Archive for June 14, 2014

SPLM Former Detainees Welcome Recent IGAD Summit on Peace in South Sudan

Posted: June 14, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Junub Sudan


13 June, 2014, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

The Eleven Detainees, SPLM top party officials detained in the wake of the 15 December 2013 Juba Mutiny

The Eleven Detainees, SPLM top party officials detained in the wake of the 15 December 2013 Juba Mutiny

SPLM Leaders (Former Detainees) Welcome Recent IGAD Summit on Peace in South Sudan

1. We the SPLM Leaders welcome the decisions of the IGAD Heads of State and Government on Peace in South Sudan as came in their Communique of 10th June, 2014.
2. We in particular appreciate the determination of the IGAD Heads of State and Government in holding the summit to recommit President Salva Kiir Mayardit and former Vice President Dr. Riek Machar Teny to abide by the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement as well as the commitment to bring peace to South Sudan within sixty (60) days. This time-bound commitment is important given the tragic and deplorable situation facing the people of South Sudan as a result of the conflict.
3. As came in previous statements, our position is for immediate ending of the war in order to give peace a chance. We call upon all people of South Sudan to direct all their efforts towards this end.
4. It is in the above context that we recently met President Kiir in Addis Ababa on the sidelines of the IGAD Summit to engage him on the urgent need to stop the war and bring peace to the country. It is in the same spirit, that we have also been engaging former Vice President Dr. Machar and IGAD leaders in the search for peace in South Sudan.
5. We reaffirm our trust and confidence in the IGAD mediation process and will contribute positively towards the realization of peace in our country.
6. Finally we call upon IGAD to remain seized of the process.
John Luk Jok,
Spokesman, SPLM Leaders (Former Detainees)

Is Federalism The Elusive Price for Peace in South Sudan?

Posted: June 14, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Featured Articles, Malith Alier

By Malith Alier

Peace is the absence of war and other upheavals that disturb tranquillity in a given setting, in this case South Sudan. Many of us cogitate that this country paid dearly to secure peace in 2005 going forward. The estimates of 2 to 2.5 million souls lost over a period of over twenty years still cause mental anxiety particularly if another war reignites.

The December 15 bloody uprising is the mother of all wars of self-interest this country deserves not. It did not cross one’s mind that the joy of independence was going to be a vicious cycle of militia activity motivated by nothing short of having self a place on the high table on the land, in the government.
In the Too Agreements Dishonoured, Abel Alier, the author stated that many South Sudanese after the 1972 Addis Ababa Peace Agreement (APA) refused to work in agriculture and commerce because of one thing, only to work in government. Today, though to some extent, this is the case with the violent militia backed by enemies of South Sudan independence.

Once in the government, the self-interest groups or individuals take liberty to do as they wish to fulfil their long held ambition called acquisition of wealth. Being in the government is a carte blanche for acquisition of wealth which is a gateway to fame, many wives, many friends and multiple investments in the country and abroad. Is this one component of the elusive price for peace?

The quarter century war of independence was justified on the pretext of oppression, slavery and lack of development in the southern part of the former Sudan. Ironically, war seemed to have completely entered some people’s veins and therefore, have no self worth except through war. For them, every problem is only solvable through guns. Your voices are heard after taking up arms against innocent people who have nothing to do with country’s wealth centred on Juba. The result is death, displacement and suffering. The goal is reintegration into the government where one will have a free hand on wealth and be part of the system forever. A home in a high class residential suburb, Hai Amarat crowns it all. Even a home in Amarat is enough. One along with his entire family, relatives and friends can choose to stay at exclusive hotels in Juba at taxpayers’ expense. Be mindful not to leave behind a cosy V8 and other fringe benefits like fully paid travels and healthcare abroad.

A reward for waywardness is the order of the day in South Sudan politics in recent years. Further, bogus claims have developed of late like the autonomy on the ground of underdevelopment. Greater Pibor administrative area (GPAA) is one such example. However, this is not entirely a bad development because many likewise folks are likely to demand for similar treatment. The people in the union of what once was called Jonglei State are the first in line to directly benefit from this new development. Jonglei State has been inhabited by animals, not people who reason and understand together. Child abduction, cattle raids and wanton killings are medieval practices that went back several centuries and have no place in the current century. But they have found justification in various agreements signed and effected in the letter and spirit.

To sell the Greater Pibor peace agreement to South Sudanese and their representatives in parliament, the President urged the Council of States to ratify that agreement and create and demarcate borders of new Counties in Central Equatoria so as to enhance peace. This is an example of how we South Sudanese have been searching for peace over the centuries.

Peace was outright rejected in unity of former Sudan. We looked for peace in separation but it was not there. We looked for peace in decentralisation it was not there. We looked for peace in creation of more States and Counties however; it was nowhere to be found. Therefore, the last frontier to look for peace is federalism.
The supporters of federalism argue that it is the only untried price for peace and development. It has been in demand since 1947 Juba round table. Federalism is deemed to be a panacea for all the ills and suffering people of this country went through. It will accelerate development; enhance equitable power sharing, ensure equitable resources sharing and everything good that comes with it.

Contrarily, it is not the system that fails but the people who do not know how manage the system that makes it fail. A perfection of decentralisation is a precursor of unexplored federalism. The voices for federalism are increasingly becoming louder by the day. They are even joined by high profile politicians who have failed to implement the current decentralised system of government where power is devolved to the lowest level of government. Instead of pushing for full decentralisation, they are pulling for federation which they have little clue about. To them and on top of what they thought are the benefits of federalism, are the resources underground in some States e.g oil and other minerals. Land is also another contention where people from other States are branded “land grabbers” and therefore, denied a plot of land in a city.

Everybody should understand that all resources underground, defence, foreign affairs, foreign trade including custom revenue collection are a preserve of a federal government as is the case in Australia, USA, India or Nigeria. In case your State has been eyeing such, it is now time to revise your thinking.
Federalism is good by itself. What makes it unpredictable are the people behind it. They may be having other ideas that will ruin its implementation. In this case people are likely going to get bogged down in the detail in the absence of a clear roadmap and purpose for it.

This implied that a rush to adopt and implement it will cause more problems than people think. The proponents have a strong case and so are the opponents. Therefore, in this scenario federalism must be put to test in a democratic way. Either way through referendum there will be no love lost. The President summed it up all that he alone cannot do it by his usual decrees.

Why Federalism Must Wait in South Sudan

Posted: June 14, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Featured Articles


Introduction: Many if not all advocates of federalism in South Sudan fail to see many facts as to why South Sudan is not ready for a federal governance now. A federal system in South Sudan at this time is likely to be based on ethnic lines and that will delay civilized integration based on nationalism. Yes, South Sudan may need a lot of things given its infancy in nationhood. However, these needs may not come all at once but one at a time. The immediate needs for South Sudan at the moment are not federalism and democracy as currently being used by Dr. Riek’s rebellion to kill innocent people. South Sudan needs peace, stability, and human development. These are critical areas which need our country’s immediate attention, energies, resources, and efforts.

Federalism is a good system in the view of international best practices. It decentralizes power, decision making, resources, and brings national authorities closer to every citizen. However, the shortcomings or successes of federal governance depend on the stakeholders in a particular nation and South Sudan’s case could fit that particular concern. In the case of South Sudan and especially at the moment, federalism will form small villages of tribes in which creativities coming from members of other tribes shall be resisted. Federalism in South Sudan at the moment will force us back to ways of the 1800s Africa. South Sudan is a new nation, yes, but that must not always be used as an excuse to bog down progressive perspectives and aspirations of the people to move forward.

My concern on the ongoing advocacy for federal governance in SouthSudan is centered on two aspects. First, South Sudan has recorded more than 70% illiteracy rate. That rate is alarming indeed, not fit enough to help the masses understand the literal meaning of federalism. The second concern is centered on the result of this low capacity among the people. With such level of human underdevelopment, more than 70% illiteracy rate makes ethnicity become an impediment for a knowledge-based and creativity-based economic development. Federalism in South Sudan at this time will create villagism and savage belligerence amongst tribes. Cattle rustling, attacks against villages, struggle over strategic businesslands, and tribal discrimination in the job markets will be a game of the time.

