Archive for December 15, 2011

South Sudan Engagement Conference


Wednesday, December 14, 2011, 1:30 PM

Washington, D.C.


Robert B. Zoellick,

President, World Bank Group



President Kiir, Ministers, ladies and gentlemen.

It’s my great personal pleasure to be with you here today to congratulate the people of Africa’s newest nation and the world’s youngest country, South Sudan.

For far too many years, the Southern Sudanese have known war and suffering.  Achieving independence under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and overcoming many roadblocks and challenges along the way, testifies to the determined diplomatic skills of President Kiir and his fellow peace-builders.

I first worked closely on the trials of Sudan with the late John Garang.  I am sorry he cannot be with us.  But I suspect he’s watching – and smiling – as we meet today.  He would be proud of what you have accomplished – but he also would be demanding about the work still ahead.

I’m also pleased we could meet here in Washington.  Americans – from all walks of life, across Administrations, Congresses, and Executives – are proud to have strived with you.


So I’d like to thank the U.S. Government for organizing this timely Conference.

I want especially to recognize the Members of Congress who were stalwart in their support for South Sudan over so many years.  I know from my labors with them that these Congresspersons have been deeply committed to your people and your cause.

The World Bank Group is pleased today to be working closely with other co-sponsors, including the governments of Norway, Turkey, and the United Kingdom; the African Union; the European Union; the United Nations; the Corporate Council on Africa; as well as the leading civil society organization, Interaction.

I recall working with many fine and courageous people from your countries and organizations in years past – trying to help South Sudan to arrive at this point.

I also want to thank the AU High level Implementation Panel of Presidents Mbeki, Buyoya, and Abubacar, for their efforts in the talks between Sudan and South Sudan.

Although they are now two independent countries, Sudan and South Sudan remain interdependent.  They need to find a path of peace and security, growth and opportunity, together and connected.

I’m particularly pleased to welcome our guests today from private business.  The private sector plays a critical role in stimulating economic growth, jobs, sustainable markets, and economic vitality – and South Sudan offers significant opportunities for your energy, innovation, and investment.

I’d like to say a few words about some of those opportunities – as well as the formidable challenges that lie ahead for South Sudan.

Challenges and Opportunities

South Sudan is roughly the size of France – but with a population of 8 to 9 million, it has only about an eighth of France’s people.  Most of South Sudan’s population is very young: almost three quarters are under the age of thirty.  83 percent reside in rural areas.

South Sudan is one of the poorest countries in the world; despite some recent improvements, its human development indicators remain among the lowest in the world.

More than half the population lives in grinding poverty.

Only 3 percent of women receive prenatal services.  One in 4 maternal deaths occurs during pregnancy or within two months after delivery.  Less than a third of those 15 and above are literate.

Adding to these challenges, South Sudan has been absorbing large numbers of returning migrants who need help to resume their lives in new communities.

I recall visiting Juba and Rumbek in 2005, walking around burned-out military equipment, rutted roads, and a damaged, simple school building.  And that was in town.

So I recognize that since the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, important progress has been made in infrastructure and in basic services.  Adventurous entrepreneurs have created a small business boom.  But there is a huge demand – and so far, this is only a start from a very low base.

Today, there are only about 100 km of paved roads in South Sudan – that’s 60 miles of paved roads in a country around the same size as France.

Only one percent of people in South Sudan have access to electricity, and its cost is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa.  Without electricity, children can’t study after sunset; many businesses can’t thrive.  75 percent of businesses report that having no power is the single, biggest hurdle to investment in South Sudan.

Yet South Sudan offers real possibilities, too.

The country has rich agricultural and forestry potential, with good land, good weather, and lots of water.

It has significant oil reserves – about three quarters of Sudan’s overall crude output.

The country has a history of resilient social structures, including effective customary law and dispute resolution mechanisms, being embedded in the apparatus of a new state.

There is a significant trained diaspora, some of whom have returned to their country.

And there is international goodwill that can still generate considerable resources for development.

Coalition Building

The greatest threat to South Sudan’s development and ability to overcome poverty is a new eruption of conflict.  Fires still simmer.  Violence in the South has claimed more than 2,000 lives this year – and perhaps as many as 3,000.

The Bank’s 2011 World Development Report on conflict, security and development offers lessons about how to secure development in a post-conflict state such as South Sudan.

Building institutional legitimacy is the key to stability.  But institutions and legitimacy can only be built over time; they also depend on producing results.

Citizens in fragile states have told us that the results they want most are citizen security, justice, and jobs.

If the results are achieved by bringing people together in “inclusive enough” coalitions – not necessarily everyone, but a critical mass – the coalitions, new capacity, and results come together to start to build institutions.

Early wins are important.  As Rwanda has shown, engaging citizens in cleaning the country, building it, making it better – this builds pride and citizenship.

We’ve seen some quick wins in South Sudan.  Prior to independence there were at least seven armed groups operating in nine of the country’s ten states, with tens of thousands of people uprooted and scattered from their homes and communities.  President Kiir has reached out to these groups, helping to bring stability to most parts of South Sudan.

Now peace needs to spread.  Even when facing dangerous groups, force needs to be used with care so as not to lose the support of the local people.

Supporters of states emerging from conflict need to adopt a layered approach:  Some problems can be addressed at the country level, but others need to be addressed at regional or global levels.

South Sudan will need a broad national coalition to tackle these formidable development challenges, to be as resilient in building your new country as you were in fighting, surviving, and negotiating for it.

President Kiir has wisely called first and foremost for unity, inclusion, and development, with peaceful neighborly relations.

Additional Building Blocks

The Government has produced a charter for its future called the South Sudan Development Plan.

To support this Development Plan, I’d suggest a focus on three priorities.

First, ensure macroeconomic stability and fiscal sustainability: Managing oil dependence will be central to maintaining economic stability, which is critical for the country’s social and economic goals.  High inflation will also erode the public’s confidence in their currency, their savings, and the country.

You need to manage the jump in both oil revenues and aid in a sustainable way. You need to own your country’s development.  So as you build, build your own capacity.  If you build something, be prepared to operate and maintain it.  Make sure the government’s budget is comprehensive and covers all expenses.  Make it transparent, too.

Second, provide basic health, education, and other key services: Your people are your country.  Take care of them.  Invest in them.  They are your future.

Currently, the government provides very limited services, relying on CSOs, community groups, and charities to supplement these services.  Future government spending is uncertain.

The government, with help from local communities, and the World Bank Group and other partners, needs to increase the reach and quality of key services, making these work through decentralization – and reaching far beyond Juba.  It’s fine to rely on others now.  But start to integrate these services within your design.  Over time, you’ll need to fund and operate the services.  You are independent, so look beyond dependence.

Third, kick-start non-oil growth: South Sudan needs a more diverse base of growth – for jobs, skills, safety, and to fulfill the land’s and people’s potential.

Private companies and investors can create new businesses and jobs.  Yet the costs of doing business in South Sudan are too high.  This year, the World Bank’s “Doing Business” report ranked Juba 159th out of 183 economies on ease of doing business, explaining that important laws and institutions are still absent.

To increase private sector engagement, South Sudan will need to improve its transportation infrastructure and strengthen its regulatory framework, as well as other economic measures to lower costs of doing business.

The Scourge of Corruption

I also want to note one particular problem facing South Sudan: corruption.

You are the founding fathers and mothers of your country.

This is a great honor.  And opportunity.  And responsibility.

Whether it takes the form of bribes at checkpoints, or officials taking cuts from deals, corruption gnaws away at political systems, weakens institutions, impedes the flow of commerce – and it is the people of South Sudan, your brothers and sisters, who pay the price.

I am delighted that President Kiir has spoken out strongly against corruption. The plans to strengthen the Anti-Corruption Commission and require asset declarations by public officials are important steps.

I hope the Legislative Assembly will have the capacity to carry out its accountability function.  State and county governments should be helped to manage resources transparently and be accountable to citizens for delivery of services.  It would be a wonderful foundation for the future if the first government of South Sudan establishes the checks and accountability so that police and security forces – state organs with coercive power – respect the rule of law.

All of us have seen too many good starts trip up if security forces dominate – instead of serve – the public.

Empowered citizens can hold their own governments accountable.

We will help.  We’ll show how transparency assists.  How it can be connected to social accountability.  How new tools can help.  How good governance has been built elsewhere.

World Bank Group Support

The World Bank Group has been a staunch partner of South Sudan from the very beginning.  We will continue to be.

Since 2005, the Bank played an important role in Sudan’s development.  The multi-donor trust fund for South Sudan has disbursed more than $476 million, that’s about 88 percent of the total amount contributed to the fund.  It supports 20 projects in more than 10 sectors, including infrastructure, health, education and the private sector.

We also created a $75 million South Sudan Transition Trust Fund in June this year to improve health care, build roads, and create new jobs for the people of South Sudan.

As South Sudan becomes the newest member of the World Bank Group, it will be able to access concessional financing from our fund for the poorest countries, the International Development Association.

The International Finance Corporation, or IFC – our private sector arm – has already helped Sudan put in place the basic legal framework for business.  IFC will next turn to financial sector development; investment promotion in key sectors such as agriculture; and funding options for those investments.

