By David Matiop Gai, Juba, South Sudan
December 23, 2016 (SSB) — What do political systems have in common and in what ways do South Sudanese differ from one another? To answer this question, it is a part of the root cause of conflict in the Republic of South Sudan. The philosophy is I want to rule, why not me to rule now? But does ruling in South Sudan as a nation required fighting? Is it a mean to come to power as we fight? No, we did not agree like that, but just through democratic system, and we have tried it once in our lives during Sudan general election in 2010. Then what it is the problem of plunging the country into war again? I don’t trust myself to win election in South Sudan in 2015 passed, so violent is an option to power and year of election went behind.
In relating to what is required in peace implementation, and conflict avoided, it is goal setting quality of services, evaluation and standardization procedures controlling agency functions in South Sudan national dialogue initiatives. Here are steps to study in peace implementation, maintain, and conflict avoided: Introduction to root causes of conflict, Conflict in undeveloped country, (A country never met single requirement of MDG), Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding, Strengths and weaknesses, Learn lesson from Libya, recommendation, and conclusion.
Introduction. It’s expresses through stories. The present narrative that ties together, the concept of origin, meaning, purpose, and destiny for individuals, society/community groups, and entire nation is drive into war out of their consciences. This describes reality from a specific interchangeable theory of conflict in South Sudan based on tribes along average sides of political systems. We all know the causes of conflicts and root causes of South Sudan war. The political theory distinguished political thoughts, but these theories into practice cause havoc and public unrest, and classes of political tribal groups that are applying political theories of divisions in our country.
Without proper objectives but just want to rule South Sudan and its people in wrong concepts, there are no understanding the meaning, nature, characteristics, and varieties of that political theory being applied in South Sudan by democratic system of governance, the value of essences of politics never explained horizontal from polis, (state) to power and activities to new elections between the ruling party, and other eligible parties in the country. Therefore, this lack confident of individuals either to win election or not pushing ruling party by force is the only way people see as a better direction, so where is South Sudan right now?
Root cause of the conflict. The conflict in South Sudan was caused by complexities of confused political ideologies. Among them are: Kokoro, (Political division in 1980s) where citizens were forced to stayed in regions, tribe to tribe conflicts, for example, tribal conflicts erupted in 1945 between Jieng, and Murle, Nuer and Jieng, and lastly Murle and Nuer in Eastern River Nile. Other tribal conflicts are between Nuer and Jieng in Western River Nile. Cattle raiding, child abduction, grazing grumbling, land disputes between Maddi, and Acholi, and Jieng in Upper Nile and Shilluk. Some disputes along borders and communities origins championed the divisions.
Political conflicts: In 1955 – 1972, 1983-2005, and SPLM split in 1991. Between these years, citizens were affected mentally, socially, culturally, spiritually, and psychologically. On 15 Dec 2013, and 8, July 2016, civilians were affected seriously. So the root causes of conflict is composed and comprised of political problems and diversities of conflicts branches in the country.
Conflict in undeveloped country, (a country never met single requirement of MDG). The whole world including South Sudan have time-bond targeting MDGs such as: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty, Achieve Universal Primary Education, Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women, Reduce Child Mortality, Improve Maternal Health, Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases, Ensure Environmental Sustainability, and Develop a Global Partnership for Development. We show that this in turn has important consequences for development and long-term peace to implement the worst human sufferings and avoided large-scale internal wars.
Although South Sudan is part of the world to target eight focal points of MDGs, conflict affected the nation not to achieve even a single requirement of MDGs. But peace is more needed now so that through local agencies, regional and international partners, MDGs is achieved not later than ever.
Conflict Prevention and Peace-building. peace-building, conflict prevention can thus be considered to be a component of peace-building in as much as it constitutes those activities taken to prevent a conflict from becoming violent or those actions taken after a violent conflict has occurred which are aimed at preventing the re-occurrence of another violent conflict.
In South Sudan, we already know types and stages of conflicts. The conflict occurred are: pre-conflict, violent conflict, and post-violent conflict. The cause of these three stages of conflicts were land disputes, tribe to tribe conflicts, political differences, political hatreds, poor system of governance, misused of national resources, lack of accountability, transparency, and responsibility, and greediness of power and power struggle within ruling party.
Since national dialogue bond trusted by conflict resolution, peacebuilding, and conflict prevention where every citizens present grievances, and they are address amicably whether they are land disputes, border disputes, tribes conflicts, and so on. It is right ground solve old conflicts and fresh ones once and for all.
Strengths and weaknesses. Strengths and weaknesses are part of human but they are not all allow beyond control. Strengths are evaluated with control as well as weaknesses. Therefore, in South Sudan civil war for four years has both strengths and weaknesses. Sometimes, weaknesses can be turn into success by building up sufficient elements of such weaknesses through mathematical methods: negative multiply by negative equal positive. In other words, successful people are those who make negative happen into positive.
Therefore, start studying civil war in South Sudan, the resolution of conflict in the Republic of South Sudan was learned as inability to imposed peace on a sharply divided parties, divided communities, divided tribes on brinks of the devastated nation, and the different laws of peace, conflict resolutions, and its implementation. Now South Sudan has great opportunity to implement, maintain, and avoid violent through national dialogue.
Learn lessons from Libya. Arabs uprising in 2011 and international conventions against Maummar al-Quaddafi for regime change. NATO’s force intervened to protect civilians, and late on overthrow Quaddafi regime and Libya is terribly harm up to today. International community intervention backfires in Libya, and Libya becomes a home of terrorists than owners of its origins during the Maummar Quaddafi reigned.
Alan Kuperman said, “Three Lessons. First, beware rebel propaganda that seeks intervention by falsely crying genocide. Second, avoid intervening on humanitarian grounds in ways that reward rebels and thus endanger civilians, unless the state is already targeting non-combatants. Third, resist the tendency of humanitarian intervention to morph into regime change, which amplifies the risk to civilians”
Source: Policy Brief, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, September 2013. Author: Alan Kuperman, Former Research Fellow, International Security Program, 2000–2001.
South Sudanese should be very careful because the same situation of Libya is what they are today. There are many propagandists both in rebels camps, and international community and they are intervening in the name of protecting civilians like in Libya but they might turn the nation into the dark Juba city of no hope and Juba might become a home of terrorists in East Africa.
Recommendation and conclusion: A recommendation letter is what I proposed four days back when the President Kiir Mayardit called for National dialogue initiatives to all South Sudanese and begin the New Year with blessings of embracing one another in the country. In that time I proposed National dialogue for six Months: A key step toward positive assurance of real peace in South Sudan, and then followed by President called and decree for national dialogue committees, steering committees and secretariats.
Now to save our country from what we see ahead as dangerous nation being drives to hell, we need to show up character reference, for example being independable, reliable, hard-working toward national dialogue, conscientious, trust one another, honest, peace-loving people, and courteous. Educate International community to understand our stand for peace and security in our country than what they want, and what they think or want to do.
And finally open many peace centres such as: Abu John peace centre in Yambio, Ali Ghutala Peace centre in Maridi, Deng Nhial peace centre in Bhar el-ghazal, name them in new states. I think it is so wise to have peace among the people as we develop and prosper.
The author is a co-founder of mental health care organization. He can be reach at firstname.lastname@example.org, +211955120497.
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