With those two concerns in mind, federal governance in South Sudan could easily tarmac our highway to genocide. States which are curved out of ethnic lines will advance impression of ethnic loyalty making everybody coils back to their tribal villages while rendering a very weak central government. That exclusive tribal loyalty will definitely render the central government less important and that will Somalize our country. Time is the essence when it comes to the evolution of ideas. A good idea works for the immediate benefit of a nation when there are more than half of the populations who understand it. South Sudan must wait until when more than 70% of its 11 million people can define, understand, and utilize the literal meaning of federalism by themselves. Having lived in more sophisticated nations where federalism has engendered durable solutions to governance problems does not mean a few of us should impose a knowledge most people need time to absorb.

Having known that, the immediate need of the people of South Sudan right now is not federalism but rather creation of a conduciveenvironment in which progressive ideas of societal organization could be introduced. These ideas such as federalism, democracy, and many more cannot work if peace is absent. Such ideas cannot work if the people, the economy, health system, and education system are not stable. Moreover, how can people understand which governance is better than which when majority of the citizens cannot read even labels on their own prescriptions? There are many other priorities South Sudan leaders should focus their efforts, wisdoms, and energies on other than jumping the time. South Sudan, its peoples, and their ideas do not need radical revolutionary but rather evolutionary changes. This will ensure that South Sudanese are not strained in coercive changes which do not consider their situational contexts.

Like I mentioned, federalism is not South Sudan’s priority. One pressing challenge is weak institutions of the government. That should concern us all. In that connection, the government of South Sudan must prioritize development of the people in order to hasten inclusive understanding of our country’s political direction. South Sudan with its development partners must focus on building training institutions which will engage the post war youth in self-development. Vocational training centers should be opened for the former combatants including the white army. Such innovative approaches will reduce widespread use of guns by youth who have no alternative living skills. A need for collective responsibility to grow together without tribal hates is one more reason why federalism must wait until the people evolve in terms of human capacity to choose what is right for them.

When South Sudan has a well-developed human capital which is capable to blend into the outside world, options of governance will be discussed more inclusively. Well educated and trained South Sudanese citizens will gain the ability to see beyond ethnicity and that is the time federalism will serve its right purpose for South Sudan. When citizens gain the abilities to contribute to an equitable economic development; when students choose to attend schools of their choices regardless of locations within South Sudan boundaries; and when professionals compete for jobs within their specialty anywhere in the country on the basis of meritocracy rather than ethnic affiliations; that is the time when federalism will serve more good than evil.

Dr. Riek Machar and Wani Igga: Why is Dr. Riek for federalism now rather than then? Here is my take on Riek’s current school of thoughts. Unlike Wani Igga, I think Dr. Riek knew what federalism meant way before Equatorian conference held last year, 2013, in which the idea was coined. At the time when Dr. Riek Machar was the second most powerful man in the SPLM led government, the federalism idea had no use for him. May be, to him at the time, the idea was a hell of nonsense because he knew it was going to force him down into becoming a mere Nuer and a villager of the same. Perhaps, now that the people of Greater Equatoria have virtually proven to be the center of attention in this political conflict with perceived ethnic undertone, Dr. Riek has gotten a new use for the idea. What could be that new use? The new use for the federalism idea in the mindset of Dr. Machar is to make it a tool to create a new political polarization and rift in the government’s frontline.

Why is Wani Igga against Dr. Riek’s advocacy for federalism now? Well, Equatorians seems to be Dr. Riek’s new targets of attraction. Riek may want to draw masses of Equatorian region into his political discipleship in a bid to balance the South Sudan government’s power equation. Politics is like playing chest game. Dr. Riek’s quest for federalism is a very bad move to the Vice President (VP) Wani Igga because it is likely to sway the neutrality of Equatoria region on the ethnic line of the current war. Perhaps in the VP’s judgment, if Equatoria buys into Riek’s call for federalism now, it may also force Vice President Igga down into becoming a mere Bari, a view Dr. Riek himself held when he was in the Presidency. If Dr. Riek Machar said nothing about federalism when he was in charge, why Igga now after replacing Dr. Riek? In my view, Dr. Riek may only win politicians but not youth in arms.

What is the role of oil in this war? In addition to Riek’s first use of the federalism idea which is to lure Equatorians to his rebellion, part of the underlying perception is that Dr. Machar wants to convince the Nuer that a federal Republic of South Sudan will exclusively put the oil wealth in their pockets. This pushes the Nuer youth to fight even harder and kill whoever comes in the way. In Dr. Machar’s mind, Greater Upper Nile region, which is home to all the Nuer ethnic groups, sits on the oil reserves currently under active commercial exploitation. In his vision as a rebel leader, federalism hence will ultimately deny oil money from enriching their perceived enemies, the Dinkas, most of who inhabit the Greater Bar el ghazal region. Whether this is real or part of the propaganda to fight the war is yet to be known. The fact is that most if not all South Sudan’s 4 trillion confirmed oil reserve does not lie under the Nuer villages. So why are the Nuer fighting?

Here are some blatant evidences to this analysis. A look at the fighters on Dr. Riek’s side shows all the Nuer with a pure tribal outlook struggling to capture and control the oilfields and capital cities of the Greater Upper Nile region. To the Nuer fighters, any member of different tribes found in their way is a problem and must die (massacres witnessed in the Bentiu hospital and mosque, Bor, and Malakal hospitals are practical evidence). Nuer youth’s tribal outlook in view of oil money is the reason why even the Shilluk civilians are being targeted to the point where some have been killed, maimed and even castrated in Upper Nile State. Dr. Riek’s opposition to the United Nations’ new mandate which included protection of oil facilities on the UNMISS mandate shows the world that Riek’s end goal or call it propaganda to make youth fight for his power, is to control the country’s economic politics.

Conclusion: It must be noted that our country should not be held hostage by a few who tend to impose what they see on everyone. Our country and its people should be allowed to grow naturally rather than coerced. With more than 70% illiteracy rate, the implication is that 90% of 11 million South Sudanese are left to spectate and wonder how they are being governed by a few elites who call themselves historical leaders. It is an outdated thinking that these so called historical leaders are right all the time. We must move on to focus all our resources on building our younger generations’ capacities.

We have a huge oil reserve, quantified at about four trillion barrels confirmed most of which under active commercial exploitation. This makes us a very rich society only if we stop fighting and sit to work and share. There is no winner in fighting over power to control the oil money. We will all win when we tap this resource with humility and a big heart to share with fellow nations. The state of our nationals’ capacities is quite pathetic but it is a challenge we must face headlong. Violence will only dwindle the little capacity will have as a nation because it sends a message to donors and investors how dangerous to work with we may become at times.

With more than 20 years of violent civil conflict between South Sudanese and their counterparts in Sudan, many generations of the current South Sudan had been denied access to tools and facilities of self-development. As a result, most of the current people of South Sudan have no capacity to understand the difference between what they have now and what they need to have in order to change their lives. This makes me think, in conclusion, that federalism is no priority at the moment.

I am not saying federalism is a bad system of governance. In fact federalism brings government power closer to people. My concern is the timing of such a system in the middle of our ethnic politics. Federalism at this time in South Sudan shall disintegrate our country into tribal units other than administrative units. Tribal units can be a very dangerous tool for Somalization of South Sudan. The immediate need for the people now is peace, stability, and human development. Federalism can wait until we understand its benefits.

James Adiok Mayik is a concerned South Sudanese national. He lives in Juba and can be reached at

Oil in South Sudan Theory is Life

By Stephen Owet 

This a theory to let the Government of South Sudan aware that oil in South Sudan is not a curse but rather a gift to pave the way toward prosperity and for South Sudaneses and South Sudan to catch up with today’s modern development quickly.

