Archive for the ‘Featured Articles’ Category


By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, Kampala, Uganda

screen-shot-2015-04-15-at-21-38-09

April 23, 2017 (SSB) — In recent time genocide has become common term used recklessly and selfishly during the war.  According to The Politics of genocide an excerpt from the book by Edward S. Herman & David Peterson, the word “genocide” has increased in frequency of use and recklessness of application, so much so that the crime of the twentieth century for which the word originally was coined often appears debased. Thus, this work is an attempt to assess the meaning of genocide in brief, the purpose for which it was coined, to further explain the politics of genocide, that is, how the meaning of genocide has highly been distorted to suit political interests, which, as a result, has resulted into its failure to protect human rights and how this understanding of genocide has affected its effective application in South Sudan and then I conclude.

The overall argument of this article is that genocide has become highly political to the extent that it has lost its real meaning and purpose for which it was invented and because of that it has become ineffective in protecting human rights due to the fact that it is embroiled in political debate. Hence, genocide is not applied in the context of which it was originally meant as it was in 1970s and 1980s but it has taken political connotation which has made it become very discriminative and ineffective. In that regard, I argue that the term genocide was purposely invented to protect innocent and “bonafide civilians” who are being killed due to their nationality, ethnicity, race or religion. I used the term “bonafide civilians” to show that such civilians are completely innocent and are not part of conflict in any manner whatsoever though they are trapped among rebels. Thus, I begin in the order as I have given above.

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Reposted from Breitbart news

By FAITH J. H. MCDONNELL, Washington DC, USA

Kiir and Garang, liberation day

Dr. John Garang and Commander Salva Kiir Mayaardit, during the liberation era

April 22, 2017 (SSB) — In late March, speaking with barely controlled anger, Dutch Minister for International Trade and Development Cooperation Lilianne Ploumen told Dutch TV, “The leaders of South Sudan are bastards who starve their own people!” Ploumen is justified to feel passionate about African babies dying from hunger. Australia’s SBS on March 31 declared the minister “isn’t one for holding back.”

But Ploumen chose to not hold back on the wrong target in South Sudan’s so-called “civil war” that has devastated the nation and its prospects for the past three years. The minister was primarily referring to the democratically-elected President of South Sudan, Salva Kiir Mayardit, omitting criticism of rebel forces causing displacement of populations and exacerbating a famine by preventing adequate access for humanitarian agencies.

U.S. and other politicians, journalists, and humanitarian organizations usually mutter diplomatically that “both sides are at fault” or “all players in the conflict commit atrocities,” while privately condemning President Kiir’s administration and the South Sudan Army. Ploumen, though, didn’t even try to pretend to see any moral equivalence. The Big Man in his cowboy hat from W (fairly certain Kiir has cast off the hat that former Secretary of State Kerry, that old Texas cowhand, gave him to displace deliberately the Bush hat) was in her sights.

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UK Says Killings in South Sudan Conflict Amount To Genocide: Assessing Its Validity

By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, Kampala, Uganda

abraham-jongroor

The Late Gen. Abraham Jongroor

April 15, 2017 (SSB) — Not every killing in large numbers amounts to genocide and not every action of the authority that prevents us from knowing the truth concerning the killings is evidence of genocide. As shall be understood in its definition shortly, genocide is special kind of killings that has special requirements which must be proved before it is concluded that genocide has taken place or it is taking place.

Thus, genocide is defined as intentional action to destroy a people or an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group in whole or in part. Genocide means act of killing. In addition, the United Nations Genocide Convention, which was established in 1948, defines genocide as “acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group”.

The term genocide was coined in a 1943 book (see; William Schabas, Genocide in international law: the crimes of crimes. — Cambridge University Press, 2000). After its invention, it has been applied to various killings such as the Holocaust and many other mass killings, which include the Armenian genocide, the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, and, more recently, the Bosnian Genocide, the Kurdish genocide, and the Rwandan genocide.

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By Atem Yaak Atem, Australia

National Prayers Day

April 12, 2017 (SSB) — Academics have written books on topics such as why nations fail or peace fail. These scholarly works try to delve into roots causes by their authors going into histories of specific areas while others examine case studies of recent times and dealing with particular countries or regions of the world, for instance.

Such findings naturally come out with what they say are the main causes. Those researchers also give recommendations on what could be done to right the situation under reviews. Opinions on their conclusions are not, as expected, universally endorsed. And that is not our concern here.

This tantalizing title does not claim to belong, by approach, to those works distilled from careful research. The concern of this article and those which will follow is to look at our society, its current problems and how they can be tackled successfully, in the long run, from a common sense perspective. I lay no claim to being an expert or an authority in any field that I will touch on.

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By Deng Diar Diing, Mombasa, Kenya

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April 11, 2017 (SSB) — Dear colleagues, relatives, friends and contemporaries on Facebook, this forum has been a place of great learning and it is my strong believe that one can obviously gain knowledge, whether distorted or judicious one . It is conceivable that trends can be built in this fusillade of exchanges which may end up forming a certain domain of knowledge.

And when it is faulty as it clearly is, it must be rebuked. That is why I am specifically writing this piece to reproof with the reproach it deserves the uncalled for destruction of our history of liberation which is happening at our watch. And let everyone be warned that this is history and can never be shared, regardless of whether you are friend or not, it may hurt but I am sorry, I will have to put history as it is, not as it should be.

I want to admonish this cheap talk that is gaining unwarranted audience in our South Sudanese fora. It is specifically from today liberators of the yesterday war. This fortunate group that escaped the wrath and tribulations that came with our war of liberation has made it their business to distort history and vilify those who gave their-all to our freedom. They have even gone a step further to take up our gallant movement from our unsuspecting leader, to sidestep the owners of the movement by sacrifices not by buccaneering.

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By Hon. Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

media reporting

THE FUNCTION OF A NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY AND THE STATE OF THE PRESS IN SOUTH SUDAN

April 5, 2017 (SSB) —- In part three of this article, we will discuss the function of a newspaper’s concept, identity and its management. This part will shed some light on how a newspaper is conceived and born. This is important because many business people in South Sudan in particular, have started establishing newspapers without making thorough market research or by consulting with those better informed about this vital profession, which affects lives of people. The sad endgame is that, majority of newspapers, in Juba today, except few ones, like Juba Monitor and the Arabic Daily al Moufeg, do not reflect what newspapers are expected to provide. In the second part, we will also discuss the first appearance of press in the then Southern Region of the then Sudan and the present pathetic state of the media in South Sudan. The last part will discuss about the dire need for the training of press men and press women in the world youngest nation, the Republic of South Sudan. Finally, in the opinion of this author is an urgent need for enactment of laws that hold responsible only, the media managements; and not the poor untrained reporters who have been getting the brunt of the discrepancies in the news gathering process in South Sudan.

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The constraints in the Practice of Journalism Profession

By Hon. Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

media reporting

March 29, 2017 (SSB) — As the whole article is entirely about the abuse of journalism profession, it would be important to look at the work and constraints journalists encounter as they go about their work and their relations with the management of the news organisation they work for. As the central theme of the article discusses about the abuse of the journalism profession and the need to rectify it, we will now discuss the constraints that do confront reporters in their daily practice of journalism. It will also be useful to mention the set of categories that are involved in the operations of the press/media industry before we delve into the subject matter. Basically, there are four set of categories involved in the practice of journalism profession.

In the first category, are the news players (politicians, Executives). In the second category, are the news organisers (media houses). The third category consists of the news producers (Journalists/reporters). In the fourth category, are the news consumers (the general public). The war between these sets of categories involved in the operation of journalism practice, does make it necessary to discuss the role each one bring to bear on the other. This move restricts the free flow of information to the intended: reading, listening and viewing audiences. I must stress that, the skill in collecting information is never a smooth running affairs because journalists face lot of difficulties between the news organisers and the news makers on the one hand and the news organisations on the news producers on the other hand.