And we plan on working with South Sudan and other development partners to hold a Donor Conference in 2012, with the theme of “the effective use of resources for results.”


South Sudan has now emerged as a new nation, optimistic and hopeful.  Yet it is a nation that still bears the scars of decades of conflict that killed millions, made refugees of most of its people, and crippled the country’s development.

As President Kiir said in July this year, at the birth of South Sudan’s independence, “the night may be long; but the day will come for sure.”

The people of South Sudan are working hard to build their future.

We congratulate their commitment and their courage.

We stand with you and walk with you.

I know President Kiir and the government face many demands and are deluged with suggestions.  Perhaps the most important point now is to act.  Sometimes too much advice from donors can overwhelm, even paralyze.  Exercise your judgment as best you can, and then we and others will work with you to learn and improve.

You’ve already seen the amazing come to pass.  You know that dreams can become reality.  Let’s work together to make that happen for the generations that will walk in your footsteps.  That would be a tremendous legacy of peace.

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US seeks trade, business ties with South Sudan

Posted: December 15, 2011 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Economy


WASHINGTON — The United States on Thursday highlighted a series of steps to help develop South Sudan’s economy, at the end of a conference designed to give a boost to the new country’s development.

Washington said the US Treasury Department would issue two licenses that bypass sanctions on Sudan to allow financial transactions by South Sudan’s petroleum and petrochemical industries.

The Department will also permit the transshipment of some goods, technology and services to entice greater investment to South Sudan.

The White House said in a statement that it wanted to expand trade between the United States and South Sudan.

Officials were assessing whether South Sudan is eligible for duty-free treatment on footwear and agricultural products and other goods under the US African Growth and Opportunity Act.

The US Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) was also working out how to open in South Sudan, the White House said.

The two-day conference, in the presence of South Sudan President Salva Kiir, was organized in Washington by the United States, the European Union, and the African Union, among others.

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on Wednesday urged South Sudan to manage its oil windfall well, warning that the new country’s wealth could be a curse that holds back development.

“We know that it will either help your country finance its own path out of poverty, or you will fall prey to the natural resource curse,” Clinton told a conference aimed at boosting international support for South Sudan.

That curse “will enrich a small elite, outside interests, corporations and countries, and leave your people hardly better off than when you started,” the chief US diplomat said.

She held up oil-rich Norway, a key supporter of South Sudan, and diamond-rich Botswana as positive examples of nations that have successfully managed their natural resource wealth.

South Sudan — which emerged in July as an independent state from a referendum outlined in a 2005 agreement that ended two decades of civil war — possesses most of the oil fields from the former united Sudan.

The United States fears fighting along the border between Sudan and South Sudan could undermine implementation of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended a two-decade civil war and led to the south’s independence.

South Sudanese President Says Country Open for Business

By Carolyn Presutti

President of South Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit speaks during the South Sudan International Engagement Conference in Washington, DC. The two-day conference was to highlight the national development vision of South Sudan and the opportunities for investment i

Photo: AFP
President of South Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit speaks during the South Sudan International Engagement Conference in Washington, DC. The two-day conference was to highlight the national development vision of South Sudan and the opportunities for investment in the country, December 14, 2011.

South Sudan became an independent nation in July, and it’s looking for business.  An international conference in Washington Wednesday and Thursday is focusing on the new country in Africa and featuring speeches from President Salva Kiir and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.  But a South Sudanese American living in Washington says there’s much more to be done before economic development succeeds.

The South Sudanese president greeted Washington, wearing his trademark American cowboy hat.  International investors welcomed him as a celebrity.

“I want to invite you today to come with me to South Sudan after this conference to help develop our potential in oil, gas and mineral resources,” Kiir stated.

The oil is a boon for the world’s newest country, but it’s also a strain.  South Sudan ended up with 70 percent of the oilfields in its independence break up.  But South Sudan is landlocked.  So it relies on Sudan to the north for pipelines.

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said oil can lift South Sudan out of poverty.  But she warned of the prospect of poor management.

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“You will fall prey to the natural resource curse which will enrich a small elite, outside interests, corporations, and countries and leave your people hardly better off than when you started,” Clinton said.

South Sudan became a new country after decades of war.  Continuing border violence has displaced hundreds of thousands. The Sudan People’s Liberation Army fought for the south’s independence.  Angelos Agok was one of them.  Now, he’s an American citizen,

He’s proud he helped South Sudan win its freedom. And proud of his old boss who became president.  Still, he’s worried about how international companies do business in South Sudan.

“These companies bring these people from their country and employ them 100 percent. I will tell you, including those who clean the floor are not South Sudanese.   And so, it doesn’t create any economy,” Agok noted. “And doesn’t create job security for the people whom we fought for.”

To the South Sudanese, independence means more than a separate country, separate government. Agok says his countrymen have basic needs like food and jobs.  And, only then will they have true peace.

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WASHINGTON, December 15, 2011/African Press Organization (APO)/ — Remarks

Hillary Rodham Clinton

Secretary of State

Marriott Wardman Park Hotel

Washington, DC

December 14, 2011

Thank you very much, Assistant Secretary Johnnie Carson, who has been an absolutely essential leader on behalf of our policies in Africa and in particular with respect to South Sudan. And I want publicly to thank him for all of his work.

President Kiir, it is an honor to welcome you here as a head of state along with your ministers and distinguished delegation. I also wish to thank our co-hosts: the United Kingdom, Norway and Turkey; the European Union, the African Union, the United Nations, and the World Bank; the International Finance Corporation, the Corporate Council on Africa, and InterAction. I also want to acknowledge and thank Dr. Raj Shah and USAID. They are doing absolutely important work on the ground, and we thank them for their many contributions.

As Johnnie said, South Sudan’s quest for peace and dignity has resonated around the world and in the hearts of the American people. In fact, American families sheltered and raised children fleeing from war. Our churches and our NGOs provided instrumental assistance, both on the ground and to those who had to leave their beloved country. Lawmakers like Senators Kerry and Lugar, Representatives Smith, Payne, Wolf, and Capuano, along with Sheila Jackson Lee, who is here with us today, made your cause their own. We welcome them and all of you who have made the long journey literally from South Sudan to be here with us, but also those of you who have made the long journey over so many years to help end a war and now to see a new state born.

And on July 9th, we celebrated as the world’s newest country came into being. That is one part of the story. What we do today is critical if that story is to have a happy ending. We meet to help the leadership and the people of South Sudan chart their future. Now, President Kiir has laid out an ambitious vision for development, and I was briefed on the speech that he gave to you just a short while ago. And those are plans that we fully support. But I want this morning to focus on how the United States and the international community can partner with South Sudan to help create the conditions that make successful development possible.

What are those conditions? Well, first and foremost, real peace and security; an end to war; the opportunity to make it possible for children to envision a different future; transparency and accountability that will give not only reassurance to the international community, but most importantly to the people themselves – they have scarified and lost so much, and now they want to be part of helping to build their new country; policies that favor broad, inclusive, sustainable growth, and that commitment to inclusiveness is key. Everyone must feel that he or she has a stake in this future.

Now, the challenges ahead are formidable. You’re here because you’re interested, you’re committed, but I assume you’re also knowledgeable. You know there are great opportunities but some daunting obstacles. South Sudan is one of the least developed nations on earth. It faces a difficult, mutually dependent relationship with its northern neighbor. It is confronting continued violence in that border region; deficits in health, education, infrastructure, governance, the rule of law; ethnic tensions; a combustible mix of extreme poverty, natural wealth, and fragile institutions. And I would add also not yet as much of a change in attitude, an evolution in people’s minds and hearts that they must move forward and they must reach out and make sure that they are working with others.

So a great deal needs to be done to translate the promise of independence into concrete improvements. Well, first, we must continue our work together to maintain peace and security, which are preconditions for successful development anywhere. While South Sudan and Sudan have become separate states, their futures remain inextricably linked. South Sudan’s ability to attract and keep trade and investment depends on greater security on both sides of its northern border. Right now, conflicts in Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan threaten to spill into South Sudan. These issues must be resolved.

Reconciliation, agreements, negotiations between former advisories are difficult. We’ve seen it all over the world. But we know what a difference it can make, and we know that it’s essential if societies expect to move forward. Sometimes when you have been at war for so long and you have suffered so much, it’s hard – mentally, psychologically, emotionally – to leave war behind and to say to oneself, to one’s family, and one’s neighbors, “Now let us build what we were fighting for.” Now, you cannot do this work without a willing partner in Khartoum. But the United States, our Troika partners, Norway and the UK, the African Union, which has done absolutely fabulous work in this arena, and many others stand ready to help preserve and finalize a hard-won peace.

Within its own borders, South Sudan’s Government must complete the transition from armed struggle to nation building. President Kiir has rightly made it a priority to resolve longstanding local conflicts. And the United States will continue to support the new UN Mission’s important work to preserve peace, safeguard human rights, and protect civilians.

Second, we must help South Sudan live up to President Kiir’s pledge to build strong institutions, root out corruption, and promote transparent and accountable governance – all of which are critical building blocks on the path to prosperity. His five-point plan clearly articulates for the South Sudanese people how the government plans to address their needs. That’s a good start, but, of course, as we say, the proof is in the pudding. What matters most is whether the government follows through on it.