In short, modern development is not a forceful mean of changing people or other countries’ lifestyles or culturals and traditions to think of the past as nothing quickly as possible. It is rather being defines as the way individuals do things for themselves and their country step by step without disturbances from any outsider or others, but not a short cut to rape off other countries, cultures or traditions and governments out of their wills or not to try to force people to do thing as immediate as possible and it is not even an event to undertake or put people within a country at war or it is not to loot oil while war is taking place in a country. That is not what modern development is. Now, think of the development or production of oil and what it means to South Sudan and South Sudaneses. Think, think!   What does oil mean to you and why are South Sudaneses being evilly eyeballed because of the oil in South Sudan.   Even those who have once been good friends of Southern Sudan before independent of the Republic of South Sudan in 2011 have started to follow those who have been judging South Sudan and South Sudaneses as enemy because of the oil discovery in South Sudan. Now, think!

When we take a close look at the oil, it is better not defined as just crude, petroleum, gas, benzene, fuel for vehicles, gas as in house or industrial gas as some sorts of heat to heat up room buildings and cities during the cold seasons, but mostly in winter. In other word, some optimists but naives could rather put the oil as a means of money and power, but we have come to notice that oil is not just about something to do with money, power or energy as described by some pessimists who do not want others to know why South Sudan and why rallying behind bosses with big weapons while people are being massacred in the name of oil. Here, we are not trying to tell about cooking oil or thing like sunscreen oils or oil for hairs or lotion. The oil we try to brief is massive mean of petroleum by-products or crude oil which natural gas, gasoline, methane, etc are produced from. Oil is a life for any nation that has categorized itself as “West” and it runs deep, deep and deep from generation to generation in Western worlds. Without out oil, West and some other countries would fate away in just a couple of years ahead and their homes and towns would only be lived by ghosts without any human factors or man-made disaster involved – that is why Western Nations are fighting any country with oil globally. Now, hesitate to question this theory on why USA and some NATO countries are fighting some oil-rich nations in Middle East and Africa such as in Democratic Republic of Congolese (DR. Congo), Central Africa Republic (CAR), or Libya and now South Sudan, but for the rest of the World, it is a different look at South Sudan.

World views at the oil as source of life because they have waken up earlier and learnt that without oil some countries in the cold Hemispheres such as Western Nations would be ghost worlds, and industrials, towns, buildings and houses would be abandoned if they (Western nations) don’t fight to get and store as much oil before the developing country like South Sudan comes to understand that oil is life now a day. Despite life, South Sudan looks at the oil as a mean of income and revenue for the countries and as per se calculation of oil revenue in South Sudan is way enough to feed, develop, buy and manipulate or alienate foreign powers for the benefit of South Sudaneses. Watch!

Before the late Dr. Garang de Mabior, the late father and the leader of the SPLA/M, oil was a source of life according to his mind and it was once his other secretes which he did not share with some of his colleagues in the movement before his departure for rest. anyone who has no understanding about oil as source of life today – (though late Dr. Garang did not share his own theory about oil with them, who stuck with the SPLM leadership) and the one who looks at the oil as just oil – (some within the agents and agency-to-be for the government in South Sudan) always aims and accepts bribes from foreign nations to destroy or disturb life of civilians in Southern Sudan. Others with limited understand to what oil is all about or what oil can do and what oil means always try to create a looting routes or vacuums for those dishonest surveyors who come from the oil-greedy-nations to do some oil wells illegal-surveys and for them to have a genuine information about where the oil is located in the Republic of South Sudan while the war which they have been creating against South Sudaneses is taking places.

For South Sudan, oil is now life and to take that life they, greedy foreigners and their companies usually end up killing South Sudaneses by bribing eager militia leaders or some South Sudanese leaders to create some sort of conflicts as military interventions to panic civilians to think of leaving their homes in South Sudan. But those leaders and their militias don’t know that oil is life now a day. Despite the Republic of South Sudan being the newest county in Africa and World, some major powers and other minors look at South Sudan as steak in a plate because of oil, and if South Sudan or South Sudanese’ government becomes resistant or ever dares to resist or provoke the demands from those oil-greedy major countries, they take another look at South Sudan and South Sudaneses at home and abroad as beef running on its feet, and without steak, the riches who cannot live without steak on their plates cannot win life; they would perish in cold before they reach their next ten decades. Don’t go uh; it is a theory and perfect discovery! These are the countries which are playing tough games against South Sudan and South Sudaneses behind closed doors. Just take a good look at the way Russia and Pro-Russia handle Western Nations and G7 nations when it comes to natural resource issues and mostly oil, the energy which is now the source of life. You would be amazed what a capable nation like Russia handle those who nations who have guts to rape Russians off their resources. Won’t you? Another example is Cuba, the nation that has survived beside the giant, the United States of America, USA which has once positioned itself as the toughest country against Cuba’s independent. Will brief this later.

Would you rather see world going to war because of Russia being resistant or would you rather see the world going to war because of South Sudan refusing to be looted? For the sake of the majors fearing majors, World will not go to war because of Russia being resistant. Russia and Pro-Russian have their own mission to rule the world for another term and Russia being Russia and Russia being resistant because of oil, it is like a call for World War III, but no country needs the world to go to war any time. Russia wins often. Any country that always looks at Russia as an intimidator to their life because of oil, such a country will always back down herself/himself just by looking into the future and what World War III would cause if it is launched and by avoiding military offensive against Russia for a diplomatic efforts as a solution to calm down the Government of Russia. For Russia being super in its governing fields among this metropolitan societies of today, it will always negate another decision that is made by others – do not know how many but that is how Russia plays. Avoid World War III by avoiding attack on Russia as a group or single. Well, unlike South Sudan and South Sudanese’s government, there is another way of playing and winning the oil war globally.

As South Sudan or South Sudanese’s government, the only way to keep on playing this brutal and none stopping oil wars is to alliance with major countries who are closest or some how close enough to South Sudan just or in cast some greediest and major countries attempt to engulf South Sudan with its natural resources. There is a best way to win the oil war in this changed, and fast growing modernized world of today. South Sudan can and will always win the oil war for South Sudaneses. This may be by siding with country like United Kingdoms, United States of America, China, Pakistan, India, Japan, South Korea, Germany, France, or Ukraine, but that could just be a ruin to South Sudan and South Sudanese’s economy because the rest of the world have already learnt from those countries that those nations’ governments are only working for the people of theirs. They don’t steal from their people or their governments but they are confirmed to steal or loot from any weak (in term military) but rich (in term of natural resources) country. Once a small country that is natural-resources-rich becomes friend with a country like United States of America’s government or with any nation that shares the same interest with United States of America, U.S.A., that small always become no longer a nation of its own, but part of U.S.A.’s states. Best Example: Saudi Arabia.

Speaking of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia’s government has once contributed to the destruction of Southern Sudanese life before the independent of the Republic of South Sudan and right after Saudi boosted relationship with United States’ government between the years 1991 to 2001. Though U.S.A. was looked by the world as a best justified nation that sees every country as innocent and independent of it own as it can be, technically, U.S.A.’s government has aided the former Sudanese government to murder Southern Sudaneses by using Saudi Arabia’s government as a base and means of financially funding former Sudanese Army/government to launch and test former Sudanese Rebel, the SPLA’s capability between ‘80s’ and 2000s’ and before year 2005. Saudi Arabia has been used by the USA’s government to fund and freeze Southern Sudanese’s economy and delay the independent of South Sudan.

This gets worsen for Southern Sudaneses every time “Democrat” Party in U.S.A wins election, but with “Republican” Party in U.S.A., Southern Sudaneses are always fine. No matter what corner in the world Southern Sudaneses live – if Republican Party in USA wins election, Southern Sudaneses are always fine at home and abroad. For quick instance review, you may recall the pain Southern Sudaneses have experienced when “Bill Clinton” was in the top presidential seat of United States of America, and now South Sudaneses are genuinely feeling twice the pain from President Barack Obama’s terms in the office because President Barack Obama is running as “Democrat,” and Democrat is not and will never be a political or any diplomatic solution for South Sudan and Africa’s economy as whole because Democrat is running after oil in South Sudan and as well as after every small but natural-resources-rich nation’s oil across the globe.  The oil game which United States of America is playing is not that bad and cannot sanction big countries but it will always hurt small countries.

