Archive for the ‘Featured Articles’ Category


By HON AROP MADUT AROP (MP), Juba, South Sudan

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July 26, 2016 (SSB) — In part one of my previous article, I discussed briefly, the need for south Sudanese to reorganise themselves politically and ideologically. The first article discussed, also urged South Sudanese politicians to find a rallying point, a factor that will bring all their amalgam of nationalities together, as we move our young country forward to progress and prosperity. In this second part of my article, as food for thought, I will discuss two other factors as food for thought for our politicians; the new and the old. The first section of the article is urging politicians to avoid schism and bickering in their political parties. This is because of the negative impact the political bickering and schism bring to bear on the people they intend to lead.

The second section will also discuss two detrimental cultures in our society of: an injury to one is an injury to all and revenge killing. As promised in my previous article, I am making this piece again as food for thought to political party leaders in the hope that they will be incensed and desist from causing violence among members of their society through bickering and schism; as the sufferers caused by their political disenchantment and wrangling on both sides in the political spectrum are their innocent voters who would vote them into power in any future general elections. Below we discuss two sections, political Bickering and its implications and the culture of unwarranted collective fights as well as revenge killing which have been stemmed out in many civilised countries of the world.

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This is the preface to the second edition of “South Sudan: The State we aspire to” by Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba, sent to us for publication by Keji-Keji Mayomism from Melbourne, Australia

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July 24, 2016 (SSB) — “It was on 8 August 2005. We were leaving the burial ground – now renamed Dr. John Garang Memorial Grounds – immediately after the burial of Dr Garang’s remains. A senior member of the SPLM Leadership Council (name withheld), in a very exhausted voice, said to me “Garang was a very lucky man.” I tried to extract the meaning of these words but the man could not reply. This left me bewildered.

“How can one be lucky in death?” I thought to myself. Perhaps what my colleague meant was that Garang had not lived to watch the edifice (SPLM/A) he constructed come tumbling down like a house of cards. The sudden and tragic death of Dr Garang disorganised and disoriented the SPLM leaders. The SPLM leadership started to show cracks in its ranks even as they were still making the funeral arrangements.

Dr Garang died before achieving complete reconciliation with Gen. Salva Kiir following the fallout that was the Yei crisis. The conference fudged the matter. The two leaders acted tactically, marking time until the disaster struck. The drivers of the Yei crisis remained active, and with the death of Dr Garang, they took centre stage of the SPLM and the government of Southern Sudan. The realignment of forces inside the SPLM triggered internal contradictions.

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To wage a revolution is to annihilate what is bad, and build what is good…our revolutionary work is, therefore not yet completed, because these evils still undermine and sabotage the constructive process of the revolution’’ Ho Chi Minh, 1952

By Dak Buoth, Nairobi, Kenya

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July 23, 2016 (SSB) — You may have heard ideologies such as Nyayoism in Kenya, Fidelismo in Cuba, Garveyism in Jamaica and Moaism in China and so on and so forth. Ngundengism is an indigenous political thought. If you listen keenly and look at the prevailing circumstances and the ongoing events in South Sudan since we attained independence five years ago, one must come to an agreement that ‘Ngundengism ideology’ has evolved from simple African religious faith to a complex political ideology whose cardinal objectives include inter alia; to restore or to change the present regime by all means available at their disposals.

This radical notion conform with Frederick Watkins suggestion that ideologies comes entirely from the political extremes, that ideologies are always opposed to the status quo, and they tend to proposed an abrupt change in the existing order; therefore they’re ever militant, revolutionary, and violent to some extent.

In any event, political change is very complex subject, and we must all learn four things about change, First we must understand its direction whether it will take us forward or backward, in other word, is it progressive or retrogressive change. Progressive change simply means a change from status quo to something new in society whereas retrogressive change means return to old policy or institution of the past.

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By Emmanuel Monychol Akop, Juba, South Sudan

Banki Moon

UN secretary general, Banki Moon, and JMEC chairperson, Festus Mogae

July 21, 2016 (SSB) — During the Kigali Summit; South Sudan was the topic agenda. The African leaders agreed that they will solve their own problems, without the intervention of other nations from outside Africa. But Ban Kimoon was at the back scene, with his mouth, probably stuffed with Dollars, engaging, possibly bribing regional leaders to urging them, to support a regional intervention into South Sudanese internal affairs.