One of the most important constraints in the practice of journalism, according to mass communication theory, has to do with the agenda setting function of the print media (newspapers). This theory suggests that newspapers organisers and managers often set news agenda for readers by concentrating and carrying in their papers news stories about significant events for the benefits of their businesses. To realise fullest expression of this theory requires the contribution of both journalists and the owners of the news organisations. However, evidence from day to day practice points to the fact that, newspapers are not capable in carrying news reports about all that goes on around the world, as expected. In essence, news organisations do arrange things in such away so that staff and resources available could meet the expected flow of news. Where possible, news reports are therefore managed to fit the needs of the news organisations, regardless.

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By Hon. Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

 media reporting

March 25, 2017 (SSB) —- The topic journalism; the most abused profession in the Republic of South Sudan, in particular and Africa at large, will be discussed, in several articles. The first part will revisit the origin of information gathering skill, the emergence of the modern press industry, as well as the first appearance and subsequent development of journalism as a profession. We will then turn and discuss the need to have a new vision for an African press, as opposed to capitalist and socialist press. This part will attempt to answer the question as to whether there is an absolute Freedom of the Press at all in the world. The second part will briefly look at the constraints encounter by journalists in their practice of their profession; hence the importance for the training of press men and women. The third part of the article will comment briefly about the introduction and development of the press, for the first time, in South Sudan, during the regional self-rule experiment (1972-1982) and the current pathetic situation of the press industry in the world youngest nation. The study will further discuss briefly, the importance and the need for the training of press men and press women in South Sudan, by the country ministry of information and broadcasting; assuming that the concerned authorities have learned useful lessons from the past experiences of the previous regional ministry of information authorities (1972-1982), when they managed and trained many journalists from scratch. Importantly the training of journalists is pivotal so that they can do their job of informing the general public accurately and satisfactorily about what concerned them directly or indirectly; in accordance to the norms and ethics of journalism profession. The third part will bring us to the conclusion about the central theme of our topic ‘’journalism the most abused profession in the Republic of South Sudan’’. In this concluding part, we will give classic comparative examples about the abused of journalism profession or lack of it in the world youngest nation. In this context we will compare the press coverage of the South Sudan current conflict by the Sudan Tribune and Radio Tamazuj Websites, on the one hand, with that of Gurtong Peace Trust and PaanLuel Wël Websites, on the other hand.  Let us now start discussing part one of the article.

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Past Governments: The Interplay Between Power Politics and Ethnicity in the Republic of South Sudan under a Tribocratic Paradigm (Part 2)

By PaanLuel Wël, Juba, South Sudan

RSS coat of ARMS

South Sudan’s coat of arms, in which the eagle symbolizes vision, strength, resilience and majesty, and the shield and spear the people’s resolve to protect the sovereignty of their republic and work hard to feed it.

March 6, 2017 (SSB) — They say that a picture is worth thousand words. And indeed the following illustrative figures, based on past governments of President Salva Kiir Mayaardit, paint a telling picture of the dynamic interplay between power politics and ethnicity in the Republic of South Sudan under a Tribocratic Paradigm.

Summary of Tribocratic Analysis of President Kiir’s Past Government According to the Prevailing Political Forces in South Sudan, based on The Principles of Tribocracy—Part 5

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Past Governments: The Interplay Between Power Politics and Ethnicity in the Republic of South Sudan under a Tribocratic Paradigm (Part 1)

By PaanLuel Wël, Juba, South Sudan

RSS coat of ARMS

South Sudan’s coat of arms, in which the eagle symbolizes vision, strength, resilience and majesty, and the shield and spear the people’s resolve to protect the sovereignty of their republic and work hard to feed it.

February 26, 2017 (SSB) — They say that a picture is worth thousand words. And indeed the following illustrative figures, based on past governments of President Salva Kiir Mayaardit, paint a telling picture of the dynamic interplay between power politics and ethnicity in the Republic of South Sudan under a Tribocratic Paradigm.

1ST Government of President Kiir: The First Post-CPA Government of President Kiir formed in October 2005, after the promulgation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), inclusive of subsequent reshufflings, both with the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) in Juba and the Government of National Unity (GoNU) in Khartoum.

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan-Chan) Gogrial West
2. Riek Machar Teny Vice President, Housing, Land and Public Utility Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Nuer Leer
3. James Wani Igga Speaker of Parliament Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
4. Pagan Amum Okiech SPLM SG & Diplomatic Affairs advisor Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Kodok
5. John Wol Makech Chief Justice Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek Center
6. Elijah Malok Aleng Governor of Central Bank Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
7. Oyai Deng Ajak Chief of General Staff Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
8. Makwei Deng Majuch Commissioner of Police Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
9. Justin Yaach Arop Minister: Cabinet Affairs Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Twic) Twic
10. Dominic Dim Deng Minister: SPLM/A Affairs (Defence) Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Twic) Twic
11. Daniel Awet Akot Minister: Police & Security (Interior) Dinka Agaar Dinka Gok Dinka Cueibet
12. Arthur Akuien Chol Minister: Finance & Economic Planning (1st gov’t) Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Ajak) Aweil South
13. Kuol Athiaan Mawien Minister: Finance & Economic Planning (2nd gov’t) Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil North
14. Nhial Deng Nhial Minister: Regional Cooperation Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Thony) Tonj South
15. Michael Makuei Lueth Minister: Legal Affairs and Constitutional Development Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
16. Michael Milli Hussein Minister: Education, Science & Technology Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
17. Theophilus Ochang Lotti Minister: Health Equatorian Central Equatorian Lokoya Juba
18. Albino Akol Akol Minister: Industry and Mining Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Ajak) Aweil South
19. Prof. Philip Yona Minister: Cooperative and Rural Development Equatorian Central Equatorian Kuku Kajo-keji
20. Anthony Lino Makana Minister: Commerce, Trade and Supply Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Yambio
21. Samson Kwaje Minister: Information, Radio and Television Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
22. Gier Chuang Aluong Minister: Telecommunications & Postal Services Dinka Padang Dinka Paweny Dinka Pigi
23. Rebecca Nyandeng de Mabior Minister: Transport & Roads Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
24. James Loro Siricio Minister: Environment & Wildlife Conservation Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
25. Martin Elia Lomuro Minister: Agriculture and Forestry Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
26. Festo Faustino Kumba Minister: Animal Resources & Fisheries Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
27. David Deng Athorbei Minister: Labour, Public Service & Human Resource Development Dinka Agaar Dinka Atuot Dinka Yirol West
28. John Luk Jok Minister: Culture, Youth & Sports (1st gov’t); Petroleum (2nd gov’t); Justice (3rd gov’t) Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
29. Barnaba Marial Benjamin Minister: Co-operative and Rural Development Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
30. Ms. Mary Kiden Minister: Gender, Social Welfare and Religious Affairs Equatorian Central Equatorian Kuku Kajo-keji
31. Joseph Duer Joakok Minister: Water Resources & Irrigation Nuer Phow Nuer Laak Nuer Fangak
South Sudanese Ministers in the Government of National Unity (GoNU) in Khartoum
32. Kuol Manyang Juuk Minister: Road Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
33. Lual Achuek Deng Minister: Petroleum (2nd gov’t); Deputy, finance and national economy (1st gov’t) Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
34. Majak Agoot Atem Deputy: National Intelligence Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
35. Lam Akol Ajawin Minister: Foreign Affairs Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
36. George Bureng Nyombe Minister: Foreign Trade Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
37. Aleu Ayieny Aleu Deputy, Interior Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Noi) Tonj North
38. Wek Mamer Kuol Deputy, the presidency (2nd gov’t) Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Noi) Tonj North
39. Peter Adwok Nyaba Higher Education, and Scientific Research Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
40. Atem Garang Dekuek Deputy: Speaker Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
41. Telar Ring Deng Deputy, the presidency (1st gov’t) Dinka Agaar Dinka Atuot Dinka Yirol West
42. James Kok Ruea Foreign Trade (2nd gov’t) Nuer Phow Nuer Laak Nuer Fangak
43. Kosti Manibe Ngai Investment (1st gov’t); Cabinet Affairs (2nd gov’t) Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri
44. Harun Lual Lual Humanitarian Affairs (2nd gov’t) Dinka Padang Dinka Ageer Dinka Melut
45. Joseph Lual Achuil Humanitarian Affairs (3rd gov’t) Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Kuach) Gogrial West
46. Barnaba Marial Benjamin Deputy, International Cooperation Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
47. Elias Nyamlel Wako International Cooperation (2nd gov’t) Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
48. Deng Aloor Kuol Foreign affairs (2nd gov’t); Cabinet affairs (1st gov’t) Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
49. Chuol Rambang Luoth Minister: Transport Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
50. Beatrice  Grace Daterio Deputy, Foreign Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
51. Philip Thon Leek Road, Transport and Bridge (2nd gov’t) Dinka Bor Dinka Nyarweng Dinka Duk
52. Peter Nyot Kok Higher Education, and Scientific Research (1st gov’t) Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek Center
53. Pagan Amum Okiech Cabinet Affairs (2nd gov’t) Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Kodok
54. Luka Biong Deng Cabinet Affairs (3rd gov’t) Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
55. Angelina Jany Teny Deputy, Energy and Mining Nuer Liech Nuer Western Jikany Guit
56. Theresa Siricio Deputy, Tourism and Environment (1st gov’t); Deputy, Information and Communication (2nd gov’t) Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba

