of someone’s evil plan against the child or jealousy of a co-wive , relatives

An itchy hand means you will soon touch some money / get some money from relatives/friends

When one’s ear rings , there’s someone talking about them some where or some one is backbiting them

Burry a razor blade at your goal post during a match and you wont conced a goal

These are just a few of the many superstitions. I guess most of those who grew up in rural settings in south Sudan might have heard some if not all. I don’t blame our people because superstitions have been there for centuries for example the Italians thought malaria was caused by bad air hence the name ‘MAL’ meaning bad and ‘aria’ meaning air. How ever some are harmless while others are not.

Take for example peeth ,an irrational explanation for cause of some diseases . you get a person who has a staphyloma ,cataract that may require surgical treatment or stomach discomfort that may be sign of irritable bowel syndrome , gastric ulcers , chron’s disease, ulcerative colitis but he/she may instead seek attention from witch doctor therefore not getting the required medical intervention from a qualified health personnel at the right time.

Take another example: an alcoholic, orphaned young man (Deng) in his 20’s, traumatisedby the decades long Sudanese civil war and death of her fiancée,…who begins to present with bizarrebehaviour, aggressiveness together with visual , auditory , olfactory hallucinations( seeing , hearing ,smelling things that are not there).

Though this could be a possible psychiatric case/ schizophrenic case, the relatives may think that Deng is being tormented by his grandparents that he didn’t burry in 1991…further saying the people Deng is seeing are his grandparents. very absurd!

The resulting effect of such beliefs is health care is delayed then finally health denied to the one who’s in need…. It is therefore of paramount importance to educate our people, sensitise them through awareness programs.

Tell them that diseases /illnesses are caused by microbes (small living organisms) and body’s physiological changes. When we don’t get rid of such, we are still a long way from achieving proper health care