Even  Whitemen who have benefited from South Sudan, like Princeton Lyman, a senior adviser to the president of the United States Institute of Peace and served as the US Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan from 2011 to 2013 , is busy writing, urging his corners that a deadly force be deployed, that South Sudanese needs “life support” by placing the country under the UN Trusteeship in, say ten to fifteen – citing Kosovo and East Timor as good examples of success of the UN.

He is ironically right. Yes it is true that South Sudan needs life support after it is sucked dry of its resources by the so called international experts, who come as friends, PR their companies and take away our money. South Sudan is on its knees, because almost everybody, not just our leaders has participated in looting South Sudan.

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By David Mayen Ayarbior, Juba, South Sudan

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July 20, 2016 (SSB) — The African Union Summit in Kigali has added its unanimous voice to IGAD and UN Security Council that an intervention force be sent to Juba to protect strategic infrastructure and ‘restore peace and security’ in South Sudan. According to the UN Secretary General who was in attendance, the task might be undertaken by mainly African forces under the auspices of a reinvigorated UNMISS mandate.

It is not clear whether replacement of forces (e.g. Bangladeshi replaced by Ugandans and Kenyans) could be negotiated so as to maintain the same figure of 12, 000 UNMISS forces whose increment the President categorically rejected even before the summit began. They have now sent that strong resolution to the UN Security Council for consideration and logistical support.

In my previous article, my general argument against buffer zones and foreign (western) intervention was that they have often made things worse rather than better. Nevertheless, as an international security academic and analyst I must also spare time to objectively project to our citizens and decision makers the other side of the same coin.

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By Apioth Mayom Apioth, USA

pray for peace in south sudan

July 17, 2016 (SSB) — Tribalism is a corrosive hindrance to our socioeconomic progress in South Sudan. Once someone gets promoted to a supervising managerial role in a certain department; that same very individual quickly run to gather her tribesmen to get on board. Here and there, the land gets misappropriated for resettling one’s clansmen. National scholarship funds get to be dispensed solely to students of the state where one’s hails from.

It is extreme tribalism that led our chief of General Staff, Malong Awan to establish Mathiang Anyoor, a militia group drawn heavily from his home state of Northern Bahr Ghazal. Mathiang Anyoor later went on to wreak havoc on targeted killings of Nuer on the night of December 15, 2013. It is also an extreme tribalism that led a loose group of disgruntled Dinka elders to establish Jieng Council of Elders (JCE) to take on an advisory role with President Kiir Mayardit; when we all know that there is no place for such a set up in any democracy.

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By Ater Garang Ariath, Juba, South Sudan

founders of the splm

Commemorating the 33rd Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Revolutionary Movement—the SPLM/SPLA

July 15, 2016 (SSB) — As South Sudan struggle to gains its own ground as sovereign state, foreign tutelage are  on  rise in different  forms  and  fronts with an intentions  of  robbing  South Sudanese  people  in the bright day  light.  What unrealistic world led by imperial and capitalist elite states?

The United Nations (UN) led by elite states intention to invade South Sudan sovereign and integrity is not about South Sudan leadership crisis but about South Sudanese resources, of which super power capitalist states set their eyes on.

The focus of capitalists since political crisis upsurge in our country is on how to mobilize other states under United Nations springboard as ready ground to drive their own agenda of robbing South Sudanese resources, which are the hearts of the ongoing foreign tutelage violent in South Sudan.

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By David Mayen Ayarbior, Juba, South Sudan

fighting in juba

Fighting in Juba, 2013, 2016

July 15, 2016 (SSB) — The current security developments in Juba have created new dynamics which may infringe on the country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. To so many neutrals a discussion on whether that infringement is positive or negative is immaterial since it is widely believed that it will lead to some sense of stabilization of the security situation. That may or may not be true, yet a deeper understanding of the security concepts involved is warranted as the government, analysts and citizens talk about what is ahead.

New security terminologies have appeared on the scene with embedded prospects for renegotiating (or merely signing) new annexes to the current IGAD mediated Security Arrangements. Moreover, these new security dynamics are also IGAD-led as they were part of a resolution of the regional block’s Foreign Ministers in Nairobi combined with those from AU Heads of State Summit in Kigali in the same week.