2ND Government of President Kiir: The Second Government of President Salva Kiir (the reshuffling of the first, post-CPA Government), which was dissolved on 13 July 2011, immediately after independence.

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan-Chan) Gogrial West
2. Riek Machar Teny Vice President Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Nuer Leer
3. James Wani Igga Speaker of Parliament Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
4. Pagan Amum Okiech SPLM SG & Peace and CPA Implementation Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Kodok
5. John Wol Makech Chief Justice Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek Center
6. Elijah Malok Aleng Governor of Central Bank Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
7. James Hoth Mai Chief of General Staff Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Ulang
8. Acuil Tito Madut Commissioner of Police Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Kuach) Gogrial West
9. Kosti Manibe Ngai Minister: Cabinet Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri
10. Nhial Deng Nhial Minister: Defense Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Thony) Tonj South
11. Gier Chuang Aluong Minister: Interior Dinka Padang Dinka Paweny Dinka Pigi
12. David Deng Athorbei Minister: Finance & Economic Planning Dinka Agaar Dinka Atuot Dinka Yirol West
13. Deng Alor Kuol Minister: Foreign Affairs Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
14. John Luk Jok Minister: Justice Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
15. Joseph Ukel Abango Minister: Higher Education, Science & Technology Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
16. Luka Tombe Monoja Minister: Health (3rd gov’t) Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
17. Joseph Monytuil Wicjang Minister: Health (2nd gov’t) Nuer Liech Nuer Bul Nuer Mayom
18. Garang Diing Akuong Minister: Energy and Mining Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Abiem) Aweil East
19. Oyai Deng Ajak Minister: Investment Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
20. Barnaba Marial Benjamin Minister: Information Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
21. Madut Biar Yel Minister: Telecommunications & Postal Services Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil Center
22. Anthony Lino Makana Minister: Transport & Roads Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Yambio
23. Gabriel Changson Chang Minister: Culture, Heritage, Wildlife conservation and Tourism Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Nasir
24. Ann Itto Leonardo Minister: Agriculture and Forestry Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Madi Magwi
25. Nyaluk Tiong Gatluak Minister: Animal Resources & Fisheries Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Nuer Leer
26. Awut Deng Acuil Minister: Labour and Public Service Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Akook) Tonj East
27. Mary Jervas Yak Ubanyo Minister: Human Resource Development Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
28. Makuach Teny Youk Minister: Youth, Sports and Recreation Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Nuer Leer
29. Agnes Kwaje Lasuba Minister: Gender, Child and Social Welfare Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
30. Paul Mayom Akec Minister: Irrigation and Water Resources Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
31. Michael Milly Hussein Minister: General Education Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
32. Michael Makwei Lueth Minister: Parliamentary affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
33. Jemma Nunu Kumba Minister: Housing and Physical Planning Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
34. Stephen Dhieu Dau Minister: Commerce and Industry Dinka Padang Dinka Nyiel Dinka Melut
35. Cirino Hiteng Ofuho Minister: Office of the President Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
36. Isaac Awan Maper Minister: Environment Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
37. James Kok Ruea Minister: Humanitarian Affairs & Disaster Management Nuer Phow Nuer Laak Nuer Fangak
38. Abdallah Albert Minister: Wildlife Conservation and Tourism Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
39. Priscilla Nyanyang Joseph Minister: Minister without Portfolio Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
40. Majak Agoot Atem Minister: National Security Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
41. Jimmy Lemmy Lima Rural Development and Cooperative Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya

3RD Government of President Kiir: The Third Government of President Kiir, appointed immediately after Independence, in August 2011.

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan-Chan) Gogrial West
2. Riek Machar Teny Vice President Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Nuer Leer
3. James Wani Igga Speaker of Parliament Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
4. Pagan Amum Okiech SPLM SG Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Kodok
5. Chan Reech Madut Chief Justice Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Aguok) Gogrial West
6. Kornelious Koryom Mayik Governor of Central Bank Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
7. James Hoth Mai Chief of General Staff Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Ulang
8. Deng Alor Kuol Minister: Cabinet Affairs Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
9. John Koang Nyuon Defense and Veteran Affairs Nuer Phow Nuer Laak Nuer Fangak
10. Nhial Deng Nhial Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Thony) Tonj South
11. Emmanuel Lowilla Onango Office of the President Equatorian

 