And nowhere will the transparency and accountability that President Kiir has promised be more important than in managing South Sudan’s abundant natural resources. We know that it will either help your country finance its own path out of poverty, or you will fall prey to the natural resource curse, which will enrich a small elite, outside interests, corporations, and countries, and leave your people hardly better off then when you started.

I stress this point because all we have to do is look around the world to see the two alternative visions. Norway, which has been such a strong supporter of South Sudan’s independence, shows a way forward, how to put natural resources that were there by the grace of God into a trust fund that will support the needs of the Norwegian people for generations to come. But in Africa, Botswana also provides an example. Botswana put its diamonds wealth into a trust fund mechanism, and the money that was thrown off of that has paved the roads, provided clean drinking water, built schools. You can go to Botswana today and you can drive from nearly any direction into Botswana and immediately see the difference.

So the choice is clear, and I am pleased that South Sudan’s legislature is already considering stronger auditing and anticorruption measures. And through the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and the State Department’s Energy Governance and Capacity Initiative, friends of South Sudan are actively engaged in helping the government manage its oil sector responsibly.

I hope that when we, over the next years, go to South Sudan, we will see the roads built, the schools built, the clean water provided, the infrastructure. And every single man, woman, and child will be able to say that is because we had good leaders; we had leaders who cared about the people of South Sudan. (Applause.)

Third, all of these efforts contribute to the larger project of helping South Sudan create an economic environment that enables growth, attracts investment, empowers businessmen and women.

Now, we know that aid alone is not enough. Private enterprise must be there to create jobs for the people. Now, USAID and others are working with South Sudan on reforms that will help create that business climate that will attract and keep investors and businesses. What does that include? Transparent budgeting and tax collection, land ownership reforms, modernizing the health care systems. Just last week, at South Sudan’s request, the United States Government modified licensing policies to allow U.S. investment in the South Sudanese oil sector – even when this involves the transshipment of goods through Sudan. We are also working to bring to bear two of the most effective tools we have to support private sector-led growth – the African Growth and Opportunity Act and the Overseas Private Sector Investment Corporation.

As we help South Sudan diversify its economy, we are especially focused on agriculture. Although its soil is fertile enough to be one of Africa’s breadbaskets, most of South Sudan’s food is imported. USAID has launched a major set of agricultural initiatives to change that—including a groundbreaking effort to provide loans to South Sudan’s farmers. We also seek to partner with the private sector, which can provide advanced seeds and other technology that will help South Sudan’s farmer increase their yields.

Fourth, none of these measures will be effective unless all elements of society participate in development, including underserved communities, ethnic and religious minorities, returning refugees, young people, political opponents, and women. And this starts with drafting a constitution that forever enshrines the rights of all people.

History teaches that failing to serve communities at the peripheries leads to instability. Two-thirds of South Sudanese are below the age of thirty, and the government will have to open up the political space to allow a young and diverse population to take part in civil society, a free press, and genuine political competition.

South Sudan’s Government also understands that it must do more to ensure women’s full participation at every level of society. The father of South Sudan, Dr. John Garang, called women the “marginalized of the marginalized.” Well, we want to help South Sudan change that, and we are tackling this challenge from different angles. The United States is including South Sudan in our African Women’s Entrepreneurship Program. Earlier this week, we co-hosted a South Sudan Gender Symposium—and I am delighted that many South Sudanese women are also with us today. (Applause.) And the United States will be making South Sudan a focus in the implementation of our forthcoming U.S. National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security.

Finally, as we help South Sudan plan for its future, its international supporters must think carefully about how we provide help to a government still developing the capacity to receive it. We cannot simply work in parallel. We must work together. And by doing so, we will help support these courageous, determined people.

Yes, the work ahead is not quick nor easy. But neither was winning independence. South Sudan defied the odds simply by being born. There was recently some stories about what happened to the tiniest of babies – I mean less than a pound, some as small as 10 ounces – that were born in the United States some years ago when we had the technology to keep them alive. Before that, there was no hope; nothing could be done. They would either die, or, if they survived, they would not develop fully. Well, we just saw pictures of 15, 18, 19 year-olds who not only survived but thrived.

Well, South Sudan survived by being born, but it does need intensive care. And it needs intensive care from all of us. (Applause.) And it needs all of those developmental milestones along the way to be reached. And the birth of a new country, like the birth of a child, offers a promise of a new beginning. It reminds us of everything that is possible and the potential that awaits. It gives us a chance to reflect on the virtues that are every bit as important in a young republic as they were just for the struggle to be born.

Well, I’m betting on South Sudan, and I don’t like to lose bets. (Laughter and applause.) I don’t make big bets, but I don’t like to lose any bet. And so are all of the friends and partners and supporters and literally millions more who are in your corner all over the world. So we will work with you, we will stand with you, we will support you. We have come together in the past to deal with the tragedy of decades of war. Today we have a chance to raise up the first generation of South Sudanese who have not known and, God willing, never will know war. So let us work together to ensure that every man, woman, and child in this new country lives up to his or her God-given potential. That is our pledge and our promise. Thank you all. (Applause.)

US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton warns South Sudan of oil curse

Posted: December 15, 2011 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Economy

(AFP) –

WASHINGTON — US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on Wednesday urged South Sudan to manage well its oil windfall, warning the new country that such wealth could be a curse that holds back development.

IOL pic dec15 hillary clinton south sudan

American Secretary of State Hillary Clinton

“We know that it will either help your country finance its own path out of poverty, or you will fall prey to the natural resource curse,” Clinton told a conference aimed at boosting international support for South Sudan.

That curse “will enrich a small elite, outside interests, corporations and countries, and leave your people hardly better off than when you started,” the chief US diplomat said.

She held up oil-rich Norway, a key supporter of South Sudan, and diamond-rich Botswana as positive examples of nations that have successfully managed their natural resource wealth.

Clinton was speaking in the presence of South Sudan President Salva Kiir, during a conference organized in Washington by the United States, the European Union, and the African Union, among others.

South Sudan — which emerged in July as an independent state from a referendum outlined in a 2005 agreement that ended two decades of civil war — possesses on its territory most of the oil fields from the former united Sudan.

Clinton said that in spite of tensions, the future of Sudan and South Sudan are “inextricably linked.” Oil from landlocked South Sudan must transit pipelines passing through its northern neighbor to Port Sudan on the Red Sea.

The United States fears fighting along the border between Sudan and South Sudan could undermine implementation of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended a two-decade civil war and led to the south’s independence in July.

Princeton Lyman, the US special envoy for Sudan, said Tuesday the fighting in Sudan’s South Kordofan and Blue Nile states could be “a flashpoint” that hurts negotiations to share oil revenue and settle the disputed Abyei border area.

In South Kordofan and Blue Nile, Sudanese troops have for months been battling rebels aligned to South Sudan. In May, Sudanese troops overran disputed Abyei and have since refused to pull out.

At the same briefing on Tuesday, US Agency for International Development administrator Rajiv Shah said that the South Sudan leadership wants to use the conference to “lay out its vision” for economic development and humanitarian assistance.

It will seek the help of governments, the private sector and international organizations like the World Bank, he said.

It wants “private companies and investors (to) see the Republic of Southern Sudan as a place where they want to increase their investments, thereby enabling significant economic development and economic growth,” Shah said.

Clinton warns S.Sudan of “resource curse” with oil wealth

By Andrew Quinn

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton urged newly independent South Sudan on Tuesday to be prudent with its oil wealth, warning mismanagement and the “resource curse” could see money siphoned off by unscrupulous elites and foreign powers.

Clinton, speaking at a development conference for South Sudan in Washington, welcomed the new government’s pledge to improve transparency and accountability, particularly in the oil sector that appears poised for major development.

“The proof is in the pudding. What matters most is whether the government follows through on it,” Clinton told the audience, which included South Sudan President Salva Kiir.

“We know that it will either help your country finance its own path out of poverty or you will fall prey to the natural resource curse which will enrich a small elite, outside interests, corporations and countries and leave your people hardly better off than when you started.”

Kiir said South Sudan was determined to become “an island of stability” in Africa after emerging to claim independence in July, culminating a 2005 peace deal that ended decades of civil war with Sudan.

“We have come from 50 years of conflict, marginalization and war. Our history has created countless roadblocks and challenges that we must overcome,” Kiir told the conference.

“We can have well-written and thought-out dreams, but if we do not practically improve our governance system, this dream is as good as not being there,” he said.

South Sudan accounts for around 75 percent of the formerly united country’s 500,000 barrels per day of oil output. Oil revenues could make it one of the wealthiest countries in the region – at least on paper.

But South Sudan and Sudan still face disputes over sharing oil revenues and ending fighting in a volatile border region, keeping tensions high between the two neighbors whose long civil war killed an estimated 2 million people.


Kiir urged the international community to take a tougher line with Khartoum, which he accused of violating his country’s air space and bombing villages and refugee camps.

“It is our strong desire that the international community seeks means and ways of making appropriate interventions so that potential flashpoints for renewed fighting between the Republic of Sudan and us are extinguished,” he said.

He repeated South Sudan’s demand that the fate of the disputed oil-producing border region of Abyei must be decided through a referendum “and not through the logic of force.”