The new security terminologies are “intervention force” and “buffer zone.” The former has been proposed by IGAD and UN Security Council, while the latter is found in Dr. Riek’s conditions for coming back to Juba after what happened.  Dr. Riek’s argument is that another fight might occur in Juba without a ‘buffer zone’ to separate the two belligerent forces.

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BY AROP MADUT-AROP, Juba, South Sudan

John Garang

The vision of John Garang

July 15, 2016 (SSB) — Following the events of the last few days in Juba and elsewhere in our beloved and troubled ridden young nation, I thought it would be important to publish a chapter in the manuscript of my new book, entitled food for thought. I am making this chapter available to my compatriots in the hope that our politicians will be incensed and desist from violence as the sufferers on both sides in the political spectrum. Below are excerpts from the Book:

When South Sudan emerged into statehood on July 9th 2011, its future survivability as a nation state was pegged on whether the SPLM historic leaders would successfully organise it politically, socially and economically. The second question which readily comes to the mind of the public was whether the leadership in the young republic will hold all their diverse nationalities, who are still living in primordial era, together as they proceed to bring progress and prosperity to their country. Because of the validity of two questions, I will attempt to discuss them jointly one after another.

Firstly, the politicians in the youngest republic in effort to build a peaceful prosperous nation, must find a rallying point that would bring all the diverse nationalities that have been affected by the five decades old conflict to one fold in order to embrace nationalism, instead of tribalism. One classic example, which I believe can back up my argument is that; when Southern Sudanese of all political persuasions joined the Anya Nya war in the sixties and early seventies, the main rallying point that made them joined the war, was because they wanted to liberate their country from the Arab domination, regardless to any sort of underlying ideology of any leaders of the Anya Nya Movement.

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Happy 5th Anniversary to the Republic of South Sudan!!

By Amer Mayen Dhieu (Brisbane, Australia) and PaanLuel Wël (Juba, South Sudan)

The 5th independent day anniversary

July 9, 2016 (SSB) — On this 9th of July, we, the South Sudanese, are deeply disillusioned with politicians over the war and the economic crisis. There is a palpable sense of fear, indignation and betrayal. Too many conflicts colliding with too little conciliation in Juba.

There are plethora of ills bedeviling the new nation, including blunders committed by our political leaders, blunders that only add fuel onto the fire, precipitating the downhill slide into the dark abyss.

We are ranked second only to Somalia among the failed states in the world. Our infant oil-dependent economy has collapsed, along with social amenities and physical infrastructure. Corruption is running amok in the country, sparing not even the office of the president. And our honorable politicians have been providing a bizarre episode in a drama of epic confusion.

Apparently, the country has run out of able and good leaders that the prodigal son is the one proclaiming our salvation and redemption from the failed Messiah.

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By Malith Jongkuch Kur, London Ontario, Canada

(Email: mkur@uwo.ca)

Demonstrating for justice and accountability, for Isaiah Abraham, 5 Dec 2015

Demonstration for justice and accountability in Juba on 5 Dec 2015, marking the 3rd anniversary of the killing of Isaiah Abraham

Abstract

July 8, 2016 (SSB) — The conflict in South Sudan which began in December 2013 has attracted international attention, particularly the regional and continental bodies—the AU and the IGAD nations. In fact, the South Sudanese conflict is not different from other crises that affected and continue to affect the African continent. Therefore, this paper has examined briefly the African transitional justice mechanisms of Rwanda, South Africa, and Sierra Leone to highlight important lessons in those mechanisms, which can possibly help both the government and civil society in South Sudan to work together for a sustainable peace and justice in the country. It offers general observations on the potential difficulties the agreement and the proposed transitional justice mechanism may face before the end of the interim period. The direct involvement of the AU and the IGAD nations in a search for a peaceful solution to the conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the signing of a shaky peace agreement to resolve the conflict in the Republic of South Sudan in August 2015. Also, agencies related to the work of the United Nations are playing active parts in the process of protecting civilians, investigating human rights abuses, and helping to end the conflict that has killed tens of thousands of people and displaced millions more. The agreement has provided for the creation of Transitional Government of National Unity, the establishment of Commission for Truth, Reconciliation and National Healing, Compensation and Reparation Authority, and Hybrid Court for South Sudan. Those institutions have been proposed in the agreement to consolidate peace and deal with issues related to justice and accountability for the crimes committed in the course of the conflict.