Central Equatorian Kakwa Yei
12. Oyai Deng Ajak National Security Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
13. John Luk Jok Justice Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
14. Alison Manani Magaya Interior Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
15. Michael Makwei Lueth Parliamentary Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
16. Kosti Manibe Ngai Finance and Economic Planning Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri
17. Awut Deng Achuil Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Development Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Akook) Tonj East
18. Garang Diing Akuong Commerce, Industry and Investment Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Abiem) Aweil East
19. Barnaba Marial Benjamin Information and Broadcasting Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
20. Michael Milly Hussein Health Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
21. Ms. Betty Achan Ogwaro Agriculture and Forestry Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Acholi Magwi
22. Gier Chuang Aluong Roads and Bridges Dinka Padang Dinka Paweny Pigi
23. Ms. Agnes Poni Lokudu Transport Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
24. Joseph Ukel Abango General Education and Instruction Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
25. Peter Adwok Nyaba Higher Education, Science and Technology Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
26. Alfred Lado Gore Environment Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
27. Ms. Jemma Nunu Kumba Housing and Physical Planning Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
28. Madut Biar Yel Telecommunication and Postal Services Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil Center
29. Stephen Dhieu Dau Petroleum and Mining Dinka Padang Dinka Nyiel Dinka Melut
30. David Deng Athorbei Electricity and Dams Dinka Agaar Dinka Atuot Dinka Yirol West
31. Agnes Kwaje Lasuba Gender, Child and Social Welfare Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
32. Joseph Lual Achuil Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Kuach) Gogrial West
33. Paul Mayom Akech Water Resources and Irrigation Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
34. Gabriel Changson Chang Wildlife Conservation and Tourism Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Nasir
35. Martin Elia Lomuro Animal Resources and Fisheries Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
36. Cirino Hiteng Ofuho Culture, Youth and Sports Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
37. Wek Mamer Kuol Deputy: Cabinet Affairs Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Noi) Tonj North
38. Majak Agot Atem Deputy: Defense and Veteran Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
39. Ms. Beatrice Grace Daterio Deputy: Foreign Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
40. Elias Nyamlel Wako Deputy: International Cooperation Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
41. Paulino Wanawila Onango Deputy: Justice Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
42. Salva Mathok Gengdit Deputy: Interior Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
43. Marial Awou Yol Deputy: Finance and Economic Planning Dinka Agaar Dinka Ciec Dinka Yirol East
44. Mary Jervas Yak Ubanyo Deputy: Finance and Economic Planning Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
45. Kwong Danhier Gatluak Deputy: Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Development Nuer Liech Nuer Nyuong Nuer Panyijiar
46. Kengen Jakor Beyo Deputy: Commerce, Industry and Investment Minority Group Mukaji Murle Pibor
47. Atem Yak Atem Deputy: Information and Broadcasting Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
48. Yatta Loli Lugar Deputy: Health Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
49. Beda Machar Deng Deputy: Agriculture and Forestry Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Twic) Twic
50. Simon Mijok Mijak Deputy: Roads and Bridges Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Dinka Panriang
51. Mayom Kuoch Malek Deputy: Transport Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Twic) Twic
52. Ms. Rebecca Joshua Okwaci Deputy: General Education and Instruction Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
53. Gabriel Kuch Abyei Deputy: Higher Education, Science and Technology Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek center
54. Philip Palet Gadin Deputy: Environment Nuer Phow Nuer Gawaar Nuer Ayod
55. Ms. Mary Nyawulang Ret Deputy: Housing and Physical Planning Nuer Phow Nuer Gawaar Nuer Ayod
56. Ms. Beatrice Khamisa Wani Deputy: Telecommunication and Postal Services Equatorian Central Equatorian  Bari Juba
57. Ms. Elizabeth James Bol Deputy: Petroleum and Mining Dinka Agaar Dinka Chiech Dinka Yirol East
58. Ms. Rhoda Atong David Alaak Deputy: Electricity and Dams Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
59. Ms. Priscilla Nyanyang Joseph Deputy: Gender, Child and Social Welfare Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
60. Ms. Sabina Dario Okolong Deputy: Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
61. Ms. Nadia Arop Dudi Deputy: Animal Resources and Fisheries Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Dinka Panriang
62. Ali Keti Ochie Deputy: Water Resources and Irrigation Minority Group Burun Burun Maban
63. Obuch Ojwok Deputy: Wildlife Conservation and Tourism Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Acholi Magwi

4TH Government of President Kiir: The Fourth Government of President Kiir (reshuffling of the 3rdGovernment), which was dissolved on 23rd July 2013, along with the Vice President Riek Machar.

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan-Chan) Gogrial West
2. Riek Machar Teny Vice President Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Nuer Leer
3. James Wani Igga Speaker of Parliament Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
4. Pagan Amum Okiech SPLM Secretary General Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Kodok
5. Chan Reech Madut Chief Justice Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Aguok) Gogrial West
6. Kornelious Koryom Mayik Governor of Central Bank Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
7. James Hoth Mai Chief of General Staff Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Ulang
8. Deng Alor Kuol Cabinet Affairs Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
9. John Koang Nyuon Defense and Veteran Affairs Nuer Phow Nuer Laak Nuer Fangak
10. Nhial Deng Nhial Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Thony) Tonj South
11. Emmanuel Lowilla Onango Office of the President Equatorian Central Equatorian Kakwa Yei
12. Oyai Deng Ajak National Security Service Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
13. John Luk Jok Justice Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
14. Alison Manani Magaya Interior Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
15. Michael Makwei Lueth Parliamentary Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
16. Kosti Manibe Ngai Finance and Economic Planning Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri
17. Garang Diing Akuong Commerce, Industry and Investment Dinka Rek Dinka

 

Aweil Dinka (Abiem) Aweil East
18. Barnaba Marial Benjamin Information and Broadcasting Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
19. Michael Milly Hussein Health Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
20. Ms. Betty Achan Ogwaro Agriculture and Forestry Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Acholi Magwi
21. Gier Chuang Aluong Roads and Bridges Dinka Padang Dinka Paweny Pigi
22. Ms. Agnes Poni Lokudu Transport Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
23. Joseph Ukel Abango General Education and Instruction Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
24. Peter Adwok Nyaba Higher Education, Science and Technology Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
25. Alfred Lado Gore Environment Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
26. Jemma Nunu Kumba Housing and Physical Planning Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
27. Madut Biar Yel Telecommunication and Postal Services Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil Center
28. Stephen Dhieu Dau Petroleum and Mining Dinka Padang Dinka Nyiel Dinka Melut
29. David Deng Athorbei Electricity and Dams Dinka Agaar Dinka Atuot Dinka Yirol West
30. Agnes Kwaje Lasuba Gender, Child and Social Welfare Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
31. Joseph Lual Achuil Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Kuach) Gogrial West
32. Paul Mayom Akech Water Resources and Irrigation Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
33. Gabriel Changson Chang Wildlife Conservation and Tourism Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Nasir
34. Martin Elia Lomuro Animal Resources and Fisheries Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
35. Cirino Hiteng Ofuho Culture, Youth and Sports Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
36. Wek Mamer Kuol Deputy: Cabinet Affairs Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Noi) Tonj North
37. Majak Agot Atem Deputy: Defense and Veteran Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
38. Ms. Beatrice Grace Daterio Deputy: Foreign Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
39. Paulino Wanawila Onango Deputy: Justice Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
40. Salva Mathok Gengdit Deputy: Interior Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
41. Marial Awou Yol Deputy: Finance and Economic Planning Dinka Agaar Dinka Ciec Yirol East
42. Mary Jervas Yak Ubanyo Deputy: Finance and Economic Planning Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
43. Kwong Danhier Gatluak Deputy: Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Development Nuer Liech Nuer Nyuong Panyijiar
44. Kengen Jakor Beyo Deputy: Commerce, Industry and Investment Minority Mukaji Murle Pibor
45. Atem Yaak Atem Deputy: Information and Broadcasting Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
46. Yatta Loli Lugar Deputy: Health Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
47. Beda Machar Deng Deputy: Agriculture and Forestry Dinka Rek Dinka Twic Dinka Twic
48. Simon Mijok Mijak Deputy: Roads and Bridges Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Panriang
49. Mayom Kuoch Malek Deputy: Transport Dinka Rek Dinka Twic Dinka Twic
50. Rebecca Joshua Okwaci Deputy: General Education and Instruction Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
51. Gabriel Kuch Abyei Deputy: Higher Education, Science and Technology Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek Center
52. Philip Palet Gadin Deputy: Environment Nuer Phow Nuer Gawaar Nuer Ayod
53. Ms. Mary Nyawulang Ret Deputy: Housing and Physical Planning Nuer Phow Nuer Gawaar Nuer Ayod
54. Ms. Beatrice Khamisa Wani Deputy: Telecommunication and Postal Services Equatorian Central Equatorian  Bari Juba
55. Ms. Elizabeth James Bol Deputy: Petroleum and Mining Dinka Agaar Dinka Chiech Dinka Yirol East
56. Ms. Rhoda Atong David Alaak Deputy: Electricity and Dams Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
57. Ms. Priscilla Nyanyang Joseph Deputy: Gender, Child and Social Welfare Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
58. Ms. Sabina Dario Okolong Deputy: Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
59. Ms. Nadia Arop Dudi Deputy: Animal Resources and Fisheries Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Panriang
60. Ali Keti Ochie Deputy: Water Resources and Irrigation Minority Group Burun Burun Maban
61. Obuch Ojwok Deputy: Wildlife Conservation and Tourism Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Acholi Magwi