It is not okay to alliance with USA as whole but for the sake of South Sudaneses’ interest, “Republican” party in USA has always been working hand-in-hand with southern Sudaneses for the interests of life and advancing development to boom among southern Sudaneses in Southern Sudan and abroad and across the globe – even before the independent of the Republic of South Sudan. Reading this does not mean “Republican” party of USA is favourited by South Sudaneses because as a Republican in USA, “Christianity” comes first in the back of Christian-Americans and because majority of South Sudaneses are Christians, Republican party in USA always favourite South Sudan to be an independent, peaceful, prospering and justified nation just as other Christians based countries are brought up. Well, if that is the reason why South Sudaneses like conservative-Americans to lead USA so that South Sudan would never be rape off of its oil and natural resources, let it be. Best leader which southern Sudaneses have come to know when it comes to helping South Sudaneses to develop their homeland South Sudan is “George W. Bush,” before Democrat-lead government of President Barack Obama come to office in USA. He, George W. Bush has worked with former SPLM leader, late Dr. Garang de Mabior and South Sudanese President Salva Kiir.

Since his election as the President of United States of America, George. W. Bush and Condolissa Rice have played a major role to helped Southern Sudaneses and make South Sudan and the former Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan fixed. Now, Southern Sudan is Republic of South Sudan and the Autonomous Government of South Sudan is Government of South Sudan permanently. And even Dr. Riek Machar has agreed to keep South Sudan and South Sudaneses under on umbrella of SPLM for the sake of the united Republic of South Sudan. From then, no political or military turmoil has every erupted southern Sudaneses to the point where South Sudaneses has to kill themselves and divided themselves ethnically or tribe by tribe and/or divided south Sudanese army to who or what to destroy.

Conservative-Americans in USA understands too that there are things that people can change and those changes are not to be done by forces of any kind, but leave them for the nature to take its tolls, and there are things that people cannot change at all and if humans try to change things by forces, they are creating chaos for the entire population or country. They too, do believe that oil in South Sudan is not a curse and since it is located in South Sudan, it is belong to South Sudaneses.

The alert of theory is to make this a wake up call that oil in South Sudan is not a curse and this argument too has once let former South Sudanese Secretary General Pa’gan Amum Okiech and his other eleven top SPLM politicians to prison in late year 2013 and it was all because of the Obama’s American-lead government ideologies which has actually emerged from the American’s liberal-lead government – to try to a forcefully change South Sudaneses and South Sudan’s definition and as whole and as well as the SPLA/M vision because of oil in South Sudan. Obama’s liberal-lead government is the one who arrested twelve top SPLM politicians and which has led South Sudanese ex-Vice President Riek Machar to accept accountability from the opposition-lead army in South Sudan against South Sudan Army, SPLA. Because SPLM vision was going to be diverged by the ideologies of the American liberal-lead government for oil in South Sudan through South Sudan President Salva Kiir Miyardit, ideal South Sudanese SPLM politicians refused to sale South Sudan and accepted prison rather than betraying SPLM vision and South Sudaneses’ interests.

Once Obama’s lead-liberal-American government learnt that they have made a mistake by trying to change South Sudan and South Sudaneses through forceful means by ruining SPLM vision, the same American government of President Barack Obama’s lead-liberal government sent the United States America’s Secretary John Kerry to come and advised South Sudanese President Salva Kiir Miyardit that they, American government agents and agencies of American President Barack Obama have made a mistake. Therefore, release the former arrested SPLM politicians and President Kiir did, he did release them SPLM politicians as a mean to stop war that was started in January 2014. Despite conservative or liberal viewing South Sudan and South Sudaneses differently because of the oil in South Sudan, South Sudan and South Sudaneses side with whoever cannot and will not axe and/or will not and cannot starve South Sudan and South Sudaneses at behind the back or in behind a closed doors.

Directly or indirectly, Australia could play the best alliance but it is far away from South Sudan and South Sudan could be knifed at night while Australian government is trying to fly her/his fighter jets to try to rescue South Sudan. Therefore, Russia is well advanced and Russia could be the best bet because Russian government does not wrestle with republican-lead government in USA even if there is a failed leadership or aborted business collaboration between South Sudanese government and other nations which are alliance with United States of America. America is far and the best part of it is that American government has been starving South Sudan at behind the closed doors by using foreign countries’ militaries. Example: In 2013 political and military warfare among South Sudanese government agents took place between the months of December 2013 and now, Ugandan army and Ugandan air force have been used by the American government of Barack Obama’s lead-Democrat to target and attack South Sudaneses even though it was not American war or Uganda’s war.

Joint USA – Uganda Air Force and Uganda Army have been attacking South Sudan and now, foreign armies have invaded South Sudan’s oil production regions of Bentiu, oil wells in Jonglei and in Upper Nile of South Sudan and Dr. Riek Machar have been very slightly argumentative about those types of invasions. As a oil greedy nations’ armies, fired army force could be the only mean of controlling South Sudan and South Sudanese Resources by South Sudaneses themselves because foreigners and their armies have failed to listen by dishonoring South Sudaneses on their land. From this point, South Sudan has come to understand that oil is life though it used to be a mean of income and revenue.

If South Sudan learns – which implies that South Sudan has learnt to put a dog colour eye glasses in his/her eyes and look at all oil invaders as one enemy of South Sudan despite their colours of skins or missions, South Sudan will and will win any oil war. 1). Because of oil as life, South Sudan can survive any threat like Cuba that lives next to the former major enemy of his/her and the World’s assumed rated number #1 very super power country, the United States of America (USA). Be it nuclear or atomic bomb, South Sudaneses can survive in it; few will go because of the sacrifices which are made for freedom, and most of South Sudaneses will live and ripe the benefits of freedom just like Cuba after. 2). Because of oil being a life, nobody needs to tell who to leave where and when. As South Sudaneses, you do not need to respect any invaders in your homeland; be he/she black or white folk.

Dress your eyes in dog colours so you can judge them, invaders alike. South Sudan is about to become everybody’s turf because of oil and it is up to South Sudanese warriors to make South Sudan a home for South Sudaneses and South Sudaneses’ generation to come. Dog colour is a good judgment! As it was once quoted by Nguendeng and Deng and phrase by Nyikango before, “the mightiest who does not respect boundaries shall fall, and the majors who respect boundaries will live.” Collaboration is what it takes.

Collaboration, collaboration! In business, there is always exchange, follow of money, resources, commodities, exchange of power, cons and pros, etc. But if any of the one freezes (for example commodities froze), exchange of power always gets it way into business as a mean of control, corruption or thefts and to prevent lawsuits by creating war or fighting against the country or against the one who was cheated by the super power who cheated.   As in cast of South Sudanese government, a lot of cheating was involved and those cheating have almost made South Sudan to collapse and fall in the hand of foreigners.   This means let’s put it this way, what country would and have once sanctioned the Republic of South Sudan from owning or leasing Fighter Jet Aircrafts and Anti-missiles, missiles, modern Anti-Tank and modern Anti-Aircraft weapons as a mean to secure South Sudan’s air space and to protect civilians from being bombarded by any enemy or foreign aircrafts in South Sudan?

Well, there have been quite a few and as you all know, USA’s Democrat-lead government, Ugandan government, Saudi Arabia’s government, and five other capitals have objected South Sudan to own means powerful security system in place to protect South Sudaneses. Those nations who have said no for South Sudan to own major defense systems have been the countries which have yearned to find the way to break into South Sudan’s security and create war and they did.   Those nations understand that South Sudan being rich with natural resources like oil, and to them, oil is life; they put South Sudan on hold to open rooms for violence and routes to steal oil revenues from the hands of the South Sudanese government agents and agencies that have been taking care of South Sudan and South Sudaneses. 3). Because of oil, South Sudan has now become another place of scramble for energy for life just as Africa used to be to Europe.