U.S. officials say the Washington conference will introduce South Sudan both to aid organizations and to private companies, seeking to jump start the economy and open up new opportunities, particularly in the oil and agriculture sectors.

The country, roughly the size of France, remains one of the last developed in the world, and officials tick off a huge list of needs ranging from schools, hospitals and roads to telecommunication infrastructure and basic consumer goods.

The United States last week eased sanctions on South Sudan to allow investments in the oil sector, although it has maintained standing bans on most economic interaction with Khartoum. .

U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk said the United States hoped soon to qualify South Sudan for trade benefits including the African Growth and Opportunity Act, which allows most goods produced in select African countries to enter the United States duty-free.

© Thomson Reuters 2011 All rights reserved

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Press Release:
Between the December 9th and 13th 2011, the leaders of the SPLMN gathered for an important and historic meeting in the Blue Nile Region. The meeting was attended by those responsible of the humanitarian operations, the civil authority officials and the commanders of the SPLA from the various theaters of military operations in the Blue Nile. The meeting was held in the Blue Nile liberated areas and presided by the Chairman of the SPLMN, Malik Agar, in the presence of the SPLMN Secretary General Yasir Arman who was accompanied by a delegation of those responsible of the Sudanese Relief and Rehabilitation Agency (SRRA) headed by Neuron Philip, Dr. Ahmed Saeed and Hashim Aortta and from the SPLMN/A the delegation included Ramadan Hassan Nimir, the treasurer, Adam Karshoum, the Deputy of the SPLM in South Kordofan, Arnu N. Loddi, the SPLMN spokesperson, Brigadier General Ahmed Balga and from the Parliamentarians it included David Koko and Ramadan Shemilla. The attendees of the meeting also included 174 participants from the leaders of the SPLMN/A, and the leaders of the civil administration in the Blue Nile. The meeting reached decisions on different area as follows:
1-      The Humanitarian Situation:
The SRRA delegation undertook a wide tour to survey the humanitarian situation in the Blue Nile region that included visits to different areas to assess the situation of the refugees and the displaced. The SRRA will release a comprehensive report in the next few days for the public and for those concerned with the humanitarian situations inside Sudan and the International community. The report will reveal the magnitude of the horrific humanitarian crisis caused by the NCP war, using the militias and all types of weapons by air and land, against the innocent civilians causing high numbers of death, injuries, displacement and refuge. The meeting participants in the course of holding their meetings in different places visited and saw a number of deserted villages while still the NCP aerial bombardment continued unabated. The delegation visited the deserted village of Balatuma, where 11 were killed in an aerial bombing that targeted the crowded village market. This humanitarian crisis is on the making happening and NCP regime still denying the delivery of food to the displaced since last September. This is by all measures is a war crimes that should be punishable.
The SPLMN would like to reiterate its pervious position that any humanitarian agreement and/or establishing of corridors for delivery of food, medicine and other assistance, ought to consist three parties; the SPLMN, the United Nations and the de facto government in Khartoum. There is no other alternative to this formula since all the displaced are in the SPLMN controlled areas. The SPLMN has no objection to the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all needy in both sides.
What triggers our concern is the news that the NCP regime declined the visit of the Bronx Valarie Amos, the Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs, to Sudan and she had to reroute her trip after landing in Turkey. This incident testifies to the persistence of the Khartoum regime of using food as a weapon to starve and kill the civilians in the war areas. Yet again, this is another war crimes and it is the responsibility of the international community to protect civilians.
2-      Civil Administration:
The members of the SPLMN, women and men, take their hats off in tribute and respect to the civilians in their solidarity and resistance to the NCP barbaric policies and salute the majority of the civil administration cadres in the Blue Nile Region who aligned themselves with the SPLMN and support its program of freedom, liberty and change and their rejection of the NCP policies.
The SPLMN will continue building the civil administration to be able to deal with the current situation and in complete independence of the SPLA. In this respect, a number of civil administration committees have been formed to provide ideas and undertake certain arrangements.
3-      The Missing, Detained and/or Sentenced:
The meeting confirmed that a number of the SPLMN members are missing, especially from Damazin and Rosserus areas, since the start of the war in the Blue Nile and it is imperative upon all of us to track and count them until they are safe with their families. The appointed military governor of the Blue Nile affirms this by his own words when mentioned that their prisons and detention centers contain 120 of the SPLMN members. It is also known now that 19 of the SPLMN leaders are sentenced to death and are not allowed visits by their families or lawyers or the local and international human rights organizations. This is in addition to a number of the SPLMN detainees who are currently undergoing trials in Damazin, Singa, Sinnar and Khartoum. The SPLMN leadership is following closely these extra judicial processes internally and internationally.
4-      The Military Situation:
The military situation has been assessed in light of the NCP forces and militias offensive. With the participation of all areas’ military commanders and the presence of the Chairman and the Secretary General of the SPLMN, the meeting reached the following:
A –  Eleven Militias participated in the offensive of the NCP forces including the Janjaweed and others from South Sudan.
B – The attacking forces incurred heavy losses in lives and equipment. The number of dead, injured and missing of the NCP forces and militias, including those who fled before and after battles, amount to 10 thousand according to official NCP forces sources, especially in the battles of Damazin, Abugroun and Salie. In the Salie battle, the number of those injured amount to 1211 and that battle lasted for 14 hours according to the admission of the official Spokesperson of the NCP force Sawarmi Khalid who is a NCP cadre imposed into SAF.
In light of current absolute control of the NCP on the SAF, any talk about a future national armed forces depends largely on the building a new armed forces that is national and professional and that defend the country rather than point its gun and fighter jets against its own citizens.
The NCP is the largest armed political party in the history of the Sudan. It intentionally distorted the image of SAF and turned it into its own militia and fired its best professional officers in a deliberate and systematic manner.
C – Based on its past military experience, the SPLA safeguarded all its forces and equipment in a profound manner and still controls the rural areas and surrounds the towns. It is for the first time in 25 years, the SPLA is in full control now of the Ingessana Mountains and conduct small operation in all fronts and behind the lines of the NCP forces. The meeting decided that to inform the public about the results of the operations via all media outlets.
D – The SPLMN/A leadership undertook visits to a number of military units and military and political training centers. The visits showed the enormous ability and capability of the SPLA.
The meeting saluted the great victories achieved by the leader Abdelaziz Alhilu and the SPLA in South Kordofan/Nuba Mountains and the      defeat of the NCP summer offensive and its political and military ramifications and fallouts and now known to all. The ramifications and fallouts are clear in the NCP attempts to raise the morale of its force with propaganda, the return of compulsory youth recruitment in the army and the rerun of Sahat Alfida (Sacrifice/redemption fields) and the parading of the Popular Defense Forces.
The SPLM and the SPLA that were founded by Garang  De Mabior and Yousef Kwa Makki were formed to stay and lead.
The SPLMN and the Sudanese Revolutionary Front and the Forces of change will change the northern Sudan and will aspire to establish a Sudanese union between the two independent States in the north and the south on the ruins of dictatorship and totalitarianism.
We are heartened by efforts undertaken by the people of eastern Sudan especially by the people and the youth of the Beja who are paving a new path whose features soon will be revealed.
Last but not least, we are following closely with great interest and deep appreciation the efforts and struggle of the SPLMN members in the towns and rural areas of the Sudan, especially in Khartoum, the defiance to the government and its supporters. They have voiced and demonstrated conclusively the meaning of belonging and commitment. We send them our greetings.
Long Live the struggle of the people of Sudan
Yasir Arman
SPLM Secretary General
December 14, 2011
The Sudan peoples Liberation Movement – North
Office of the Spokesperson
December 12th, 2011
The SPLA North Victories Continues Against the NCP War Criminals’ Summer Offensive
The SPLA North scored a number of victories against the NCP forces and militias in South Kordofan /Nuba Mountains in a number of fronts and inflicted them heavy losses in lives and military equipments.
1-      Tagali Front: In the three days between 5 to 7 December 2011, the SPLA –N was able to disperse the offensive of NCP forces and militias in Abu Alhassan village in Rashad Locality and captured nine 106 mm cannons, a 2011 Model Land Cruiser vehicle, one PKM machine gun and a sizable cache of ammunition and shells.
2-      Wurney – North of Leirey in Talodi Locality: On December 9th 2011, the SPLA- North was able to destruct a NCP mobile force and seized one Korean Jeep vehicle mounted with a 12.7 mm submachine gun with tag number 15105 and destructed another with tag number 15101. The SPLA –N also seized a cache of Kalashnikovs and Dushka’s ammunition. The NCP forces and Militias left behind 19 dead of its fighters.
It is worth mentioning that the notorious Ahmed Haroun, who is wanted by the ICC for war crimes and genocide, fled Alatmour area to Kadugli on foot, after it has been recapture by the SPLA North.  Ahmed Haroun was in Alatmour to celebrate its capture by the NCP forces and militias, and his escape from arrest was celebrated by the Khartoum regime in the statement of Sawarmi Khalid, the Spokesperson of the NCP forces and Militias. The SPLA North vows to arrest Ahmed Haroun and try him in a way that the Sudanese people deem suitable and with respect to the International Law.
The SPLMN would like to remind everyone and in particular the sons and daughters of the Sudan, that the NCP summer offensive has  primarily targeted thousands of innocent and unarmed civilians and resulted in massive displacement, refuge and death. The SPLMN appeals for all to step up the campaign for the humanitarian aid delivery and the protection of civilians and to force the Khartoum regime to hold off its aggression on civilian population and to open secure corridors for humanitarian aid delivery to the needy whether in the SPLMN or the Khartoum regime controlled areas.
Arnu M Loddi

Spokesperson of the SPLMN

By Julius N. Uma

December 14, 2011 (JUBA) — The newly independent South Sudan risks an outbreak of internal conflicts, if minority ethnic rights are excluded from the country’s major decision making process, Minority Rights Group International (MRG) said in a recent briefing.

