Brief History of South Sudan And Brief Profile of Salva Kiir Mayardit
By Comrade Larco Lomayat, Kampala, Uganda
October 19, 2016 (SSB) — South Sudan’s struggle for independence started way back in 1820, with many people going to the bush and leaving behind their wives, children and families. The fearless warriors staked their lives for the sake of liberating Southern Sudanese from the pangs of suppression and oppression. This led to the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement, also known as the Addis Ababa Accord in March 1972.
The agreement, signed by Sudanese president Jaafar Muhammad Numeiry and Joseph Lagu of the Anya Nya (a southern Sudanese rebellion movement), ended the First Sudanese Civil War. The agreement was a series of compromises aimed at appeasing the leaders of the insurgency in Southern Sudan, after the first Sudanese civil war proved costly to the government in the North. The agreement granted Southern Sudan autonomy, creating the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region.
However, Numeiry’s government in Khartoum dishonored all the peace agreements including the Addis Ababa Agreement, sparking the second Sudanese civil war.
This series of events is what eventually led to the formation of the SPLA/M in1983. The SPLM/A put up a spirited fight and refused to lay down their tools until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed, ending the war in January 2005. This also saw Dr. John Garang appointed First Vice-President of The Sudan and President of Southern Sudan in January 2005.
However, Dr. Garang died in a helicopter crash on July 30, 2005, and Cde. Salva Kiir Mayardit was chosen to succeed as First Vice- President of Sudan and President of Southern Sudan.
South Sudanese geared up for the forthcoming independence referendum where they had to make a choice between being “second class citizens in their own country” or “free people in their independent state”.
In April 2010, Kiir was re-elected with 93% of the vote, marking a major step in the process of secession. Following his re-election, Omar al-Bashir reappointed Kiir as the First Vice-President of Sudan in accordance with the interim constitution.
Then came D-day, January 9, 2011, when Southern Sudanese voted over 99% for freedom. This session is the reason South Sudanese celebrated Historic Independence on July 9. 2011; that was birth of 54th country in Africa and 193rd in the world.
On July 9, 2011, the world gathered in Juba to witness the birth of the newest nation in the world. More than 3,500 dignitaries from around the world and over one hundred thousand South Sudanese and friends of South Sudan from all over the world attended the celebrations as South Sudan officially got her Independence. On the same day, the UN formally recognized South Sudan. In his welcome speech, the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon, committed to support the new nation. He said: “Together we welcome the Republic of South Sudan to the community of nations. Together we affirm our commitment to helping it meet its many responsibilities as a nation.”
Subsequently, on July 14, the South Sudan flag was raised in New York and South Sudan was officially recognized the United Nations as the 193rd member state.
Following that, on September 23, 2011, the President of South Sudan, H.E Salva Kiir Mayardit, for the first time delivered the speech of the nation in United Nations General Assembly New York. He added his voice to what the many dignitaries had said and committed their support to South Sudan
and other nations. He remarked: “We remain strongly committed to maintaining peaceful and mutual beneficial relations with all states and particularly with our neighbors.”
It is on the same day, September 23, 2011, that President Salva Kiir, for the first time also met United States of America President Barrack Obama and the prime minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu.
To conclude the grand event, South Sudan raised its flag in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and was officially welcomed to the African Union as the 54th nation. Long live South Sudan. Your sweat has finally paid off.
There is someone who was behind the freedom and the independence of South Sudan, that person tirelessly worked so hard to see his people free, he took his people and crossed the river to the Promised Land. That person is called Salva Kiir Mayardit who his brief profile is here below:
Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit
· President of the Republic of South Sudan
· Commander in-Chief of the Sudan people’s Liberation Army (SPLA)
· Chairman of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM)
· Born in 1952 in Akon, Gogrial County, Warrap State, South Sudan
· Married with eight children
· Christian (Catholic)
Qualification and Experience:
· Attended Akon Primary School.
· Attended Secondary School in Kuajok in Gogrial County.
· Attended Sudan Military College in infantry training and graduated as Second Lt in Sudan Armed Forces as an outstanding and leading graduate in military and academic performance.
· Attended Sudan Military College in Military Intelligence training
· Ascended to the Rank of Captain in Sudan Military Intelligence
· Served in various military garrisons in North and Southern Sudan
As Member of the First Rebellion In Southern Sudan:
· Joined the first Southern Sudan Rebellion Army (Anya-nya) in 1960 at age of 17 years old.
· Attend first guerrilla warfare training in the early 1960s
· Participated in various guerrilla warfare in Southern Sudan till the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972.
As A Founding Member of the SPLM/SPLA:
· Participated in the early formation of the SPLM/A with his comrades Col. Dr. John Garang, Lt Col. Karbino Kuonyin Bol, Lt Col. William Nyuon Bany in the Sudan Armed Forces in the early 1980s.
· Participated in the rebellion in 1983 under the leadership of the late Dr. John Garang, followed by Kerbino Kuonyin, William Nyuon, Salva Kiir and Arok Thon Arok.
· Member of the First SPLM/A Military-Political High Command Council in 1983 and that included Col. Dr. John Garang, Lt Col. Karbino Kuonyin Bol, Lt Col. William Nyuon Bany, Hon. Joseph Oduho, Justice Majier Gai, Major, Salva Kiir, and Major Arok Thon Arok.
· He was a commander of the first SPLA Battalion (Tiger) and commanded various SPLA forces that captured many towns in different parts of New Sudan, particularly in Blue Nile, Upper Nile, Equatoria and Bahr el Ghazal regions.
· Commanded the SPLA training during the liberation struggle and assumed many key and strategic positions during the liberation struggle including command of SPLA, military intelligence and administrative supervision of some regions of New Sudan.
· After the split of the SPLM in 1991, Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit remained with Dr. John Garang as Second in command of the SPLM/A to Late Dr. John Garang.
· He was elected unanimously by the SPLM First National Convention in 1994 as the Deputy Chairman of the SPLM.
As Peace Maker:
· He led the SPLM Delegation to the Sudan Peace Talks in Abuja, Nigeria in 1993.
· He led the SPLM first delegation to the Sudan Peace Talks in Kenya in 2002 and that resulted in the signing of Machakos Protocol on July 20, 2002 and which granted the people of Southern Sudan the right of self-determination by 2011.
· Supervision of Darfur Peace Talks in Abuja, Nigeria.
· Supervision of Eastern Sudan Peace Talks in Asmara, Eritrea.
· Initiated the unification of Darfur movements for the peace talks.
· Initiated peace talks between Ugandan Government and Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA).
· Concluded Juba Declaration between SPLM and other Southern armed groups to be incorporated in the Sudan People’s Liberation Army.
As Chairman of the SPLM:
· After the death of the Late Dr. John Garang in 2005, he was unanimously elected by the SPLM Leadership as the new Chairman of the SPLM.
· He was unanimously elected by the SPLM Second National Convention as the Chairman of the SPLM in 2008.
· He is the Chairman of the SPLM National Liberation Council.