When looking at the big picture, most of South Sudaneses who are suffering in South Sudan and abroad, are South Sudaneses whom original hometowns and houses has been build on or close to the oil fields before the wells were dug or drilled and it has been a policies designed by those who have agendas to kill South Sudaneses slowly because of oil and take South Sudaneses’ oil after they, South Sudaneses are dead. This has been a policy, and only a blind person cannot see it or anyone who cannot feel cannot feel that political pain abroad and at home in South Sudan and it is all because of oil. Now oil is life for South Sudanese just as the lat Dr. Garang de Mobior had noticed, and oil being life, it is for sell and to feed and develop South Sudan and South Sudaneses; oil in South Sudan is not for sharing.

Oil in South Sudan is not a curse and the oil in South Sudan is not a woman to be shared. Oil in South Sudan is for South Sudaneses to sell, and it is for South Sudaneses to do what they need to do with oil revenues or incomes in South Sudan. It is not up to the foreigners to make a decision on what to do about oil in South Sudan because none of any South Sudaneses have ever been allowed or invited to share any foreign oil incomes or foreign oil revenues before the oil was discovered in Southern Sudan. Relatives have been suffering because they are being threatened by the oil-greedy-nations at home and abroad. Relatives’ life was taken away from them because of oil, but oil can also buy away the life of individuals, firms, or countries who took life away from relatives of South Sudaneses. This is not a “call before you dig” here; it is a theory and it is an attempt to count who lost her/his life since the independent of the Republic of South Sudan since July 2011. The reasons why South Sudanese government is looking toward Russia and Pro-Russia nations as a mean to do trade in oil business in South Sudan is just as late Dr. Garang de Mabior would have wanted.

Well, the difference between Russia and other none Russia is simple, correct and honesty way of doing business with friends without cheating and without starving friends in business in the in back or behind closed doors. Russia like China does not cheat in businesses or any government type businesses. If Russian government ever signs any business relating government affairs with foreign nations, as a government, Russia always avoid conflict to keep friendship strong even if they look at a nation which they are doing business with as one of the small countries that can be rape off easily. With United States of America or any country that shares the interest with U.S.A., that is a different look when oil business involves.

As for United States of America’s government, doing business involves cheating and destroying the smalls after advantages has been taken from the smalls, it is like gambling in unlawful clubs where guns and big guys rules, no matter whose right it is for USA, but mostly Democrat-lead-government in America has a sentiment to play dirty games against South Sudan often; any Pro-USA’s Democrat-lead government has also adapted the same system because they always weighing war as a group like gangs against one nation which they America and pro-America governments have interests to rape off any small nation because of oil. Now, when was the last time anyone has heard and seen U.S.A.’s government went to war without any of the NATO or G7 countries accompanying USA to war? Never; USA never go war a lone to rape off foreign oil. And for a respect point of view, neither USA, NATO nor G7 nations takes laws and orders or listen to UN, the United Nations’ leadership. Another example: If Russia signs an agreement that he/she, as a government of Russia has to give a country which does business with him/her in exchange of that country’s commodity, Russian government never and can never fail his/her business friends and as for oil business in South Sudan, Russia or Russia alliance nations are good as late Dr. Garang de Mobior would have wanted.

As for South Sudaneses and their oil, South Sudaneses look at oil as income and revenues, but after that, they have learnt that they are being killed of oil, and some have lost relatives and quite handful of them, South Sudaneses have immigrated so far away countries and across oceans. South Sudaneses have learnt that oil is life. Despite oil being a life, war and restless lifestyle which some South Sudaneses had attempted to leave behind, there are firms of oil businesses and individuals with or countries-which do not need South Sudan to be a peaceful country. They still view South Sudaneses like oil on walking on it feet and that look itself can amaze human being – when someones or firms look at you as if they are looking at oil itself. It is not a normal look especially when somebody says he/she is a South Sudanese, they look at him/her as if he/she is carrying oil in his/her body!

The more South Sudaneses are being view as oil, the more South Sudaneses learn that oil is life and it being a life, it is for sell but not a shield to be used as a tool for destroying other countries’ life or people as many nations who are about to run out of natural gas, fuel or energy have done to South Sudan and South Sudaneses so far and behind the closed doors. Until then, it had never come to south Sudaneses’ practices that time has come to play too. Put those who have aided your enemies and let you flee the place of your birth as a refugee for other countries into the judgment point of view with a dog colour-eye-glassese in your eyes and lion shoes on your feet, with an elephant ears on your head, and live like an amphibian and fly out of water like a bird into the sky and fight for your oil because South Sudan and South Sudaneses are now depending on it, oil.

Invaders are about to trick South Sudaneses because of oil being a life. Thinking of oil being a life means enough discoveries because in the past, thoughts used to be devoted on food as a source of life and then water but then global communities started to fight over water resources too. Water does not finish and world stopped scrambling over water resources. Then, they have discovered that in order to live a better life and happy you have to have enough money to hire people to grow crops – develop farms and/or build things to protect and make you free and strong enough for life in your territory, but as the world grew older, power, but life is now switched to oil.

Oil has become the source of life where by a massive means of wealth or money are generated from and this huge money is one that can be used to buy things, employ individuals, buy companies or feed countries or buy enough food and security, build things for countries, companies or individual, to be able to buy any massive means of military offensive to control any strong enemy of individuals, companies, or countries, to be able to live free of threats in the air, on the ground, etc… and the list goes on.   As South Sudan, it is time to buy, rent and lease as many food, weapons such as fighter jet aircrafts, gunship, anti-missiles/anti-tanks/anti-aircrafts, missiles, tanks, plus military, ammunitions, weight war and pay your strongest friend to destroy your strongest enemy and for you being South Sudan, the super rich. Oil can destroy or make your enemy wait outside your territory just by putting protective mechanisms in place. Another example is that enemies’ life can be taken away by using oil and life or friends’ life can be protected by using oil.

As for South Sudan, play and put no boundaries between you and your enemy; you can penetrate into any security system of any country (major or minor who once assisted your enemies to kill your people) by using oil and because at the end of the year 2150, most of the oil-greedy-nations who have once immorally eyeballed South Sudan will run out of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline and any petroleum products. Play South Sudan! If you can swim in oil, you can rule the sky and make oceans to be your bed, and land, your bench. South Sudan owns oil and because others consider oil a life, South Sudan own life. Go South Sudan Go!

For a brief in this theory, some African leaders have made some mistakes against South Sudanese and those mistakes were made because of oil inside South Sudan. Instead of giving the government of South Sudan a room to breath, some African leaders have pushed the envelops against South Sudanese by force to President Salva Kiir and his government so he, President Salva Kiir can panic and go off the security bridge about South Sudanese Safety. It is those African leaders that have let Salva Kiir to misinterpret the genuine SPLM vision. First, Salva Kiir with his eyes blindfolded by the oil money and African leaders, he has forgotten that he was once the most reliable officer among security officers in the SPLA/M leadership in ‘80’s and until he became the leader of the SPLM after the late father of the SPLA/M Dr. Garang de Mabior in the year 2007. Before Salva Kiir became the President of South Sudan, he used to be aware and make sure that SPLA/M security is not penetrated or broken by any mechanism between the years ‘80s and 2007, and he, Salva Kiir Mayardit passed. That is why Salva Kiir Mayaardit was appointed to lead SPLM and Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan.

For the sake of South Sudaneses’ safety, Salva Kiir would by then have understood that he was the one in control of the SPLA/M leadership even when late Dr. Garang de Mabior was still alive because if the SPLA/M security had broken down from that time – the time when SPLA/M was still weighing gorilla war against former Sudanese government/army, there would have been nothing called “Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement in South Sudan or in Sudan as whole. Therefore, security matters; it is the third thing human being needs in life after food – water & shelter. If SPLA/M security could have broken down, South Sudan would by now stand like a fragile state, but SPLM security did not break down between the year 1983 and 2013.   As a thank you, Commander Oyai Deng Ajak, Peter Gathoth Mai, David Yau Yau, Dr. Adwok Nyaba, etc, and the earlier SPLA leaders like Karbino Kuanynyin Bol and William Nyuon to mention few. You have done a magnificent duty to keep SPLA/M security in it healthy shape.