JPEG - 34.5 kb
David K. Deng from South Sudan Law Society and MRG’s Marusca Perazzi during the launch of the briefing, December 14, 2011 (ST)

The update, entitled “Southern Sudan: The role of minority rights in building a new nation”, details a series of interviews conducted on the protection of land and property rights of minority groups and individuals in the country.

The role of minorities, it says, must be a focal point in the nation-building process, adding that competition over access to scarce resources could cause tensions between groups, often leading to an explosion of violence that undermines development initiatives.

“There is also a danger that ethnic concerns could hijack the political process even as it develops. This could create a state dominated by the interests of the most populous ethnic groups at the expense of smaller ones,” the 12-page briefing partly reads.

The newly independent South Sudan, which comprises of 10 states, is a home to an estimated 56 ethnic groups and almost 600 sub-groups.

In an interview with Sudan Tribune on Wednesday, Marusca Perazzi, MRG’s Conflict Prevention Projects Coordinator expressed fear on the risk of minority people losing not only their cultural identities, but natural resources as well.

“Minority communities should be allowed to develop their own systems to enable them protect their rights on land and properties,” Perazzi said during the launch of the briefing in Juba, the South Sudan capital.

MRG’s comprehensive update, among others, urges government to ensure that land leases to private companies are subjected to community consultations, and that South Sudan’s draft transitional constitution should be modified to allow for an independent and impartial process for the appointment of the members of the Land Commission, rather than appointment by the President, as is currently provided for.

The same process, it further recommends, should apply to bodies established at county and payam (district) levels under South Sudan Land Act 2009.

A 2011 baseline survey on large scale land-based investment in South Sudan shockingly revealed that about 2.64 million ha or 26,400 km2 (larger than the size of Rwanda) has been allocated for foreign investments in agriculture, bio-fuel and forestry.

The survey carried out by South Sudan Law Society and Generation Agency for Development and Transformation-Pentagon (GADET-Pentagon) further noted that about 5.74 million ha or (57,400 km2), an equivalent of 9% of South Sudan’s total land area have been earmarked for both domestic and foreign investments.

Companies such as such Al Ain Wildlife, Nile Trading and Development and Jarch Management, according to the survey, lead the pack of investors with the biggest land allocations in South Sudan.


Who is/was Who in the SPLM/A leadership?

Posted: December 15, 2011 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in People

Sudan SPLM leadership Bio-data and profile
By Manyang Mayom

Dec 25, 2005 — In 1983 the Civil War begins in earnest when forces under Kurbino Kwanyin attack government forces on 16 May. The following month forces under William Nyon Bany attack at Ayod. In Ethiopia the SPLA is founded under John Garang and his deputy, Salva Kiir. It is said that Garang, being a colonel and having the highest rank in the Sudanese People’s Armed Forces (SPAF), was named leader. Kerubino Kwanyin was second in rank because he was the first to oppose SPAF forces. He was a major in the SPAF and senior in rank to William Nyon Bany and Salva Kiir.

Another important figure was Ngachigak Ngachiluk, an Alternate Member of the Political and Military High Command who was killed in attack on Kapoeta, January 1988. The SPLA’s initial military organization — the Permenant Political Military Office — comprised five senior commanders, viz., John Garang, KurbinoKwanyn, William Nyon Bany, Salva Kiir, and Arok Thon Arok. They were considered at first to be under the control of the SPLM, the civilian rebel movement, led by Joseph Oduhu and Martin Majer.

Originally, Oduhu was considered the senior member of the SPLM/SPLA because of his age and experience. The SPLM was, however, quickly subsumed by John Garang and the use of SPLM/SPLA had no real meaning as the SPLA directed all political and military operations.

In July 1986, after Lam Akol fled the north, the SPLA added four senior military commanders to those that existed. Lam Akol in Northern Upper Nile and Southern Kordofan, Lt. Colonel Yousif Kuwa Mekki, a Nuba tribal, for Southern Kordofan and the Nuba Hills, and Lt. Colonel Daniel Awet Akot, who had been responsible for much of successful SPLA activity in and around Renk.

By March 1993 the SPLA had split into four “factions” opposing John Garang:
- (1) The William Nyon Bany/Joseph Oduhu
- (2) The Riak Machar/Lam Akol (Nasir Group)
- (3) Kurbino Kwanyn/other military (Bahr el-Ghazal Group)
- (4) Arok Thon Arok. (Bor Citizens Group)

The factions initially formed the so-called “Unity” group of the SPLA, but they soon fell apart. Riak Machar and Lam Akol split, to form ’SPLA-United’ led by Lam Akol, and ’Southern Sudan Independence Movement’ (SSIM) led by Riak Machar.

Joseph Oduhu was killed in southern Sudan during an attack by the SPLA on SSIM positions, while a meeting between Riak Machar and Joseph Oduhu is taking place. William Nyon Bany shifted his allegiance between SSIM, the government and the SPLA. He was killed, in an attack on his positions, by SSIM forces on January 13, 1996. Riak Machar, Kurbino Kwanyn and Arok Thon Arok signed a ’Political Charter’ with the Government of Sudan in Khartoum in April 1996. Both Riak Machar and Kurbino said their forces are now fighting along government forces against the SPLA.


ABU JOHN, Samuel: Zande from Western Equatoria (Tambura?). The first southerner to graduate from Sudan’s military academy (1954). Former Anyanya? In the 1990s active SPLA member in Maridi and Yambio.

ACHOL: SPLA doctor; (only doctor in Kapoeta in 4/1989). Born 1951. Trained in Juba, Egypt; worked in Arab nations and Rumania. Joined SPLA in Addis Ababa in 1985. (His medical assistant Dr. Dau.)

Agassio AKOL Tong: Colonel; Chief of Staff of “1st Axis Command”, 4/1987 in Pibor region. At war with Koni’s militia.

Dr. Lam AKOL Ajawin: An engineer and lecturer at Khartoum University. Lam was said to be a secret SPLA contact long before he fled to the south (in late 1985). Head of delegation to Nairobi peace talks, 11-12/1989; also accompanying, Dr. Mansour Khalid, Alt. Cdr. Elijah Maluk, Alt. Commander Patrick Ayiteng, “Captain” John Luk; Dr. Marial Benjamin; Captain Daniel Kodi; Captain Muhammad Said Bazarah; 1st Lts., Joseph Akuot Wet, Yasir Said Arman and Zamba Duku. SSIM founder. After leaving SPLA moved to Nairobi. Dismissed as Secy, External Affairs, SSIM, 2/1994. Now Commander-in-Chief of ’SPLA-United’ operating in Upper Nile.

Joseph AKWON: From Anuak tribe, born at Pachala and beginning in 1970 the leader of Upper Nile forces during the first civil war. Killed near Malakal in early 1972, he was then second in command to Joseph Lagu. He was responsible for cementing the Israeli-Anyana relationship through which the rebels were provided Uzis, AKs, and other material. Helped set up training camps in Sudan which were assisted by Israel. In a sense laid the foundation for the Ethiopian training camps used by SPLA during the second civil war. Akwon was a separatist, and it is likely the Addis accord of 1972 would not have been signed had he been alive. Akwon’s forces were first to revolt against Numayri, forming what became Anyanya II. When the SPLA was able to split the Anyanya II, it was reported (Africa Confidential, 17 Nov 89) that “Israel extended support to the SPLA.”

Oyai DENG AJAK: Commander, Fashoda Batallion; responsible for shooting down civilian airliner near Malakal, 8/1986.

Deng ALOR Kuol: Major; Often acts as SPLA spokesman. With John Garang flown on 30 Oct 89 from Nairobi to Addis Ababa on Tiny Rowland’s Gulfstream. 12/1989 met with former interior minister Mubarak al-Fadil al-Mahdi in Addis; 1/1990 called Alternate Commander and was located in Addis Ababa. Attended NDA organizational meeting in Addis, 3/1990. Wife Ethiopian. Reported arrested in Addis Ababa, 6/1991. In March 1994 was named SPLA Council member and responsible for the state’s affairs portfolio. Attended Nairobi peace talks, 8/1994.

Pagan AMUM OKICH: Shilluk from Malakal; law student (1982) who organized a group of dissidents in 1982 and led them to Ethiopia. Joined the SPLA in 1983. Served in various tasks, Military Administrator and Civilian Administrator in Malakal, Bahr al- Ghazal and Melut. Appointed Civilian Administrator of Kapoeta in 1991. Spent two years in early 1980s “training” in Cuba. Speaks fluent Spanish. called SPLA Spokesman, 8/1994.