5TH Government of President Kiir: The Fifth Government of President Kiir, which was appointed in August 2013, after the dismissal of Vice President Dr. Riek Machar

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan-Chan) Gogrial West
2. James Wani Igga Vice President Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
3. Manasseh Magok Rundial Speaker of Parliament Nuer Liech Nuer Jagei Nuer Koch
4. Anne Itto Leonardo SPLM Secretary General Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Madi Magwi
5. Chan Reech Madut Chief Justice Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Aguok) Gogrial West
6. Kornelius Koryom Mayiik Governor of Central Bank Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
7. James Hoth Mai Chief of General Staff Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Ulang
8. Martin Elia Lomoro Minister: Cabinet Affairs Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
9. Kuol Manyang Juuk Minister: Defense and Veteran Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
10. Barnaba Marial Benjamin Minister: Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
11. Awan Guol Riak Minister: Office of the President Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
12. Obote Mamur Mete Minister: National Security Service Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
13. Paulino Wanawilla Onango Minister: Justice Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
14. Aleu Ayieny Aleu Minister: Interior and Wildlife Conservation Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Noi) Tonj North
15. Aggrey Tisa Sabuni Minister: Finance, Commerce and Economic Planning Equatorian Central Equatorian Kuku Kajo-Keji
16. Ngor Kolong Ngor Minister: Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Development Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil Center
17. Riek Gai Kok Minister: Health Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
18. Michael Makwei Lueth Minister: Information and Broadcasting Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
19. Rebecca Joshua Okwachi Minister: Telecommunication and Postal Services Minority Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
20. Beda Machar Deng Minister: Agriculture, Tourism, and Natural Resources Dinka Rek Dinka Twic Dinka Twic
21. Kuong Danhier Gatluak Minister: Transport, Roads and Bridges Nuer Liech Nuer Nyuong Panyijiar
22. John Gai Yoh Minister: Education, Science and Technology Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Nasir
23. Catherine Juan Bennia Minister: Land, Housing and Physical Planning Equatorian Western Equatorian Kuku Kajo-keji
24. Jemma Nunu Kumba Minister: Electricity, Dams and Irrigation Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
25. Stephen Dhieu Dau Minister: Petroleum, and Mining, Industry Dinka Padang Dinka Nyiel Dinka Melut
26. Abdalla Deng Nhial Minister: Environment Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
27. Awut Deng Acuil Minister: Gender, Child and Social Development Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Akook) Tonj East
28. Nadia Arop Dudi Minister: Culture, Youth and Sports Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Panriang
29. Peter Bashir Gbandi Deputy: Foreign Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Baka Maridi
30. Jadalla Augustino Wani Deputy: Interior and Wildlife Conservation Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
31. Kengen Jakor Beyo Deputy: Finance, Commerce and Economic Planning Minority Group Mukaji Murle Pibor
32. Mary Jervas Yak Ubanyo Deputy: Finance, Commerce and Economic Planning Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
33. Simon Mijok Mijak Deputy: Transport, Roads and Bridges Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Panriang
34. Bol Makueng Yuol Deputy: Education, Science and Technology Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
35. Deng Arop Kuol Deputy: Land, Housing and Physical Planning Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
36. Elizabeth James Bol Deputy: Petroleum and Mining Dinka Agaar Dinka Chiech Dinka Yirol East
37. Selwa Gibril Beriberi Deputy: Cabinet Affairs Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
38. Martin Tako Moyi Deputy: Environment Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri
39. Josephine Napwon Cosmos Deputy: Culture, Youth and Sports Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Taposa Kapoeta
40. Rachel Nyadak Paul Deputy: Information and Broadcasting Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror

6TH Government of President Kiir: The Sixth Government of President Kiir, a reshuffling of the fifth government, which was dissolved before the formation of the KIIR-RIEK TGONU in 2016, after the signing of the Compromised Peace Agreement in Addis Ababa, popularly known as the Agreement for the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCISS), in August 2015.

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan Chan) Gogrial West
2. James Wani Igga Vice President Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
3. Manasseh Magok Rundial Speaker of Parliament Nuer Liech Nuer Jagei Nuer Koch
4. Jemma Nunu Kumba SPLM Secretary General Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
5. Chan Reech Madut Chief Justice Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Aguok) Gogrial West
6. Kornelius Koryom Mayiik Governor of Central Bank Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
7. Paul Malong Awan Chief of General Staff Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Abiem) Aweil East
8. Martin Elia Lomoro Cabinet Affairs Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
9. Kuol Manyang Juuk Defense and Veteran Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
10. Peter Bashir Gbandi Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Equatorian Western Equatorian Baka Maridi
11. Awan Guol Riak Office of the President Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
12. Obote Mamur Mete National Security Service Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
13. Paulino Wanawilla Onango Justice Minority Fertit Balanda Wau
14. Jadalla Augustino Wani Interior and Wildlife Conservation Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
15. David Deng Athorbei Finance, Commerce and Economic Planning Dinka Agaar Dinka Atuot Dinka Yirol West
16. Ngor Kolong Ngor Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Management Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil Center
17. Riek Gai Kok Health Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
18. Michael Makwei Lueth Information, and Broadcasting Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
19. Rebecca Joshua Okwaci Telecommunication and Postal Services Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
20. Beda Machar Deng Agriculture, Forestry, Tourism, Animal Resources and Fisheries Dinka Rek Dinka Twic Dinka Twic
21. Kuong Danhier Gatluak Transport, Roads and Bridges Nuer Liech Nuer Nyuong Panyijiar
22. John Gai Yoh Education, Science and Technology Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Nasir
23. Chatherine Juan Bennia Land, Housing and Physical Planning Equatorian Central Equatorian Kuku Kajo-keji
24. Stephen Dhieu Dau Petroleum, Mining, and Industry Dinka Padang Dinka Nyiel Dinka Melut
25. Jemma Nunu Kumba Electricity, Dams, Irrigation and Water Resources Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
26. Deng Deng Hoc Yai Environment Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Ajak) Aweil South
27. Awut Deng Acuil Gender, Child and Social Welfare Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Akook) Tonj East
28. Nadia Arop Dudi Culture, Youth and Sports Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Panriang
29. Acuil Tito Madut Deputy: Interior and Wildlife Conservation Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Kuach) Gogrial West
30. Kengen Jakor Beyo Deputy: Finance, Commerce and Economic Planning Minority Group Mukaji Murle Pibor
31. Mary Jervas Yak Ubanyo Deputy: Finance, Commerce and Economic Planning Minority Luo Jurchol Jur River
32. Rachel Nyadak Paul Deputy: Information, and Broadcasting Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
33. Lily Amuk Albino Akol Akol Deputy: Agriculture, Forestry, Tourism, Animal Resources and Fisheries Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Ajak) Aweil South
34.  Simon Mijok Mijak Deputy: Transport, Roads and Bridges Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Panriang
35. Bol Makueng Yuol Deputy: Education, Science and Technology Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek East
36. Deng Arop Kuol Deputy: Land, Housing and Physical Planning Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
37. Elizabeth James Bol Deputy: Petroleum, Mining and Environment Dinka Agaar Dinka Chiech Dinka Yirol East
38. Martin Tako Moyi Deputy: Environment Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri

7TH Government of President Kiir: The KIIR-RIEK’s Transitional Government of National Unity (TGONU), the Promulgation of the Compromised Peace Agreement, established after the signing of the Agreement for the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCISS) in Addis Ababa, August 2015.