Kudo to you all! Remember: instead of inviting other African leaders and their businessmen to party with South Sudaneses inside the Republic of South Sudan while South Sudan is still fresh, President Salva Kiir could have put strong security system in places in each and every part and corners or border of South Sudan. As for foreshadowing, all former old Sudanese leaders including current Sudanese President Omaro Hassien Wä’ Pa’shiro, they all have been doing the right job when it come to securing country as whole – gate by gate, border by border and that has been why none of any African countries that borders whole ever attempted to penetrate Sudanese land/border without any proper and thorough check or permission.

Instead of partying with other African leaders or friends inside South Sudan, Government of South Sudan could have put every nation across the continents on hold until South Sudan is stable and secured because, as a new country, no one has a clue among South Sudaneses about who is the wolf-a-sheep skin or who-is-a-lion in a cow’s body and who-is-a-bomb-in-a-bread-dough or who-is-a-poison-in-a-drink yet. Until the new country, South Sudan is secured, security matters before inviting your friends to come over and have party. Security matters. It is the strongest foundation of social life, development, education, health, freedom and life itself and since oil is a life now a day, missing security is a missed life.

As for an advice, it would be an asset to fully drain out all foreign businesses/workers, all foreign armies including all security forces from United Nations and African Union’s and anybody who is fire armed but is not member of South Sudan Army, the SPLA to pave the way, strengthen the security system in South Sudan for South Sudaneses to be able to cope with today’s modern development. All other political parties should be banned from operating in South Sudan because that is where foreigners found a vacuum and nose into South Sudanese government affairs. Only SPLM and South Sudan Army, the SPLA must continue the work of government in South Sudan. The ones who call themselves oppositionists (Army or movement/party) must be cleared out, let to live outside South Sudan border or join the Government of South Sudan, the SPLM (Sudan People’s Liberation Movement) and South Sudan Army, the SPLA (Sudan People’s Liberation Army) until South Sudan is secured enough.

And, for the leadership issue in the SPLM, Salva Kiir has to continue playing as the SPLM leader with other eleven ex-prisoners and if not Salva Kiir, former South Sudanese Secretary General Pa’gan Amum Okiech or one of the eleven has to lead the SPLM. Another person that could play SPLM leadership is previous South Sudanese Vice President Dr. Riek Machar, but if and only if he, Dr. Riek agrees to join the SPLM leadership as a Ministry or Presidential Advisor or Vice President of South Sudan if Salva Kiir will not declines his position as a President and a leader of the SPLM first. For the sake of the unity and united South Sudan and South Sudanese peoples, those separatists who always like to keep South Sudan divided and at war with itself, and to create room to allow foreigners to cheat or steal from South Sudan – while their relatives and children hide overseas or in other countries, Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin with his SPLM-DC and Dr. Riek Machar with his SPLM-IO must understand that South Sudaneses and South Sudan do not need any ideology opposes to the SPLM vision. SPLM-DC and SPLM-IO need to rally behind SPLM as soon as possible and omit those DC and IO because united South Sudan with one political party, the SPLM is what South Sudaneses need and it is what makes South Sudan united and secured.

As for author, my father late Kuol Owet (former member of the artilleries and SAM (Anti-Aircraft) operator unit in Fashoda Battalions, SPLA) died while he was still in this business thing calls SPLA/M Vision. You fail me, you fail SPLM/A, South Sudan and South Sudanese. Oh, you understand I live abroad, but you have no idea about what I am working on to keep SPLM Vision alive too eh. And, as for you Lawmaker or Justice “Pagan Amum Okiech,” you are Chollo just like me, but remember to put Chollo or who is who things aside for SPLM Vision, South Sudan and South Sudaneses as whole, and do not try to do something stupid and leave SPLM for your own obtuse; do not try and create something out of SPLM like mad scientist Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin with his madness because we have been with you Pagan Amum Okiech from every footstep you have taken, and don’t forget who have been getting you out of prison in Khartoum and Juba.

Make oil in South Sudan a life for South Sudan and South Sudanese interests in the name of the SPLM Vision, South Sudan and South Sudaneses at home and abroad; do not leave SPLM even table because Salva Kiir has saved you, and life of other eleven political pals of yours, prison was the safe hide for you and your all. You could have been killed by those greedy-separatists out of the SPLM’s unit. That is how father makes good judgment for his children and President Salva Kiir has done just that by protecting you all from being killed because you are all SPLM members.

In conclusion, oil is life; O.I.L.

Stephen O. Kuol Owet (Stephen Owet)

Federalism and Decentralization system of Governance in South Sudan, the unpolished debate of regionalization between Upper Nile, Equatoria and Bahr El Ghazal.

By Morris Mabior Awikjokdit- Kuajok

You are hearing today many outstanding analytical and technical presentations about the  elements, advantages, and problems with respect to federalism and the decentralization of power in the Republic of South Sudan.  I would like to speak briefly here to some of the broader political and philosophical issues that have been raised by political commentary mainly South Sudanese around the global giving their opinions about the proposed Decentralization and federal system of governance in the youngest Africa state.

As you have heard this week, a growing number of citizens especially from Greater Bhar el Ghazal region are moving to adopt decentralization systems of governance that at least for decentralizing some significant elements of government responsibility down to local government and discouraging federal system of governance that devolve insignificant governing authority down from the center to lower level at critical time people wants to grow horns.

Am one of the people supporting decentralization system of governance in the Republic of South Sudan as it’s have been amicably resolved by Warrap youth Forum. Equatorian are of the view if they have good climate seasons and are also very rich in term of natural resources should federalism is adopted as the system of governance, than they will definitely introduced their own system of running the government based on minority rights.

I want to address three questions to the entire readers and general public of three Greater Equatoria, Upper and Bhar el Ghazal regions about the ongoing debate.  First, why are you peopling putting this debate of decentralizing and federal government on regional lines instead on philosophical facts as South Sudanese? And more people are opting for decentralize governing power in the Republic of South Sudan?

Second, what has this trend meant for the quality of democracy and governance in South Sudan and around the world? Third, what has it meant for the ability of South Sudanese to hold together peacefully as a unified state under the umbrella of people one nation?

Why the Trend toward Federalism?

There are three broad reasons why so many countries are adopting federal systems, or greater political and administrative decentralization.  In some countries, federalism is adopted as a means of giving different ethnic and regional groups some autonomy and control over their own affairs.

The thinking is that if different ethnic and regional minorities have some autonomy, some ability to determine their own local affairs with respect to education, culture, and economic development, they will feel more secure, and be more willing to accept the authority and legitimacy of the larger national state.  I know there are concerns about this issue in Iraq, and I will return to it in a little while.

Second, federalism or devolution of power is adopted as a means of sharing power among lots of different political parties, which may or may not have some basis in ethnic or regional ties.  If democracy is to survive, it cannot be a winner-take-all system, particularly not one in which one party is always going to win, and thus take all.

When some governing responsibilities and resources are devolved to lower levels of authority, and when there are a lot of different states, counties, Payams and Bomas whose governments will be chosen through elections, parties and groups that cannot win control of the central government may win the opportunity to exercise power in some of the lower-level governments.

This increases their confidence in and commitment to the political system, and the sense among citizens generally that the system is fair and inclusive.  If groups with strong bases of support in the country are completely and indefinitely excluded from any share of political power at any level, they are likely to question and even challenge the legitimacy of the system.

Third, democracy has swept throughout the world as a basic value and framework of governance over the past three decades.  And decentralization is increasingly coming to be seen as a fundamental democratic principle.  It is not enough for people simply to be able to choose their national leaders in periodic, free, and fair elections.

In countries of moderate to large size, a good democracy requires that people be able to elect their own local leaders and representatives, and that these local governments have some real power to respond to the needs of the people.  In short, decentralization is increasingly being demanded from below, through pressure from the grassroots, and is embraced for its potential to enhance the depth and legitimacy of democracy.

How Federalism and Decentralization Enhance Democracy in South Sudan?