Akuot ATEM: With Samuel Gai Tut an early founder of Anyanya II. He was killed in August 1984 by units commanded by Lt. Col. William Abdallah (note RCC section).

Arok Thon AROK: SPAF major and SPLA commander since founding of SPLA in 1983. Arok is said to be a relative of John Garang (MEI, 5 March 93). SPAF intelligence officer of the 13th brigade in Upper Nile. A member of the SPLM/SPLA Political-Military High Command, he was senior in rank to Kerubino, William Nyuon and Salva Kiir, but was the last of the five SPLA commanders to join the rebel movement. He was four years member of the SPLA Political-Military High Command and Deputy Chief of Staff for Administration and Logistics. Member of delegation who visited Libya in 1984 to obtain arms. He was reported to have negotiated secretly with SPAF General Burma Nasir during a trip to Britain in 1988; Arok’s wife died in the latter part of 1987, and he was in England to place his children in school. When Garang found about the meeting Arok was expelled from the SPLA. Arok was close to Kurbino Kwanyn. William Nyon Bany was responsible for releasing Kurbino and Arok when he split with Garang. He went to Uganda where he was placed under house arrest by Museveni, and then was released in February 1993. He signed the ’Political Charter’ with Khartoum in April 1996, and now lives in Khartoum.

Daniel AWET AKOT: Alternative Member of the SPLM/SPLA Political-Military High Command and (as early as 1987) the zonal commander for Northern Bahr al-Ghazal.

Mukii BATALLI: Radio SPLA representative, 1989.

Garang BEK: RCC called him Lt. Colonel; RCC claimed was killed near Rumbek, along with Capt Atok Riak, and Lt. Barak Majak, 11/1989.

Barrabas BENJAMIN: Member, SPLA Central Committe, Head of Foreign Affairs Committee and SPLA Special Representative in southern Africa (1988- ). Often seen in Zimbabwe and Chad.

Benjamin BOL: Early SPLA leader and SPLA member in London who met with U.S. types in mid-1984. Was reported in the Guardian, 27 February 27, 1993, that he reported that Bob Fraser of the U.S. Embassy introduced multimillionaire Roland “Tiny” Rowland to John Garang, after which Rowland became a member of the SPLA. Died in August 1984 in Ethiopian custody. According to confidential source was apparently in the pay of both Libya and the North, and Ethiopia found out.

William Didi BONIO: 1st Lt. Chief, Fertit, along with Chemi al-SHAN joined SPLA in 1988. Led Fertit who took Deim Zubair, 11/1990.

Daniel CHOL Riak: Noted SPLA commander of the Leer/Adok region (11/1988) and later (1989) of northern Bahr al-Ghazal. Very favorably disposed to international aid agencies.

Nhial DENG NHIAL: SPLA spokesman in Addis Ababa (1989). SPLA spokesman, 1993.

Wilson DENG: SPLA captain; led final attack on Torit, 4/1989.

Lual Ding WOL: Commander; Located at Addis Ababa, 2/1990; worked with Mubarak al-Fadil al-Mahdi to set up NDA.

Thomas DUT: Ostensibly an SPLA colonel who defected to government in Malakal, 1/1994.

Samuel GAI TUT: Founder of Anyanya II. Emerged as significant force in June 1982. With Khoang, arrested in June 1982 for gun-running. Killed in firefight with SPLA in April 1984.

James GARANG: SPLA member, Nairobi peace talks, 8/1994.

John GARANG de Mabior: Dinka, born June 23, 1945 at Wagkulei village, Upper Nile. Father died at age 9, mother at age 11. Attended high school in Tanzania where one classmate was Uganda’s President Museveni. U.S. educated (B.Sci., Grinnel, 1971), after which he became adjutant to General Joseph Lagu of the Anyanya. Following Addis Ababa agreement entered SPAF in 1972 as captain. (Ph.D., 1977-1981, Iowa State); military training at Fort Benning, 1974. His wife has high school equivalency from USA; three sons, one born in USA, oldest son is now about 15 years old; At the start of the civil war Garang was an active duty Colonel. In 1982 he had begun teaching at Khartoum University. and military war schools. In May 1983 was sent by President Numayri to Bor to put down revolt. Took charge of the SPLA in 1983. Held position through 1993, in the context of the ’New Sudan’ declared by the SPLM’s first conference held in March 1994, in which the SPLA Council will administer ’the liberated areas.’ Garang kept the defense portfolio for himself in addition to the chairmanship of the council.

Yacoub ISMAEL: In 1984 joined SPLA along with a ’small force of professional troops’. From Western Sudan.

Yusuf Kowah MEKKI: SPLA commander of the New Cush brigade (1989-) ethnic Nuba and Muslim. Commander of forces that managed to control much of southern Kordofan by late 1989. Director of SPLA Convention Organizing Committee, 9/1993. In March 1994 named SPLA Council member for Kordufan affairs. In July 1994 called number 3 man in heirarchy of SPLA Executive Council. Signed general agreement with DUP’s Dr. Ahmad al-Sayyid Hamid in Cairo, 7/1994. Attended Nairobi Peace Talks, 8/1994.

Kerubino Kwanyn Bol: former Anyanya, and then Lt. Colonel in the SPAF and a commander in the 13th Brigade in Upper Nile. His Arab superiors felt he had a weak education, and that Garang was much more talented. One of first SPLA leaders. Commander of Batallion 105 at Pibor in March 1983 and led mutiny at Bor, Pibor and Pochala. Second in command of SPLA, but broken with Garang, with subsequent armed clashes, in September-October 1986. Arrested by Garang, he was detained until 1991 when released by William Nyon. He fled to Uganda and was placed under house arrest by Museveni until 2/1993, when he was released. Led 2,000 soldiers in an attack that leveled Mayen Abun, 5 July 94; RCC’s Angelo Beda announced he had joined government, 18 July 94. Together with Riak Machar, he signed the ’Political Charter’ with the Sudan government in April 1996.

Dr. Mansour KHALID; is the Vice-chairman of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Former Foreign Minister of Sudan, he was one of the first northerners to join the SPLA. A long-time political advisor to the SPLA. He is the author of ’Numayri and the Revolution of Dis-May’ (1985) and ’the Government They Deserve’ (1990) and other books in both English and Arabic languages.

Salva Kiir Mayardit: Dinka from Bahr al-Ghazal and follower of John Garang practically from the inception of the Civil War. Believed related to Kenyano Kiir, SRRA rep, and teacher at Akon, Bahr al-Ghazal. Following March 1994 SPLA meeting after which a Council will administer ’the liberated areas.’ Garang was named Chairman of the council and Commander Salva Kiir, his deputy, got the foreign and interior portfolios. Led delegation to Nairobi Peace Talks, 8/1994. Richard Mulla represented Riak.

Gordon Koang (Kong) CHOL: Lt. Colonel and commissioner of Jonglei province, arrested on gun-running in June 1982. Early Anyanya II leader, who with William DENG, went over to Numayri in October 1984. In late 1987, Koang and most of the Anyanya II leadership went over to the SPLA. SPLA commander who captured Nasir 1/1989.

John KULONG : Nuer, putative Duputy Chief and “Colonel”, of SPLA/UNITED (SSIM), who surfaced in Khartoum in 7/1994.

LINO Abyei, Edward: Born Abyei. SPLA administrator, 6/1989. Called Captain, 9/1989. Visited Europe and USA with Garang, 9/1989.

John LUK: SPLA Representative in London …1985… Later joined SSIM. As commander, arrested by Riak Machar, 6/1994.

Kuol Manyang Jok: Born in Bor, 1946. Attended teacher training school in Khartoum and taught school at Wad Medani and Wau. Had some training in West (FRG) Germany in mid-1970s. Secondary school teacher at Wau, until moving to Juba in 1977 and teaching at the University of Juba. He joined the SPLA in 1983. SPLA commander first in the Kapoeta area, then in the Juba Area (1989). His troops took Torit in 1989; Regional Commander at Torit 4-5/1991 – ?. It was stated in 1991 that Kuol ranked about 7th in the SPLA heirarchy after Garang, William Nyon, Salva Kiir, Riak Machaar, Lam Akol and Dr. Riak MACHAR Teny ?.

Dr Riak MACHAR Teny: A Nuer, said to have Dinka blood. Born at Leer in 1953. 26th son of the chief of both Ayod and Leer. Presbyterian. Attended Khartoum University. Received Doctorate from University of Bedford, England in 1984. Early SPLA leader, whose family was located in Britain; For years the Zonal Commander for Western Upper Nile; Led forces that attacked and overran Melut in 1989. Visited family 9/1989, for first time since war started; In 1990 based at Leer. Later SPLA Regional Commander for a region from the Ethiopian border to Renk and to Ayod/Waat in the south. He was residing at Ketbek, 5 km. from Nasir (4/1991); with him then was Gordon Koang Chol, who was local commander. Attended Conference of Minorities in the Arab World, Cyprus, 5/1994. Sighned the ’Political Charter’ with the Sudan government in April 1996.