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By Hon. Bol Makueng Yuol, Juba, South Sudan

bol makueng

Cde. Bol Makueng Yuol, the SPLM Secretary for information, Culture and Communication

July 5, 2016 (SSB) — The traditional practice of facilitating an African developing country to dismantle its sovereign institutions has always been a re-colonisation of Africa by proxy since the time of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and also even now with the protégé African Union (AU). It is simply an old wine in a new bottle. The tools for doing so are found within the same Africans of the OAU or AU. Libya was dismantled with indifferent AU looking on and more will follow.

How is it done? The members from those powerful industrialised nations come into a country, identify resources they must plunder, study the power structure of the victim country and methodology or strategy that would be applied to achieve what they want. In some cases, the experts are from a former colonial power of the country. One common approach which is a peaceful one is to send in “technical experts”. The experts would always pop into every office to acquaint themselves with information on data and centres of decision making so that they also get involved in the executive decisions of that target country – the Advisors.

The experts sit in every meeting of the nation’s leadership, isolate the leadership from its populace and making declarations on behalf of the leaders. They develop their modus operandi on how to confuse and clash institutions and individuals within those institutions. In a country with tribes, their plans are made easy as they will quickly divide the tribes according to “violent ones against the peaceful”, the friendly and hostile, nomads against sedentary … until the divide and rule policy is firmly established.

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The transitional government of national unity (TGONU) should address the menace of the unknown gunmen and the crippling economic crisis in the country

By Paul Duwar Bak, Kampala, Uganda

unknown gunman

new joke doing rounds in Juba: when attacked by burglars, call the police at your own risk.

July 5, 2016 (SSB) — I refer to the violence of the last three weeks in Wau and Raja where about 39 and 50 people respectively lost their lives to the shooting involving the unknown group according to the BBC reports.

As a concern citizen of South Sudan, the transitional government of national unity (TGONU) has a duty of ensuring innocent civilians going about their daily businesses d0 not get caught in a crossfire with the army men which are termed by the government to be the unknown gunmen.

However, the urgent question is that how are guns moving out in the protective hands of the national army to the murderous hands of the unknown gunmen?

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By David Mayen Ayarbior, Juba, South Sudan

kiir-riek

President Kiir, 1st VP Riek and VP Wani Igga during the arrival of Riek Machar in Juba after 28 months in the bush, April 26, 2016

June 29, 2016 (SSB) — In the last article under the heading above I enumerated a number of institutions which I thought would be central to our transition to a politically and economically stable country. I mentioned the military, especially its DDRC implementing organs as being at the heart of the transition. Because security is the most important component of statecraft, reducing the size of our military (improving the capacity of those that remain) and integrating those that are demobilized into productive industries would allow them to start a new life far away from extortion and banditry. Liberia and Sierra Leon have undertaking DDR successfully, so can South Sudan.

I also mentioned the Judiciary and Legislature for their important oversight role in creating a country under the law. The two institutions play complementary roles in ensuring the supremacy of the rule of law- in contrast to the rule man (and woman). The legislature shall have a central oversight role in making sure that Ministers present their quarterly reports to parliament for scrutiny and approval or disapproval. They collectively have the right to pass a vote of no confidence on Ministers or Chairpersons of Commissions who underperform. If parliament is not unduly politicized, which is a big if, then the level of its effectiveness could be the main yardstick with which to measure the prospects of TGoNU.

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By David Mayen Ayarbior, Juba, South Sudan

kuol manyang at the EAC summit

(R-L) Presidents Yoweri Museveni, Uhuru Kenyatta, Paul Kagame and South Sudan Defence Minister Kuol Manyang Juuk at the 10th Summit of Heads of State of the Northern Corridor.

June 26, 2016 (SSB) — Last week the United Kingdom of Britain voted in a referendum to exit from the European Union. Having been an integral part of the “European project” for much too long, the decision to exit the union has created an economic shock that is still spreading beyond the EU’s epicenter into the rest of the world. Within the Kingdom itself, the demographic chart of the vote has shown how divided the voters were: the youth voted to stay, Scotland voted to stay, Londoners voted to stay, yet almost every “rural” community voted to exit and they won the day by just over a million vote.