I have already begun to suggest, then, how federalism and other forms of decentralization can strengthen democracy and enhance its stability it might deem appropriate.  They may help to hold the country together by giving each group some control of its own affairs.  They may help to sustain the political system by distributing power among a wider array of political parties, each of which finds that it has some tangible stake in the system.

And it speaks to the aspirations of people and communities who simply want government to be closer and more responsive to their needs.

Let me continue with the functions that decentralization serves.  When government is closer to the people, it is more likely to be held accountable by them for its successes and failures in the provision of basic services, the maintenance of order, and the fair resolution of local issues and disputes.  Government tends to be more responsive when it is closer to the people.

That is why democracies are more and more embracing the principle of subsidiary:  that each government function should be performed by the lowest level of government that is capable of performing that function effectively.

When there are multiple layers of elected government, as in a federal or politically decentralized system, there are other benefits for democracy.  Lower levels of elective office can constitute an arena for training and recruiting new political leaders, including women and young people who have not previously had a role in political life.  And these lower levels of democracy provide a more accessible means for citizens to become active in public affairs:  to question their local officials, monitor what they do, present their interests and concerns, and learn the skills and values of democratic citizenship.

Typically, it is difficult for most citizens and organized groups to get access to the national parliament or the central ministries.  They need decentralized opportunities for access to decision-making power.  And those points of local access are more likely to be responsive if they are accountable to the people through elections.

Finally, decentralization of power provides an additional check against the abuse of power.  Of course, checks and balances are needed within the central government itself.  This is why there must be an independent parliament and judiciary, and effective auditing and counter-corruption mechanisms.  But federalism can provide an additional bulwark against the concentration and abuse of power.

What is Necessary for Federalism to Work in a Democracy?

I do not mean to suggest that federalism, or even more limited decentralization of power, is without risks and dangers for democracy.  In many democracies, old and new, local and state governments become not outposts of grassroots democracy but local fiefdoms, dominated by political bosses who do not play by democratic rules or respect citizens’ rights.  As local autocratic leaders enhance their power, they can rig elections and intimidate the opposition, creating a one-party state at the all level governance, even if the national system remains vigorously competitive.  I have seen this happen in countries like Nigeria.  But this is far from inevitable.

There is a way to prevent or correct this problem.  A federal democracy must establish that the national constitution, and the national judicial system, is supreme over local and state authorities.  Prosecutors, investigators and commissions at the national level must have the authority to investigate abuses of power, violations of rights, and charges of corruption in local and state governments up to the grass-root levels.  Violators must be held accountable in the national courts, if they cannot be tried and punished at lower levels.  And levels of government below the center should not be allowed to maintain their own armies or militias.  That should be a national function.

There is also the problem of capacity for self-governance at the local and state level.  This can be a particular problem in terms of the ability to raise, budget, and expend resources.  In a country like Iraq, where the central government receives large streams of revenue from petroleum exports, a system can be developed to allocate some portion of this revenue automatically to the lower units of government, by a formula, perhaps largely based on shares of population, which is mutually negotiated and generally accepted as fair.

But still, lower governments must develop the capacity to administer the revenue and provide the necessary services.  Often, this requires a period of training and a phase-in of responsibilities devolved down from the center.  One of the most important lessons from other country experiences is that local governments should not be burdened with obligations to perform functions and provide services for which they do not have adequate revenue or training.

Is Federalism a Slippery Slope downward to Disintegration?

A very legitimate fear of many who are wary of federalism is that, in a context of deep ethnic and regional divisions, it can lead to the break-up of the country, as in the former Soviet Union or the former Yugoslavia.  These fears are real, but they are based on a mistaken reading of other experiences.  Divided countries have disintegrated at crucial moments precisely because they did not develop over time democratic means for the devolution of power that knitted groups together in a more authentic, voluntary, and legitimate political union.

When groups are held together in one nation mainly by force and fear, anxious minorities may seek to secede at the first sign of a weakening of central government power.  By contrast, when the national government, under the fresh political circumstances that attend the formation of a new democratic system, makes an early and sincere grant of autonomy, the consequence is almost always greater stability and unity, rather than secession.

This has been the case in India, Spain, Mexico, and Nigeria, for example.  By contrast, countries like Sudan and Sri Lanka have paid a heavy price in civil war and massive violence for the failure to accommodate aspirations for devolution.

I know many Equatorians are dreaming that federalism is just a stalking horse or vehicle for the eventual break-up of the country into two states.  As a political predictor who has studied group conflict and institutions to manage conflict in democracies, I sincerely do not believe that will be the case.  Federalism—as negotiated and structured by Equatorians in their process of political cold war making during the coming year—will provide the means to hold Equatorian together permanently, democratically, and peacefully instead of gunpoint.

As an independent writer who sympathizes with your concerns and aspirations, permit me a final reflection.  We in the Republic of South Sudan do not wish for a divided or shattered South Sudan.  There is a strong consensus within the South Sudan that we should be a unified and democratic state, and that decentralization or devolution of power in some important ways will provide an important means toward those other two goals.

Remember that a century and a half ago we in the South Sudan fought a civil war to hold our own country together, around basic principles of democracy, equality, prosperity, justice and progress.  We do not wish for other countries and peoples anything less than what we have, at great cost, achieved for ourselves.

The author is a freelance opinion writer and a professional experience teacher based in Warrap state- Kuajok. He can be reached by email: Tel 0954243501, 0912646306

By Kur Wel Kur
As Qantas soared above Hong Kong, my eyes sent messages to the brain to decode every picture, the outcome lightened my face with a smile. A city built by the people and not by names! God sent us to the world to witness wonders of wonders. Those in America, Canada, Australia and Britain or wherever South Sudanese live in Europeans’ countries, we keep transporting, in a wish, the best governance, the unity, peace and prosperity.
However, little do we know, to partake in unity and prosperity, we must earn peace because peace defines the people, not names! The conflict in South Sudan comes in pieces as in the jig saw puzzles. We always observe the holistic scenario of South Sudan’s conflict, the government versus the rebels but each state within SouthSudan  or each tribe in a state within South Sudan withdraws into its own problem to attract the attention. As such, some of us within South Sudan called for federalism, others called for a state of their own within a state, so the greater Pibor offers us an example. Many examples of the systematic problems of South Sudan come in volumes of books.
 However, my focus in this article will zeroing in on the jieng (MonyJang) of the eastern bank, Bor, Twic, Hol and Nyarweng. Some of us believe that the existing name (Bor) excludes some of us so we call for an inclusive name such as other Jieng, Bahr el Gazel (Jieng of the Western Bank). With that said, this article will present some reasons why names are not the problem. I will also state why Facebook cannot allow a constructive discussions for issues such as this.
Honestly, I don’t know how Bor, the name, became the identity of Athooc, Gok, Hol, Nyarweng and not my desire to know it as well because the problem steers away from the history (how we all became Buoor) but on the connotation of some people who believe they own the name and insatiable hunger to create an inclusive name for some of us who feel excluded. These, in my belief, represent the grievances of some of us. So the question that begs answers from all of us goes: what can we all do to solve it peacefully? In an outlook, the solution does not need bigotry but the open-mindedness, it does not need the youth alone but our God given elders, and more importantly, it does not need political buccaneers but the community-loving people. Again, the lands and names are not the problem but us that own them. We must not divide for lands or names’ identities. In our counties we can find examples why names of people and lands don’t matter.
 At the outset, Kolnyang payam in Bor county, comprises of Abang, Abii(Jur Aliap),Adol and Gualla, the owners of the name(Kolnyang), nevertheless, the stake holders in Kolnyang payam don’t feel excluded because each clan within Kolnyang takes pride in their existing name, for instance, Abang is fulfilling to the owners already and so do the rest of the clans with their ancestral names. Besides, within kolnyang payam, all clans identify with Juur Hol as a comprehensive name but this name belongs to a clan within Kolnyang payam, Jiir owns the name. In spite of this, all other clans adhere to the name without grievances. The campaigners of Bor as an exclusive name might rebut these examples, particularly Hol because Jiir rarely use the name. But a specific example that fits all facets of our name (Bor) identity problem comes from Juur Koch.
Juur Koch (still in Bor County) consists of Adum wuur, Ateer, Deer and Koch, they identify themselves with Juur Koch as an inclusive name but the other clans don’t feel dominated by Kuoi because they pride themselves in their existing ancestral names. Makuach payam is the addressing centre of Adum Wuur, Ateer, Deer and Koch; Makuach belongs to Adum wuur. We can scan for examples of these kinds from Baaidit (Mac-Deng), Jalle, Panyangoor to Poktap but the truth remains: the lands and names represent no problem but the political freebooters. Political swashbucklers must not define us in their own desires because our destiny concerns not the politics alone; we share much of our lives.
For these reasons, we must find ways to coexist and solve this problem amicably. Some of us must not desire to exchange energised words in this heated debate. Better for those who choose to maintain silence than those who involve in unhealthy debate. As unhealthy debates solve nothing but they can result in blurring of the real issue(s) and a greater enmity. In this perspective, the groups that die-hard to change or create a more inclusive name must push a debate to a constructive level, and not on social sites such as Facebook.
As we confine our important discussions on Facebook, we risk our integrity and necessity of these discussions because the Facebook accommodates all. You find the educated and uneducated, young and adults, politically-minded and non-politically-minded people on Facebook. So with these mixtures, people must not initiate critical issue(s) on Facebook. Which constructive level must this debate goes?
I Believe the youth in the western countries or members of counties of Bor, Twi and Duk in diaspora own vibrant voices in our counties’ affairs, however, we must forward this debate to the elders especially to our history and politics legends. By so doing, the debate or grievances against Bor as an exclusive name will find itself on the legal grounds. Legal grounds create rooms for democracy or democracy produces legal grounds for any change. Those with legal backgrounds understand legal processes involve in issues such as this.
Without conducting this debate professionally and legally, we’ll run around with childish noises for ages. Other communities or tribes in the South Sudan will yet address us as Dinka Bor; we’ll find it hard to prove we belong to a certain group different.
In conclusion, as we grow and learn in our independence, finding niches for our identities in some places, will own stages for long time. For this reason, we need high integrity and tolerance in addressing the critical issues. With these sensitive issues, the initiators must avoid Facebook at all costs. Besides, some of the issues are centuries old and no good documentations available except some elders who heard some histories and stories orally. Nevertheless, we must refer our concerns to them.

