The Catastrophe of Khuoth Amagak among Greater Upper Nile Communities (Part 1)

Posted: January 10, 2017 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Columnists, David Matiop Gai, Opinion Articles, Opinion Writers

By David Matiop Gai, Juba, South Sudan

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January 10, 2017 (SSB) — The power of tongue and Khuoth Amagak rotation among the Upper Nile communities. The popular curses of Khuoth Amagak also known as Khuoth de Kurruom is still rotating in the communities of the Greater Upper Nile especially among Nuer subclasses, as well as the whole of South Sudan. Catastrophe comes from the Greek word meaning “overturn”, a sudden and widespread disaster against people, land, birds, and animals. It is more mishap, and causes a lot of people to suffer.

In other words, this calamity or misfortune can come as a result of curses uttered by tongue, or by an angry person in form of revenge. The curses in action or the essences of regularly bad wishes recurring orderly in Upper Nile and how the story of Khuoth Amagak came about during SPLA/M formation when the veterans of Anya-nya II and the SPLA/M members differed on the border of Ethiopia on the issues of movement leadership in July 1983.

In and from the nature of that history, and during the Anya-nya I periods, Southern Sudanese separatists’ rebel group formed as the first Sudanese civil war in (1955-1972). The word Anya-nya means, “Snake harm, poisonous, or venom “in Maddi language. After peace agreement signed in Addis Ababa in 1972 with Khartoum government, a separate movement rose again in the second Sudanese civil war known as Any-nya II from 1972-1983. They remained in the bush as Southerners who were not convinced with total arrangements and frameworks of Addis Ababa peace agreement.

In fact Southerners don’t agree always on one thing since the beginning of Anya-nya I and if things involves are issues related to leadership, everybody wants to become a leader at the same time. So when Aggrey Jaden left the movement due to frustration, Southern Sudanese elected Gordon Muortat Mayen as their president, and later on, Gordon Muortat’s Chief of General staff Joseph Lagu made a coup against Gordon Muortat Mayen, and a transition of power was made peacefully in order to avoid division. Lagu led the movement against Khartoum for a while and he signed peace accord in 1972.

When Addis Ababa peace accord fell apart, the second South Sudanese civil war led by formation of new organization known as SPLA/M broke out in 1983, but I always called it the third Sudanese civil war, because there was Anya-nya II in the bush for ten years which was also recognized by SPLA/M.  At the Ethiopian border of Itang, Bilpham, and Bongo, the competition and disputes raised among the members of Anya-nya II, and members of SPLA/M, and eventually members of Anya-nya II were military and politically defeated. So some members of Anya-nya II agreed to be consolidated, and others refused. Among those who refused to be consolidated were Akuot Atem de Mayen, and Samuel Gai Tut, and their flowers.

They ran back to Southern Sudan of Nuer land and formed rebels group against SPLA/M. Samuel Gai Tut and Akuot Atem de Mayen formed a separate movement but instead to fight separately against Khartoum as they were in bush for ten years, they became new militia supported by Khartoum government against SPLA/M. So it was a simple brotherly killing rotation: Southerners went out against Arabs and other Southerners came in supporting Arabs with confused objectives, and vision.

Because SPLA/M was their enemy, Akuot Atem as a leader, and Samuel Gai Tut as a deputy mobilized Nuer youths against Southerners and when Southern Sudanese youths joined the revolution, people used to go to Ethiopia through Nuer area, the groups of Akuot Atem and Gai Tut were called Nyagat in Nuer language killed many people when they were going to Ethiopia and when they came back to Sudan. People who lost sons cried bitterly in their names.

After military training in Ethiopia of battalion 105, 106, Jamus, Tigger, Timtha, and Koryom, the SPLA began fighting Akuot Atem and Samuel Gai groups, and consequently they were defeated again and Samuel Gai Tut was killed in the battle, but before Gai Tut was killed, some Nuer politicians within the rebel groups tried to persuaded Akuot Atem de Mayen and Samuel Gai Tut to joined SPLA but they refused. After Akuot saw it hard and there was no somebody like Gai Tut to mobilized Nuer youths for war, he accepted to join SPLA/M, and Nuer people who were supporters of Samuel Gai Tut got annoyed and said after what?