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Mr. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan-Chan) Gogrial West
2. Mr. Riek Machar Teny 1st Vice President Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Nuer Leer
3. Mr. James Wani Igga Vice President Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
4. Manasseh Magok Rundial Speaker of Parliament Nuer Liech Nuer Jagei Nuer Koch
5. Jemma Nunu Kumba SPLM Secretary General Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
6. Chan Reech Madut Chief Justice Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Aguok) Gogrial West
7. Kornelius Koryom Mayiik Governor of Central Bank Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
8. Paul Malong Awan Chief of General Staff Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Abiem) Aweil East
9. Mrs. Awut Deng Acuil Minister, Gender and Social Welfare Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Akook) Tonj East
10. Mr. Deng Deng Hoc Minister, General Education and Instructions Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Ajak) Aweil South
11. Mr. Mayik Ayii Deng Minister, Office of the President Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Noi) Tonj North
12. Mr. Kuol Manyang Juuk Minister, Defense and Veteran Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
13. Mr. Michael Makwei Lueth Minister, Information and Broadcasting Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
14.

 

Mr. David Deng Athorbei Minister, Finance and Economic Planning Dinka Agaar Dinka Atuot Dinka Yirol West
15. Mr. Akol Paul Khordit Deputy Minister, Information and Broadcasting Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek Center
16. Mr. Stephen Dhieu Dau Minister, Trade and Industry Dinka Padang Dinka Nyiel Dinka Melut
17. Mrs. Nadia Arop Dudi Minister, Culture, Youth and Sports Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Dinka Panriang
18. Mr. James Janga Duku Minister, Livestock and Fisheries Equatorian Central Equatorian Kuku Kajo-Keji
19. Mrs. Jemma Nunu Kumba Minister, Wildlife and Tourism Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
20. Mr. Peter Bashir Gbandi Minister, Parliamentary Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Baka Maridi
21. Mr. Obote Mamur Mete Minister, National Security Service Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
22. Mrs. Josephine Napwon Cosmos Minister, Environment and Forestry Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Taposa Kapoeta
23. Mr. Martison Oturomoi Deputy Minister, Justice and Constitutional Affairs Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Buya Budi
24. Mr. Riek Gai Kok Minister, Health Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
25. Paulino Wanawila Onango Minister, Justice and Constitutional Affairs Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
26. Rebecca Joshua Okwaci Minister, Roads and Bridges Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
27. Mary Jervas Yak Ubanyo Deputy Minister, Finance and Economic Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River
28. David Yau Yau Jangkuch Deputy Minister, Defense and Veteran Affairs Minority Group Mukaji Murle Pibor
29. Mr. Dhieu Mathok Diing Minister, Energy and Dams Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil North
30. Mrs. Elizabeth Achuei Yol Deputy Minister, Labor and Public Service Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Twic) Twic
31. Mr. Mabior Garang de Mabior Minister, Water Resources and Irrigation Dinka Bor Dinka Twic Dinka Twic East
32. Mr. Alfred Ladu Gore Minister, Interior Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
33. Mr. Richard K. Mulla Minister, Federal Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri
34. Mrs. Mary Alphonse Lodira Minister, Land and Housing Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Didinga Budi
35. Mr. Taban Deng Ghai Minister, Mining Nuer Liech Nuer Western Jikany Guit
36. Mr. Hussein Mar Nyuot Minister, Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
37. Mr. Dak Duop Bichiok Minister, Petroleum Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajaak Maiwut
38. Mr. Gabriel Duop Lam Deputy Minister, Interior Nuer Phow Nuer Gawaar Ayod
39. Peter Adwok Nyaba Minister, Higher Education, Science and Technology Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
40. Peter Marcello Nasir Jelenge Minister, Labor and Public Service Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
41. Mr. Deng Aloor Kuol Minister, Foreign Affairs Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
42. Mr. John Luk Jok Minister, Transport Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
43. Mr. Cirino Hiteng Ofuho Deputy Minister, Foreign Affairs and Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
44. Mr. Martin Elia Lomoro Minister, Cabinet Affairs Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
45. Mr. Lam Akol Ajawin Minister, Agriculture and Food Security Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
46. Mr. Kornelio Kon Ngu Deputy Minister, Agriculture and Food Security Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River

8TH Government of President Kiir: The Current KIIR-TABAN TGONU, established after, and as a result of, the July 2016 fighting in Juba that led to the dissolution of the KIIR-RIEK TGONU, established after the signing of the Agreement for the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCISS) in Addis Ababa, August 2015.

S/no Name Position/Ministry Caucus Constituency Section County
1. Mr. Salva Kiir Mayaardit President Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Awan-Chan) Gogrial West
2. Mr. Taban Deng Ghai 1st Vice President, Republic of South Sudan Nuer Liech Nuer Western Jikany Guit
3. Mr. James Wani Igga Vice President, Republic of South Sudan Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
4. Anthony Lino Makana Speaker of Parliament Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
5. Jemma Nunu Kumba SPLM Secretary General Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
6. Chan Reech Madut Chief Justice Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Aguok) Gogrial West
7. Othom Rago Ajak Governor of Central Bank Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Manyo
8. Paul Malong Awan Chief of General Staff Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Abiem) Aweil East
9. Mrs. Awut Deng Acuil Minister, Gender and Social Welfare Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Akook) Tonj East
10. Mr. Deng Deng Hoc Minister, General Education and Instructions Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Ajak) Aweil South
11. Mr. Mayik Ayii Deng Minister, Office of the President Dinka Rek Dinka Tonj Dinka (Noi) Tonj North
12. Mr. Kuol Manyang Juuk Minister, Defense and Veteran Affairs Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
13. Mr. Michael Makwei Lueth Minister, Information and Broadcasting Dinka Bor Dinka Bor Dinka Bor
14.

 

Mr. Stephen Dhieu Dau Minister, Finance and Economic Planning Dinka Agaar Dinka Nyiel Dinka Melut
15. Mr. Akol Paul Khordit Deputy Minister, Information and Broadcasting Dinka Agaar Dinka Agaar Dinka Rumbek Center
16. Moses Hassan Ayet Tiel Minister, Trade and Industry Dinka Agaar Dinka  Atuot Dinka Yirol West
17. Mrs. Nadia Arop Dudi Minister, Culture, Youth and Sports Dinka Padang Dinka Panaru Dinka Panriang
18. Mr. James Janga Duku Minister, Livestock and Fisheries Equatorian Central Equatorian Kuku Kajo-Keji
19. Mrs. Jemma Nunu Kumba Minister, Wildlife and Tourism Equatorian Western Equatorian Zande Tambura
20. Mr. Peter Bashir Gbandi Minister, Parliamentary Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Baka Maridi
21. Mr. Obote Mamur Mete Minister, National Security Service Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Otuho Torit
22. Mrs. Josephine Napwon Cosmos Minister, Environment and Forestry Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Taposa Kapoeta
23. Mr. Martison Oturomoi Deputy Minister, Justice and Constitutional Affairs Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Buya Budi
24. Mr. Riek Gai Kok Minister, Health Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
25. Paulino Wanawila Onango Minister, Justice and Constitutional Affairs Minority Group Fertit Balanda Wau
26. Rebecca Joshua Okwaci Minister, Roads and Bridges Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Panyikang
27. Mou Ambrose Riiny Thiik Deputy Minister, Finance and Economic Dinka Rek Dinka Gogrial Dinka (Apuk-Giir) Gogrial East
28. David Yau Yau Jangkuch Deputy Minister, Defense and Veteran Affairs Minority Group Murle Murle Pibor
29. Mr. Dhieu Mathok Diing Minister, Energy and Dams Dinka Rek Dinka Aweil Dinka (Malual) Aweil North
30. Ms. Teko Nasike Alan Lochul Deputy Minister, Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Management Equatorian Eastern Equatorian Taposa Kapoeta
31. Sophia Pal Gai Minister, Water Resources and Irrigation Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajook Nasir
32. Michael Chiengjiek Geay Minister, Interior Nuer Liech Nuer Bul Nuer Mayom
33. Mr. Richard K. Mulla Minister, Federal Affairs Equatorian Western Equatorian Moru Mundri
34. Alfred Lado Gore Minister, Land and Housing and Urban Development Equatorian Central Equatorian Bari Juba
35. Gabriel Thokuj Deang Minister, Mining Minority Group Shilluk Shilluk Manyo
36. Mr. Hussein Mar Nyuot Minister, Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Nuer Lou Nuer Gon Uror
37. Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth Minister, Petroleum Nuer Jikany Nuer Gajaak Nuer Maiwut
38. Riaw Gatlier Gai Deputy Minister, Interior Nuer Liech Nuer Dok Leer
39. Yien Oral Lam Tut Minister, Higher Education, Science and Technology Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
40. Gabriel Duop Lam Minister, Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Management Nuer Phow Nuer Gawaar Nuer Ayod
41. Mr. Deng Aloor Kuol Minister, Foreign Affairs Dinka Padang Dinka Jok Dinka Abyei
42. Mr. John Luk Jok Minister, Transport Nuer Lou Nuer Moor Akobo
43. VACANT Deputy Minister, Foreign Affairs        
44. Mr. Martin Elia Lomoro Minister, Cabinet Affairs Equatorian Central Equatorian Pojullu Lainya
45. VACANT Minister, Agriculture and Food Security        
46. Mr. Kornelio Kon Ngu Deputy Minister, Agriculture and Food Security Minority Group Luo Jurchol Jur River