For Immediate Release

June, 12, 2014

In response to an article written by a certain J. Nguen Nyol entitled “Another $227 Million Dollars Scandal Involving South Sudan’s Chief Negotiator Nhial Deng Nhial”, I would like to bring to the attention of the public that the false allegations branded against the Government Chief Negotiator in Addis Ababa were designed by the rebels’ leadership to tarnish the image of Hon. Nhial Deng Deng. The author of the article is not only a nephew of Riek Machar but also a representative of the rebels in Canada. Had he not been instructed by Riek Machar to tarnish the image of Hon. Nhial Deng, one would not waste his time responding to such a malicious article.

The article alleged that Hon. Nhial Deng misappropriated “$250 million dollars between 2008—2011” of public money by approving a dubious contract to buy trucks for the SPLA. The allegation does not auger well with the way contracts were approved back then because any contract could not be signed by a Minister unless approved by the Council of Ministers. It has to be noted that Riek Machar, who now authorized the false allegation labeled against Hon. Nhial Deng Nhial, was himself the Vice President who usually chaired the meetings of the Council of Ministers. If such a contract was signed by Nhial Deng as alleged by Nguen   Nyol, with the approval of the Council of Ministers as laid out by the rules of the government business, commonsense has it that the then Vice President, who happened to be the current rebel, would be complicit in the alleged scandal. If a Council of Ministers chaired by Riek Machar approved a dubious contract alleged to have been signed by Nhial Deng back then, the people of South Sudan may question the leadership competence of the man who is now tarnishing the image of Nhial Deng.

It is a public knowledge that Riek Machar used to chair most of the meetings of the Council of Ministers at the time President Kiir was the First Vice President of Government of National Unity (GoNU). If such a scandal happened back then, one may wonder why it was not raised at that time. But the motive of the rebels is nothing other than an attempt to tarnish the image of a well-respected gentleman who is known for integrity and wisdom. Hon. Nhial Deng is one of the few former Ministers who has never been implicated in any financial scandal, let alone having any personal grudge with anybody.

The people of South Sudan are aware that Nhial Deng Nhial is not on the list of the seventy five officials named by the President in 2011 to have embezzled public funds. When President Kiir prepared the list of the government officials suspected to have embezzled public money, there was no single evidence which implicated Hon. Nhial Deng Nhial. Most of those on the list are now on the side of Riek Machar fighting President Kiir for removing them from the cabinet because of embezzling public funds. Thus, the allegation labelled against Hon. Nhial Deng by Riek Machar’s nephew is baseless and it should be deemed as a political witch-hunt.

The motive behind renegade Riek Machar’s false allegations against Hon. Nhial Deng Nhial is the failure of Nhial Deng to join his faction before he staged a coup on December, 15, 2013. When Riek Machar was mobilizing members of the SPLM Polit Bureau and National Liberation Council against the Chairman of the SPLM Party, he thought that Nhial Deng would join him along with the rest of “Garang’s boys” to unseat President Kiir from the chairmanship of the SPLM.

However, being a visionary leader, Hon. Nhial Deng rejected to join Riek Machar in the 2013 SPLM infighting because of his treacherous history of 1991 and his constant tribal politics of destruction. Cde Nhial Deng realized in 2013 that Riek Machar was not in fact a democrat but a power-hungry warmonger who was bent to return the people of South Sudan to 1991 factional war. As he envisioned, indeed Riek Machar returned the people of South Sudan to 1991 factional war when he staged a coup on December, 15, 2013.

In conclusion, South Sudan public should be made aware that Hon. Nhial Deng Nhial has a clean bill of health when it comes to corruption because has never been implicated in any financial scandal. If Riek Machar is honest to himself, he should disown those who joined his rebellion while their names appeared on the list of seventy five officials suspected to have embezzled public funds.

Contrary to the allegations labelled against Nhial Deng, the people of South Sudan are convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that Riek Machar is a leader of corruption lords who rebelled against the government after their removal from ministerial positions. A rebellion of corruption lords cannot defeat the people of South Sudan who yearn for development and economic prosperity. The people of South Sudan cannot be hoodwinked by George Orwell’s pigs who looted and raped the public funds from 2005 to 2013.

For Contact:

Gen. Gordon Buay

Member of Other Armed Groups Integration Committee

Former Spokesman of SSLM/A

Juba, South Sudan


African Literature: The New Dark Continent

Posted: June 14, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Junub Sudan

Mind of Malaka

Don’t you just hate the use of the phrase ‘Dark Continent’? C’mon, admit it. It’s become such a pejorative. Those two words smashed together have so many implications. What are you trying to say? Is Africa dark because we that dwell therein are primarily dark skinned? Is it dark because we’re lagging in technology (and sanitation and health and press freedom…)? Or is it dark because there is still so much to discover – little gems that the West and the Rest have yet to explore and exploit, just waiting to be brought to the light?

Let’s go with the lattermost assumption. I like that one to best.

There are worlds within Africa that we Africans ourselves have yet to discover. There are micro-universes that would make all our lives infinitely better if we could just figure out how to access them. Because most of our stories are still told…

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Posted: June 14, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Poems.

Sabbath de Yecouba

An animal made by dirt

But you are in my clean body

Aligned with the edges of my thong

I cannot memorize when you entered into my body

Stuck in my thong and bite not knowing your life

Like an ant of the anthill

The ant which bites you and refuses to be removed

That whose head must remain in your body when removed

Dead for nothing with your words which hang out

Like an unrestrained penis of a mad man

Eating me up bit by bit and run to your hiding like deer

Poisoning my blood with foul sayings and hearsays

It is a sheer emaciation

As I lose my repute

To be a skeleton of insolence

Torment that is your end after all

You will have your once upon a time

When your head will only remain in my body

I will have entranced you like a pumpkin thief

For your work if full of lies and devil influence