Thousands of miles away from Britain, the “youngest” nation in the world has recently been accepted into an economic community which has benchmarked the EU for its growth projectiles. South Sudan has been accepted into the East African Community, an economic community with its own skeptics who are comparable to those in the EU. Like it is in Britain, the skeptics (naysayers) of South Sudan about joining EAC are also overwhelmingly rural folks who do not have requisite capacity to correctly perceive the socioeconomic intricacies of economic communities.

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It is not a sin for H.E. President Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit to declare the collapse of Sudan Sudan’s economy and ask for international community intervention

By Ayuel Madut Chan, Nairobi, Kenya

Kiiriek messy South Sudan

June 25, 2016 (SSB) — My dear readers and viewers, I would like to give my uninvited advice to H. E. Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of the Republic of South Sudan. Mr. President with due respect to you and your government, please allow me to explain to you and South Sudanese at large why I need you and your government to declare the state of emergency of INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION for South Sudan economic collapse.

First, what are economic collapsed states and the status of economic collapsed states? Economic collapse has no clear definition but it is used to describe range of bad economic conditions ranging from severe, prolonged depression with high bankruptcy rates and high unemployment, a breakdown in normal commerce caused by hyperinflation or even an economically caused sharp rise in the death rate and perhaps even a decline in population.

Economic Collapsed states experienced social chaos, civil unrest, hyperinflation, failure to pay civil servants, and sometimes breakdown of law and order. These things are clearly observable in our country my dear President. Our country is partially and economically collapsed and need quick action Mr. President. All is as clear as day and why not wait for doom to fall over South Sudan when you are the only person there to help us out of this status. Please let us accept our economic collapsed state and be proud of it and this is when we will proudly stand before the world as you lead us to ask for international intervention.

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The IMF Assistance is Not a Priority to the Nation: Restructuring of Systems and Economic Reforms are

 By Madit Them Arop, Juba, South Sudan

peace in RSS

Time for peace in South Sudan?

Introduction

June 24, 2016 (SSB) —- This writing is grouped into three segments arranged on basis suitable to the author and purposively serves the chosen organization of the work. It is openly started with elements thoughtfully considered, if well revised, strategized and legalized would open opportunity rooms for a better system. Before the elements, the nation overview since its inception demonstrated practices seems permanent from variety perspectives when in truth unearthing them is possible. The denial to put tangible system up has frustrated both political, economic, culture and social norms. And it’s the point being tried to unpack such that the elements to address have proper foundation with clarity.

First and at the world level, the Republic of South Sudan is one of the nations with plenty of resources. Evidently, the resources are in abundant, how and why the nation is on its knees is the puzzle to deal with. Second, restructuring of system (the corrupt practices): such resources are critically witnessed limbless, why it’s the case; does corruption has a hand in this? Some nations thrive without oil and other major resources, South Sudan is not exception, and why it’s sinking? Third, the IMF usefulness and its doubted side: why assistance rather than restructuring of the system? And finally, conclusion will serves as summary package focusing on whether taking of the IMF assistance would be healthy or it may requires prepared time to cross the loan-bridge to help evaluate the nation’s readiness.

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By David Matiop Gai, Juba, South Sudan

palotaka face foundation

Palotaka Face Foundation, courtesy of John Pende Ngong, and in memory of the late Akuach, one of the brightest South Sudanese intellectuals (graduate of Makerere uni) lost to unknown gunmen in Juba

June 23, 2016 (SSB) —- I dedicated part nine to Polataka leaders, SPLA officers and Soldiers who contributed much of their crucial love for us, they were instead like parents on our welfares, and these very people who sacrificed their lives, time, and energy as they inspired us while in Polataka. It is obvious observes in human history that majority of leaders are made. Truthfully, born and made leaders contribute sacrificially duty to their followers. As I indicated in part eight, I want to mention names of leaders and soldiers who built us in Polataka and if you did not get the name of any persons who had not been with us in Polataka, it is unfortunate because I could not recall in my memory the entire camp of Polataka.