After Samuel Gai Tut had died, “Jaang or Jieng Lieldu be nguom, lieldu be ngieny, lieldu be dhaikemac tem emma”, and they killed Akuot Atem de Mayen, and lastly when Akuot breathed out last breath of life, he said this in Dinka, “Nuer, we ca ke Khooth ne Khuoth de Amagak”, and he died, which mean he uttered curses of a dying person because he was not dying in a peaceful mood, he died in brutal killing and torturing.

In a literally sense, Akuot said, rebellions, killings, and confusions will not soon departed from the Nuer land, or  from the Nuer people or Upper Nile in general. In the next topic will be discussion about the meaning of Khuoth de Amagak, and the power of the tongue.

The author is a co-founder of South Sudan Mental Health care Organization, (SSMHCO). He holds Bachelor degree in Social Work and Social Administration from SSCUST, Bachelor of Theology from CLT, Bungoma, Kenya/Kalispell, USA, and a fellow researcher. He can be reach at

The opinion expressed here is solely the view of the writer. The veracity of any claim made are the responsibility of the author, not PaanLuel Wël: South Sudanese Bloggers (SSB) website. If you want to submit an opinion article or news analysis, please email it to SSB do reserve the right to edit material before publication. Please include your full name, email address, city and the country you are writing from.

  1. Intellectual says:

    One of the very rubbish and ridiculous piece of writing ever altered in this website, for ur information, Nyigatism is not a Nuer vocabulary rather an Amaheric word meaning a trader in humans blood or vampires blood sucker, obtained accurate information before putting ur fingers tips on keyboard. My sympathy goes to the south sudanese heros and herion who gave their precious life in lieu of freedom struggle, RIP, their life went all invien, am calling upon Gen. Kiir mayardit, please Mr president pick our country back on a truck, otherwise soon the world will be talking of former south sudan, the level of hatred against Upper Nilean have bypassed the highest peak by Barh el gazalist, and Equatorian don’t want the two region of upper Nile and Bar el gazal, Kiir mayardit and his Barh el gazalist semi – literate of like of David Matiop, Aldo Ajou dit, JCE will be blame fragmentation of South Sudan in future. If you think Upper Nile is the problem, simply give them their rule and make Barh el gazal free from chaotic of upper Nileism, I know u will not like my suggestion coz letting upper Nile province off, means unbearable poverty in Bar el gazal, coz of oil, but their is countries around the globe that economically fine without oil deposit in their disposal, Killing people of upper Nile province just to concealed and camouflage the looting is anwared for upper Nile citizens, people who died or killed in fangak on the way to training camp in Ethiopia were not from Barh el gazal alone but it includes people of upper Nile including Nuer of Bentiu, but faking the history to suit and groom poor leadership will not buy world attention, marahellin or Baggara killed numerous people in Barh el gazal compare to the killing u kept on mentioning, why do you people deviated our struggle to a useless catastrophic, 1991_1992 was mostly disastrous in upper Nile. We know people of great upper Nile are victims of their resources and Christmastism of their sons in the reign or thrones of leadership which of if a substitute rise from Barh el gazal, semi to be less than a quarter in comparison, but leadership is made not born, Garang was trying to groom and prepare Nhail Deng Nhail in case, coz Nhail was brilliant, ready to learn and acquire some sense of leadership, Kiir mayardit felt jealousy and complaint bitterly as being marginalize, when was delegated in many occasions but failed miserably, and Bar el gazal majority foolishly step in aggressively to defend Kiir, now he without doubt failed the nation to the maximum, if Garang would have died in 1994, there would be nothing called south sudan now, a sound minded person who is really intellectual and well informed of the south sudan demography, will not altered a word condemning Bor marginalization of Barh el gazal, but coz the world is very funny, even a devil is talking of democracy, Bor is never a size of Lake State leave alone the Warap and Awiel, in term of Education, Yirol alone in Lake State can compete Bor, but for being simply brain wash cause all this. Bona Malual Madut, is venomous behind is marauding hatred against Upper Nile province, but God is great, we have known the problem, it’s neither Nuer indiscipline nor Being it a couple but a complete anhiliation of upper Nile off living thing but mindn’t you, there never been a creature have ever vanished in this universe, never, never Barh el gazal will make Nuer distinct in upper Nile.


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