PaanLuel Wël, the managing editor of PaanLuel Wel: South Sudanese Bloggers (SSB), graduated with a double major in Economics and Philosophy from The George Washington University, Washington D.C, USA. He is the author of Who Killed Dr. John Garang, the editor of the essential speeches and writings of the late SPLM/A leader, Dr. John Garang, published as The Genius of Dr. John Garang, vol. 1-3, as well as a co-editor (with Simon Yel Yel) of President Sakva Kiir’s speeches before and after independence: Salva Kiir Mayaardit: The Joshua of South SudanYou can reach him through his email: paanluel2011@gmail.com or Facebook page


By David Deng Chapath, Kampala, Uganda

the-politics-of-south-sudan-ig-vs-io

The tragicomedy of the South Sudanese politics: SPLM-IG vs SPLM-IO

February 26, 2017 (SSB) — This article is in reaction and also in response to the recent article written by the acting leadership of Gok Community in Juba. The Community in Juba published an article entitled: Gok community withdraws confidence from state governor, on Radio Tamazuj on 19 February 2017.

As indicated by the article, the allegations of which they said they had withdrawn the confidence in the state Governor of Gok state, Madhang Majok Meen, were concerning the charges of undermining the rule of law and mismanagement in the state.

The article published on Radio Tamazuj website as cited above stated that the decision to ask the President to remove the Gok State Governor was reached at a meeting held at the residence of Daniel Awet Akot, the Presidential Adviser on Military Affairs and it was in that meeting it was resolved so that they community worked for the removal of Gok State Governor.

However, what is clear is that the letter bears the signatures of only two people, that is, the Acting Chairperson of the Gok Community Association in Juba, Deng Mador Koch and his Secretary General, Deng Mayom. The fact that it bears the signatures of these two people indicates that there is suspicion in the credibility of the letter.

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The Intractable Challenge to Modernizing the Republic of South Sudan vs. Building Ramciel City

By David Mayen Ayarbior, Juba, South Sudan

david-mayen-ayarbior

David Mayen Ayarbior, a Lawyer, Political Economist, and International Security specialist, is the author of House of War: Civil War and State Failure in Africa

February 12, 2017 (SSB) — A couple of weeks ago our country (Juba City) was ornamented by a visit from His Majesty King Mohammed VI of Morocco which lasted for about twenty-four hours (or two days).  During the visit, South Sudan and Morocco signed MOUs and Cooperation Agreements in many areas, including mining, agriculture and more important: construction of a whole new capital city in Ramciel.

Being one of the richest businessmen in Africa, the Moroccan King’s first visit to a sub-Saharan African country would not have been possible if he wasn’t convinced that it made good business sense. Nonetheless, it remains a very good gesture from the King to look for business in our country. Like a few other sub-Saharan countries, the potential opportunities for huge business profit in ours are immense.

The visit has been discussed by South Sudanese everywhere. For those in government it wouldn’t have happened at a more opportune juncture as this one, where only condemnations are flying all over the place. Not only has the government been chastised by the international community and accused of all kinds of human rights violations, its very legitimacy is being challenged by potent rebellions at home. It is also struggling with “managing” the economy.

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Why Economic and Political Uprising are civil means to end the Life of the Repugnant and Unproductive Government: The Case of the Government of South Sudan

By Tong Kot Kuocnin, Nairobi, Kenya

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January 12, 2017 (SSB) —- The history of many African Liberation Movements have succinctly and coherently revealed that fighting for freedoms, in order to free your people from all yokes of oppression and marginalization of the repressive and most terrible despotic regimes in Africa is one thing and maintaining the legacy after the war to live longer is another. Too many African liberation movements suffered this fate and SPLM as one of the Africa’s strongest liberation movements of its time is thoroughly defaced by this disease and is on the next row.

The SPLM fought a fierce protracted civil war with the Islamist led government centered in Khartoum for more than two bloody decades which eventually culminated to the signing of the comprehensive peace agreement which form legal basis for south Sudan statehood. That was such an admired and well received legacy the SPLM as a liberation movement registered in the history of our nation. But is this legacy worth living on as it should have been? It’s certainly not. The SPLM after becoming a ruling party in both the former Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan seems to have felt short of its visions and missions and certainly lost its right direction.

The legacy which it had earned is being eaten away by some ants in its own thatched house where its cleaners became bosses. The legacy is no longer worth living in hearts and minds of the peoples of south Sudan, maybe only the SPLM diehards like myself may say yes, it would live worth living but loosely because it is the same SPLM that is eating its own tail. This is manifested by unethical and unprocedural reckless quirky mismanagement of almost all the resources of the state misguided by this assumption of being leaders of SPLM. This malfeasance conducts by these leaders led to the standstill and hence dysfunctionality of all the other organs of the party hence relegating some of them becomes weak and useless.

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By Longar Mathiec Wol, Nairobi, Kenya

Nyawan and her children in Akobo

Bany Kiirdit: The shameful suffering of the children of our martyrs and heroes is disgraceful; photo by Emmanuel Kenyi

January 10, 2017 (SSB) — They call them fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, sons and daughters and we call them fallen heroes/heroines. The war of struggle for the independence of South Sudan brought about mixed effects; positive and negative. Positive in sense that we got independence and negative because the hopes have never been fulfilled. That independence cost us lives. The life of those we call heroes or heroines. That damage caused by losing these relatives is unrepairable.

The pain of losing the father, mother or relative. After these children’s parents gave up their life to free us; their children become a victim of their heroic act. They roam on the streets of ever states in south Sudan and we call them street children without knowing that their parents’ lives gave us homes we live in. We don’t bother to question what pushed them to the streets but we kick them out in our houses when they want place to sleep, when the want food to eat.

If their parents resurrect from death, they will call us all kind of names and will never accept to offer their precious life again for our freedom. They will know that what they did has benefited few not the way they expected. They will know that they were praiseworthy when they were alive but not after they passed way. They will know that country only knows them when they are a live but not after they are gone.