The great leaders who inspired Polataka Red army were: Alternate Commander Sebit William Garang Dut, Polataka Red army Camp commander, Captain Awur Mawel, Polataka camp deputy commander, Captain Bol Dau, Director of agriculture, Captain Bol Deng Kuol, group five leader, 1st Lt Deng Malual, the camp director of health, Captain Ayor Guon, teacher, 1st Lt Lual Ayom Lual, (nickname Ciemperline) teacher, Alier Walla, the grammarian English teacher, 1st Lt Akon Diing, director for security, and teacher,  1st Lt Ayama mathior, the great mathematician , teacher, Chuor Mach, teacher, and the soldiers  for the platoon of Koryom  were staff sergeant Mawut Kuol Ayom, sergeant Alieth Chol Alieth, Makhor Nhial, Mading Mayom Yuot, Mading Kuol, Chuor Buut, (Chuor Pakap), Dut Arok Dut, Kennedy Khot,  Sergeant major Bior Mayen, Mayom Magot, and list is long.

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By Emmanuel Ariech Deng, Juba, South Sudan

peace message2

one nation, one country, one people

June 23, 2016 (SSB) —- The rivalry of gaining power between Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and its concocted factions of IOs, FDs and DCs has paradoxically landed on a power-sharing type of transitional government formation. The Country Leadership a critical battleground within SPLM and Other Political Parties, the young Nation has been engulfed into dangling crossroads, deplorable infrastructure and one of the most extreme economic turmoil in the history of the country since inception, just because of throat-cutting politics with no nationalism.

The split within SPLM party and the scramble of many senior members for the top job in highest office of the land, remains an uncertainty among the people and the party supporters. What left me confused is the Arusha Document of SPLM re-unification accord signed in Arusha, Tanzania. The same SPLM, IOs, FDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia surprisingly signed the Compromise Peace Agreement (CPA) as different entities but not re-unified SPLM members leaving the accord in an incredible redundancy. This shows peace is highly welcomed and unrealistic in the making. “God forbid”! To a mere person, it is a new game changing strategy or new normal.

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“A man came and found an animal killed and he demanded to be given ‘ɣäm’ (thigh) but someone among the people said, look at this guy, how could he be so greedy that he asked for ‘ɣäm’ (thigh) instead of ‘lɔ̈ɔ̈m’ (rib) and so he was given ‘lɔ̈ɔ̈m’ (rib). Meaning if we want Southern Sudan, we must start by asking for the whole Sudan and then surely we will be given South, but if we started with asking for the South, we would gain nothing as the Anyanya One case attest. The people of South Sudan should know that no man marries an ugly woman and no woman marries an ugly man. The unity of the Sudan has not been made attractive. I and those who joined me in the bush and fought for more than twenty years have brought to you CPA in a golden plate. Our mission is accomplished. It is now your turn, especially those who did not have a chance to experience bush life. When [the] time comes to vote at referendum, it is your golden choice to determine your fate. Would you like to vote to be second-class citizens in your own country? It is absolutely your choice, Dr. John Garang’s famous “Rumbek Exhortation” delivered on May 15, 2005 at Rumbek Freedom Square, upon his arrival in Rumbek for the commemoration of the 22nd anniversary of May 16th in Rumbek, Southern Sudan.

By PaanLuel Wël, Juba, South Sudan

Tribute to Dr. John Garang

The Genius of Dr. John Garang: Tributes to the Late SPLM/A’s Leader Dr. John Garang de Mabioor (Volume 3) Paperback – July 11, 2015 by PaanLuel Wël (Editor)

June 23, 2016 (SSB) — Garang Mabioor Atem Aruai—popularly known as Dr. John Garang—was born on 23rd June 1945 into a peasant Dinka family in Buk village of the Awulian community, Kongor District in Jonglei State, Upper Nile Region of the historical Sudan. Garang was the sixth of ten children—six boys and four girls—born to Mabioor Atem Aruai from the Awulian clan (Patem, pan-ayen) and Ghak Malwal Kuol from the Kongor clan (Padol, pareng), both of Twic Dinka from the Greater Bor Dinka Community.

Young Garang left his home district of Kongor at the age of ten after the death of his father to attend school in Bahr el Ghazal. He went to Tonj Primary School (1954), followed by Bussere Intermediate School (1958), and then Rumbek Secondary School (1962) when the Anyanya One war broke out. Just after joining Rumbek Secondary School, teenage Garang was expelled for participating in a Southern-wide student-led strike—one that was fomented by the legendary Southern freedom fighter, Marko Rume.

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