Martin MAJER Gai; Dinka from Bor region. Attended Rumbek Secondary; Graduated Khartoum University in Law, 1967. Deputy Speaker of Southern Assemby; joined southern rebel movement in July 1983. He reportedly was jailed by Garang in 1985 when he supported southern separation from the Sudan. Freed from captivity by William Nyon in 1992. In January 1993 it was reported that Majer had met with Arok Thon Arok and KurbinoKuanyin. Lam Akol stated later in January he, along with commanders Martin Makur Aleyu from Rumbek, Kawaj Makuei from Aweil and Wal Athieu (who reportedly did not join the Nasir faction), formerly in charge of Yei front, had joined the William Nyon faction. Reportedly killed by SPLA soldiers, 7/1994.

Elijah MALoK Aleng: SRRA which become now as SRRC official 1989-1992. Replaced by Justin YAK, 1/1993.

Martin MANYIEL Ayuwal: SPLA Lt. Colonel, commander of the Narus base, 8/1986. Alternate member of SPLA Political-Military High Command, 3/1990; Met with NDA leaders in organizational meeting, Addis, 3/1990.

Dau Manyok: SPLA Alternate Commander responsible for occupation of Kajo Kaji in 2/1990.

Obutu Namur METTE: Cdr, SPLA Commander, Torit region 7/1992.

Richard MULA: Secretary General of the SRRA (1988-1989…) Member SPLM delegation to Nairobi Peace Talks, 8/1994.

Paulino Katip NHIAL: SPLA commander, forces south of Kadugli, South Kordofan, 1992. Peter NyOT Kook; Represented SPLA at inconclusive 8/1994 IGADD peace meetings. Riek group represented by Dhol ACHUIT and Peter SWAN.

William NYON BANY: See above. Born in Ayot, he is older than Garang. Began as an NCO in the Anyanya I. SPLA Chief of Staff; Headed New Funj Batallion in attack on Kurmuk, 10-11/1989. A statement issued by SSIM said it had killed Commander William Nyon who rejoined the mainstream SPLA. It said its forces stormed Nyuon’s hideout at Gul in the south on Saturday January 13 and killed him, and other SPLA soldiers, in a 15-minute attack. Nyuon defected from the SPLA in 1991 and was accused of fighting with the government army before he was readmitted to the mainstream SPLA in 1995.

Joseph Oduhu: Southern politician and founder of SPLM. A former regional minister for Southern Sudan. In the 1960s combined with Father Saturnino, Jaden (a Bari), William Deng and Clement Mboro to lead southern political in Khartoum. Head of Political and Foreign Affairs Committee of the SPLA/SPLM, 1984…. His son Casito Omiluk Oduhu, was the SRRA representative (11/1988) for Leer and Adok. Killed during an attack by the SPLA on SSIM positions in 1994?

Pierre OHURE: Lutuko, first Secretary General of the SRRA, 1985-…

Roland ’Tiny’ ROWLAND: British multimillionaire, LONHRO chief, admitted member of the SPLM since 1984 (admitted in February 1993). Provided planes and assistance to Garang. Said to have been introduced to Garang by US diplomat Robert Frazure (later head of US mission in Ethiopia). Rowland is close to Kenya’s president Arap Moi and has substantial holdings in Nairobi.

Moses VIWE: Commander of Abu Shawk battalion and Nuba Mountain Task Force. Launched surprise attack on Malakal, December 1986.

James WANI IGGA; Long time SPLA commander for Central Equatoria; 1986?-1/1990… Warned townspeople that SPLA would begin shelling SPAF garrisons, including Juba, 1/1990.

Laurence WoL Wol: named SPLA Education Affairs Minister following March 1994 SPLA gathering. Daniel KODI Named Minister for environment and tourism affairs, and Arthur QUEEN Minister for human affairs, and Dr. Peter NYOT Minister of legal affairs. SPLA Rep, Nairobi peace conference, 8/1994.

Modi Wurnyang; A Latuka, and former Anyanya I commander, reportedly transferred by SPLA to Southern Kordofan in 1989 during an SPLA effort to reduce tribalism in the rebel ranks.

Justin YAK: Dr., and SPLA captain who with Lam AKOL, and a captain YOR was a member of the SPLA Peace Delegation that was to meet with the government on 4 July 1989. Following SPLA general meeting in March 1994 was named SPLA minister for health portfolio. SPLA Rep, Nairobi peace conference, 8/1994.

President Kiir Addresses South Sudan Community In Washington DC

Posted: December 15, 2011 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Junub Sudan

President Salva Kiir Mayardit has said that South Sudan will not allow an inch of its land taken and will not take his people back to war but he is ready for self-defense. He made these remarks when addressing the South Sudanese community last night in Renaissance Hotel Ballroom in Washington D.C.

WASHINGTON, 14 December 2011 – The President of the Republic and C-in-C of the SPLA H.E Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit reiterated that the Republic of South Sudan will not allow an inch of its land to be taken by any one and South Sudan will not take its people back to war but is ready for self-defense. He made the remarks when addressing the South Sudanese community last night in Renaissance Hotel Ballroom in Washington D.C.

H.E Kiir addressing S.S C in Washington D.C.
[Photo: Thomas Kenneth]

President Kiir announced that South Sudanese Students in Khartoum are now being recruited by force to come and fight their own new country, adding that peace, stability and development is the top priority of the new Government. He briefed South Sudanese community on the latest development about the CPA remaining issues that includes Abyei, border demarcation, Blue Nile, South Kordufan and the oil issues.
President of the Republic also announced to the South Sudanese community that his government has taken serious steps of fighting corruption, among which a new Anti-corruption Chairperson is appointed and a Presidential decree was issued for all the functionaries starting from the directors to the ministers to declare their assets within a period not later than the coming January 2012.

S.S.C are listening to Kiir’s speech.
[Photo: Thomas Kenneth]

H.E Kiir commended USA Government for providing shelters and schools to the South Sudanese community and for lifting sanctions from all south Sudan areas which was imposed on the whole Sudan before the independence. H.E Kiir appealed to South Sudanese Community in USA to discard tribal differences and be united and contribute effectively to the development of the new Nation, for the development is the only longest war remaining. Every single South Sudanese has contributed to the struggle which brought freedom in July 9th 2011, some contributed politically, militarily, educationally.

S.S.C Awards symbol of power and leadership to H.E Kiir.
[Photo: Thomas Kenneth]

On his part the South Sudanese Community Chairperson in Washington Ms. Natalina Bona Malwal assured unity of the community and their commitment to stand behind the President for realization of peace, stability and development in South Sudan.
Reported by Thomas Kenneth Elisapana from Washington D.C.

Alex Wong/Getty Images) – Rep. Frank Wolf (R-Va.) is a longtime critic of the regime in Khartoum.

By , Published: December 14

The Obama administration has allowed the Republic of Sudan to hire its first U.S. lawyer in years, prompting strong objections from human rights groups and some members of Congress.Bart S. Fisher, a veteran international trade lawyer, is being paid $20,000 a month by Sudan to help the strife-torn African nation in its attempts to have U.S. economic sanctions lifted and be removed from the State Department’s list of terrorism-sponsoring governments, according to federal registration documents.

The hiring has angered U.S. human rights activists and some lawmakers because of the Sudanese regime’s history of alleged genocide and other atrocities against its citizens during a decades-long civil war. Fighting has flared again this year along the border with newly independent South Sudan, displacing an estimated 400,000 people and prompting new accusations of indiscriminate bombing and illegal killings by the Khartoum government.Rep. Frank R. Wolf (R-Va.), a longtime critic of the Sudanese regime, attacked Fisher in the House and during a news conference this week for agreeing to work for “a genocidal government” that “has blood on its hands.” He also said he suspected the administration may have issued a license to Fisher because of the lawyer’s past campaign contributions to President Obama, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and other Democrats.

“I don’t know how Mr. Fisher sleeps at night,” Wolf said on the House floor Tuesday, adding later: “If he has received one penny from the government of Sudan, he should return it immediately.”

An alliance of activists, Act for Sudan, plans to picket Fisher’s Washington offices on Friday. “Our government should not be seeing this as the time to reward the government of Sudan,” said Act for Sudan spokesman Eric Cohen.

Fisher said in an interview Wednesday that the objections are misplaced and based on the erroneous idea that he is working as a lobbyist. Under the terms of the license issued by the Treasury Department, which enforces sanctions against Sudan, Fisher may only represent the Khartoum government in legal matters and is forbidden from lobbying or engaging in public relations, records show.

“I am not a lobbyist,” Fisher said. “I am a lawyer, and the Embassy of the Republic of Sudan is my client.”

The State Department has designated Sudan a state sponsor of terrorism since 1993, when the United States imposed sanctions on the country for harboring terrorists such as Osama bin Laden. The restrictions remained amid persistent allegations of genocide and other crimes during a 20-year civil war. A fragile peace agreement in 2005 led to the formation this year of the new nation of South Sudan.

The Khartoum regime has long sought ways to persuade the U.S. government to lift its restrictions, including the hiring of a Washington lobbyist in 2005, who was later prosecuted for working on behalf of the country in violation of sanctions.

The Washington Post reported in 2009 that the regime had worked through the nation of Qatar to enlist the help of former Reagan administration official Robert “Bud” McFarlane, who is now an adviser to Newt Gingrich’s presidential campaign.