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By Ariik Atekdit, Juba, South Sudan

RSS coat of ARMS

South Sudan’s coat of arms, in which the eagle symbolizes vision, strength, resilience and majesty, and the shield and spear the people’s resolve to protect the sovereignty of their republic and work hard to feed it.

January 9, 2017 (SSB) — The crisis in South Sudan is not a question based on ideological conflict. Every faction whether being rebels of Dr Riek Machar or Dr Lam Akol wants the country to be ruled the way it is portrayed in the SPLM Manifestation. Kiir Mayardit in Juba and Pagan Amum in exile equally believe that there is nothing new to be added to the Garang’s proposed system of the SPLM government.

No single man among the rivals has come out with any different ideology to pull rope with against the standing one. And if there is no any different ideology that is conflicting in Juba administration, then what is the problem? We just need to sit down and set a constitution that will guide the principle and ideology of the 21 years of struggle.

To my simple understanding, the political agitation of South Sudan demands a constitutional solution. The ruling elements might be hesitating that if any permanent constitution with any national concrete principles is put in place then the constitution will definitely not forgive their wrongdoings and set them for political eviction but that is the only solution to our national conflicts and South Sudanese must demand it now and not later.

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Consolidating Unity and Lasting Peace in an Ethnically Divided South Sudan

By Tong Kot Kuocnin, Nairobi, Kenya

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January 7, 2017 (SSB) — Faced with the challenges of a nation’s building and preserving and consolidating peace and unity in an ethnically divided south Sudan, it is now high time to initiate an equal quest for a national identity. What has to be promoted is an orientation from the freedom of indifference where almost everybody feels excluded from the stakes of his/her own nation to a freedom of involvement where each and every one of us plays role in reshaping the chattered away and loss of ownership and nationalistic tendency in the hearts and minds of the people from various communities in south Sudan. This demands the harmonization of rights and duties of all.

So far, however, the argument which had vividly overwhelmed and flooded the minds of everybody in south Sudan is the idea that the conflict which has almost engulfs the nation is a conflict between Dinka(s) and Nuer(s) where some other people who are even stakeholders in the governance of the country since day one are reluctant and paid no attention at all. Our responsibility in preserving our unity and peace is a collective issue to be addressed by all and not the only two tribes which are sentimentally at loggerheads on the common property of everybody in south Sudan. South Sudan doesn’t belong to the Dinka and Nuers alone. It’s belongs to all its inhabitants i.e. all the tribes in south Sudan including the aforementioned tribes.

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Why the Seat of Hybrid Court for South Sudan should be situated within South Sudan

By Tong Kot Kuocnin, Nairobi, Kenya

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January 5, 2017 (SSB) — This article explores fears of the two principal leaders who are opposed to the establishment of the hybrid court for South Sudan and argue clearly, in an attempt to dispel their negative perceptions with regards to the court’s establishment. Our leaders are obliged to honor the terms of the agreement they have both signed in letter and spirit and any attempt to sidestep any provision of the agreement amounts to its breach which invites some international consequences on either side.

The reason as to why a court which like hybrid court for South Sudan was needed to try crimes committed during the conflict is two folds; (1) the opposition trust not any longer the judiciary of South Sudan due to its subservience to the regime they are fighting because the opposition question whether the legal regime in South Sudan has the ability to address such crimes and (2) because the crimes committed during the conflict are international in character (war crimes and crimes against humanity excluding genocide which is not agreed upon as per the findings of the African union Commission of Inquiry on the conflict in South Sudan).

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The Impetuses for Transformation and Reform in Leadership and Management of the Judiciary of the Republic of South Sudan

By Tong Kot Kuocnin, Nairobi, Kenya

Chan Reech Madut

Justice Chan Reech Madut, head of South Sudan Judiciary

January 5, 2017 (SSB) — The agreement on the Resolution of the conflict in the Republic of South Sudan mandates a reconstruction of South Sudanese society according to the ideals and values expressed in its preamble and in a host of other related provisions enshrine therein. In this respect the agreement unmistakably conveys its overriding objective to provide a framework to transform South Sudan into a united, democratic and prosperous society founded on human dignity, social justice, human rights and the principles of good governance. Whereas every institution of governance in this country, either in its constitutional design or responsibility, has a duty to oversee these reconstructive reforms, the Judiciary which is the discussing topology of this article occupies a unique place.

This is because the Judiciary is tasked with the important role of interpreting the constitution, finding and giving it meaning where there is contestation, and robustly patrolling its boundaries whenever there are threats. In many respect, therefore, the Judiciary is the ultimate agency that will oversee a successful transitional reforms. For the Judiciary to ably perform this role, it must lift itself out of years of political servitude, low standards of professionalism and interference, wide corruption and delinquent jurisprudence into a position of institutional independence and autonomy that secures public confidence and a jurisprudence of that commands Peer respect.

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“We the willing, led by the unknowing, are doing the impossible for the ungrateful. We have done so much, with so little, for so long, we are now qualified to do anything, with nothing”

Prepared by Editorial Team: Kur Wël Kur, Emmanuel Ariech Deng and PaanLuel Wël

PaanLuel Wël: South Sudanese Bloggers (SSB): The Best Articles, Writers, of the Year 2016

December 31, 2016 (SSB) — The year 2016, in some hours, will dwindle into the past, and the people of South Sudan, along with the rest of the world, will welcome 2017. Every New Year is a joyful celebration, a celebration of the last year achievements, achievements that include being alive and healthy, recognizing the selfless leaders, whether in journalism, governance, or other important issues such as women’s rights issues, economic growth, conflicts and peace.

This year, our country, with its suffering population, has been featured hundreds over hundreds of websites all over the world, mostly in bad light. However, PaanLuel Wël: South Sudanese bloggers (SSB), our own website, occupies the central stage in publishing articles, which make sense of the dire situations in our beloved country. It is also an instrumental informant to South Sudanese worldwide because it publishes opinion articles and news commentaries from South Sudanese, both within and outside the country. These opinions explain the general and specific lives and situations of South Sudanese in countries such as Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, USA, and many other places where South Sudanese are taking refuge.

Today, PaanLuel Wël: South Sudanese bloggers (SSB) is celebrating the diverse and excellent works of some writers and acknowledging the work of other hundred contributors, columnists and opinions-writers whose names or works won’t appear in this article. We got lots of writers on our website, and it is imperative to motivate and encourage them with something unique to mark the end of the year 2016 and the commencement of the year 2017.

Here are the 2016 review:

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Tributes, Homages and Salutations to one of the eminent South Sudanese artists, David Garang Deng Aguer, popularly known as “Adun Ciin Daam”

By Awuol Gabriel Arok, Juba, South Sudan

Artist David Garang Deng Aguer

Artist David Garang Deng Aguer

December 28, 2016 (SSB) — With distress and grieve you will be missed David, never did you see the morning and evening of 27 December 2016 deep into the New Year 2017 which you have just missed by 5 days, lifeless feverish had just taken hold of you on the gloomy evening of 26 December 2016 and greatly robbed your loving relatives, friends, colleagues and people of South Sudan of your precious soul and comforting Art.

Dear David; with heavy heart and watery eyes, I salute your wholesome comradeship, your energetic and visionary dream as the bible says ‘‘Each man should give what he has decided in his heart to give, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful givers’’  2 Corinthians 9:7 of which you have bravely responded to without reservations.

Dear David; you have given the people of South Sudan a complete and connected switch that will remains in history, your humble songs did not only entertain us but have united and counseled our minds that have been traumatized by the long wars of liberation, preciously when the need for counseling and awareness was high, your nationalistic songs of freedom have opened up veins and arteries of peace, love, unity and awareness.

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