Documents filed with the Justice Department under the Foreign Agents Registration Act show that Fisher was hired Nov. 1 to “counsel and assist the Republic of the Sudan in satisfying appropriate U.S. conditions to reduce and eliminate the Sudanese Sanctions Regulations and related U.S. laws.” A license allowing the deal was issued by Treasury on Nov. 16, records show.

The fee is $20,000 per month, paid quarterly. Fisher’s wife also received a gift of a purse and two candlestick holders from the republic on Nov. 2, disclosure records show.

A Treasury official, speaking on background, said that the agreement adheres to sanction guidelines because legal representation, but not lobbying or public relations, is allowed.

“Recognizing the importance of due process and opportunity for redress, our regulations ensure that even the worst actors have the opportunity to challenge the blocking of their property before U.S. government agencies and courts,” the official said in a statement.

Fisher said Sudan’s government needs legal representation to continue implementing the 2005 peace accord, which includes complex negotiations over transportation and other infrastructure issues with South Sudan.

“Is it controversial? Yes. But is it improper to have counsel under the Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution? I don’t think so,” Fisher said. “Why would they not have a right to counsel like anyone else?”

By Ashish Kumar Sen

Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton on Wednesday urged the leaders of oil-rich South Sudan to manage natural resources prudently and warned them against falling prey to unscrupulous corporations and countries.

“We know that [natural resources] will either help your country finance its own path out of poverty, or you will fall prey to the natural-resource curse, which will enrich a small elite, outside interests, corporations and countries, and leave your people hardly better off then when you started,” she told a development conference for South Sudan at the Marriott Wardman Park hotel in Washington.

Earlier, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir Mayardit spelled out his priorities, including greater transparency and accountability, rooting out corruption and disarming militias in a nation that has seen decades of conflict.

Mrs. Clinton welcomed Mr. Kiir’s agenda as a good start, but said “the proof is in the pudding. … What matters most is whether the government follows through on it.”

South Sudan gained independence July 9 after two decades of civil war. Roughly the size of France, it is one of the least-developed countries in the world.

South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit greets the European co-sponsors of the International Engagement Conference, including (from left) Endre Stiansen, special envoy from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Cevdet Yilmaz, minister of the Turkish Ministry of Development, and Susan Page, U.S. ambassador to the Republic of South Sudan, after speaking about the Republic of South Sudan at the Marriott Wardman Park on Wednesday. (T.J. Kirkpatrick/The Washington Times)South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit greets the European co-sponsors of the International Engagement Conference, including (from left) Endre Stiansen, special envoy from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Cevdet Yilmaz, minister of the Turkish Ministry of Development, and Susan Page, U.S. ambassador to the Republic of South Sudan, after speaking about the Republic of South Sudan at the Marriott Wardman Park on Wednesday. (T.J. Kirkpatrick/The Washington Times)

For years it was deprived of development by Sudan’s government in Khartoum. The new country now lacks basic infrastructure, including roads, hospitals and schools.

Rajiv Shah, administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development, said education is one of the top necessities in South Sudan.

“In parts of South Sudan, a young woman is still more likely to die in child birth than complete a secondary education,” he said.

Last week, the U.S. Treasury Department eased sanctions on Sudan that had restricted investments in South Sudan’s oil sector, which is inexorably linked to the north.

In the absence of U.S. competition, companies from China, India and Malaysia have dominated the oil and petrochemicals sector.

“Companies flouting the sanctions have chosen to disregard human-rights violations and are less likely to respect the citizens or the environment,” said Raymond Gilpin of the U.S. Institute of Peace.

Continuing conflict with Sudan has been another deterrent to foreign investment in South Sudan.

Mr. Kiir accused Sudan of violating his country’s airspace and bombing villages, including refugee camps. He called on the international community to help remove potential flashpoints for war between the two countries.

Mrs. Clinton said South Sudan’s ability to attract trade and investment depends on improving security on both sides of its northern border. She said conflicts in Sudan’s states of Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan, which threaten to spill into South Sudan, must be resolved.

She called on the leaders of South Sudan to resolve outstanding issues with Sudan, but added that this work cannot be done without a willing partner in Khartoum.

Press Release:The International Engagement Conference for the Republic of South Sudan Kicks Off in Washington

Thomas Kenneth From Washington DC

15 December 2011

Washington — The International Engagement Conference for the Republic of South Sudan co-hosted by USA, UK, Norway, Turkey, EU, UN, AU, World Bank and International Finance Corporation kicked off yesterday at the Marriot Wardman Hotel in Washington D.C. The opening session was addressed by the President of the Republic H.E. Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit, USA secretary of state Mrs. Hilary Clinton, Mrs. Suzan Page the USA Ambassador to South Sudan, and representatives of USAID, AU, and Turkey government, among others.

In his opening remarks, President of the Republic H.E. Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit conveyed sincere gratitude of his people and government to the governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Turkey for convening the conference and for raising the profile of the Republic of South Sudan. President Kiir highlighted the milestones in South Sudan’s long walk to freedom under the cruel heel of war since the independence of Sudan in1956 up to the CPA in 2005, saying that the people of South Sudan in this period knew nothing other than war to free themselves from repression, exploitation, discrimination and slavery.

H.E Kiir called on the conferee to join South Sudanese people in building a strong united productive, prosperous, tolerant, democratic and secured South Sudan.

President of the Republic briefed the conferee on the vision of the new state up to 2040, guided by the principles and values of democracy and political pluralism, to address issues of ethnic diversity, devolution of power through decentralization and self-governance. He explained that the vision is centered on supremacy of the rule of law and separation of powers, respect of human rights and fundamental freedom, justice and equality, accountability and transparency.

President Kiir underlined the steps taken by the government in creating a peaceful atmosphere for good governance and investment, among which are disarmament process, declaration of assets by the end January 2012.

He said Abyei issues cannot be resolved militarily but peacefully through freewill of the Abyei people and in the spirit of the CPA. President Kiir called on the international community to intervene and stop Khartoum from violating air space of South Sudan and bombing villages including refugee camps.

The United States Secretary of State Mrs. Hilary Clinton said the International Engagement Conference meant to help the people and leadership of South Sudan chat their future, as President Kiir has laid out an ambitious vision for development, USA fully supports the vision. US Secretary of State called for resolution of the conflicts in Blue Nile and South Kordufan and urged South Sudan to end transition from armed struggle to nation building.

Mrs. Clinton called on the conferee to help President Kiir’s pledges to build strong institutions without corruption and promote transparent and accountable governance. She expressed pleasure of USA administration for the steps taken by SSNLA in considering stronger auditing and anti-corruption measures, adding that friends of South Sudan are actively helping South Sudan government to manage its oil responsibly. Mrs Clinton expressed hope that the world will over the next years see the roads and schools built, clean water provided and every single man and woman will say that it is because of good leadership. Mrs. Clinton said aid alone is not enough, private enterprises must be established to create jobs for the people.

Mrs Clinton appealed to the Government of South Sudan to open up a political space to allow the young men and women take part in civil society, free press and genuine political competition, and do more to ensure women full participation in every level of society for the women are marginalized of the marginalized. She concluded her speech by saying that “South Sudan needs intensive care from all development milestones because the birth of a new country, like the birth of a new child”.

Representatives of USAID, Norway, UK and Turker in their remarks assured their full support to the development vision for South Sudan.

Secretary Clinton to Address International Engagement Conference for South Sudan

Notice to the Press

Office of the Spokesperson
Washington, DC
December 13, 2011

Secretary of State Hilary Rodham Clinton will deliver remarks at the South Sudan International Engagement Conference on Wednesday, December 14, 2011 at 10:00 am at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel.

The two-day conference will highlight the national development vision of the Republic of South Sudan and the opportunities for investment in the country. The conference will also salute the people of South Sudan for achieving their independence in July. President Salva Kiir Mayardit will address the conference and outline the development and policy priorities of South Sudan that serve as the foundations for the new nation. The conference will also focus on private sector and investment opportunities, in line with the economic priorities of the Republic of South Sudan.

Those scheduled to speak at the two-day event include: Secretary Clinton, Administrator Shah, UN Ambassador Susan E. Rice, U.S. Trade Representative Ambassador Ron Kirk, U.S. Special Envoy for Sudan Princeton Lyman, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Johnnie Carson, U.S. Ambassador to South Sudan Susan D. Page, Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women’s Issues Melanne Verveer, and OPIC President and CEO Elizabeth Littlefield. World Bank President Robert Zoellick, Senator John Kerry (D-MA), and Representative Donald Payne (D-NJ) will also participate, as well as development ministers, foreign officials, and private sector and NGO leaders.

Secretary Clinton’s remarks are open to the press.

Pre-set time for video cameras: 7:30am from the Woodley Road entrance.

Final access time for journalists and still photographers: 8:30am from the Woodley Road entrance.

Media representatives may attend this event upon presentation of one of the following: (1) a U.S. Government-issued identification card (Department of State, White House, Congress, Department of Defense or Foreign Press Center), (2) a media-issued photo identification card, or (3) a letter from their employer on letterhead verifying their employment as a journalist, accompanied by an official photo identification card (driver’s license, passport).

For more information about the South Sudan International Engagement Conference and to view the agenda, including additional sessions open to the press please click here.

Secretary Clinton Delivers Remarks at the International Engagement Conference for South Sudan