AU Strategy: Current Difficulties in the implementation of the AU Strategy for Africa, 2016-2025

Posted: March 1, 2019 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Education, Junub Sudan, Opinion Articles, Opinion Writers

Analysis on New Strategy by African Union

Title: Current Difficulties and The way forward the implementation of Continental Strategy for Africa 2016 to 2025

Revised by John Monyluak Thon Lal, MA/Student/Zhejiang Normal University/China

Email: thonlalchuoidit@gmail.com

+8617858993975

AU higher education

Contents

1.1- Introduction. 2

1-2 What is the Agenda 2063?. 2

2-1 The Current Difficulties in Implementing CESA 2016-2025:- 3

2-2 Insecurity and Lack of centers:- 3

2-3 Quality and Equity:- 4

2-4 The difficulties in learning:- 4

2-5 The problem related to low enrollment in secondary education:- 5

2-6 Illiteracy is a challenge:- 5

3-1 The practical Reasons in Implementing CESA 16-25:- 6

1-    First start with AU Vision.. 6

3-2 The core reasons:- 7

3-4 Aims and purposes for the Strategy 16-25:- 10

3-5 Clarification on CESA 16-25:- 11

3-6 The Overview of Sub-Sectors:- 12

3-6-1- Educational Development in Africa: 12

3-6-2 Primary Education:- 13

3-6-3 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET):- 13

4-1 The Experiences and Lessons of Implementing CESA 16-25:- 14

4-2 Inclusion and Gender equality: 14

4-2-1 Lesson on out-of-school children:- 15

4-2-2 Lesson on Gender Equality Strategy for CESA 16-25:- 15

4-2-3 Lesson on inclusion of Refugees in education sector planning:- 16

4-3 Inclusion of the children with disability and Children with Albinism:- 16

4-4 Promoting Youth and Adult Literacy:- 17

4-5 Secondary Education:- 17

4-5-1 Quality and Equity:- 17

4-5-2 Tertiary Education:- 18

4-5-6 Access to specialization in Africa:- 18

4-6      University education Quality and Equity:- 18

4-7 Informal and non-formal Education and training and illiteracy:- 19

5-1 The More effective ways of implementing CESA 16-25:- 19

5-2 Conferences by PACE:- 20

5-3 Access to implementation:- 21

5-4 Funding Mechanism for Implementation:- 21

5-5 Some African Countries are implementing the policies:- 22

CONCLUSION.. 23

1.1- Introduction

About the current difficulties, practical reasons and more effective ways of implementing the continental education Strategy for Africa 16-25  Let me start by taking you back to Over the last two decades, educational development in Africa has overall been characterized by notable gains in the number of children and young people accessing schooling at all levels. But this expansion is still insufficient as it came from a low baseline, It is one of difficulties itself(Low Base Line) the term paper has notices  more challenges/difficulties in implementing the Strategy and more possible strategies on the way to come for the implementation for example 25th April/2018 session by Pan-African conference, AUC and UN agencies, meeting in Nairobi on more access to ward the implementation were presented, there is a hope for progress even though in several sessions of CESA more challenges were notices includes the estimation that there are more or less 30 million children that are unschooled in Africa and their number is growing due to rapid population growth. The overall pyramid of the African education as it stands now shows abroad base (79% at primary level), a very narrow middle section (50% at secondary level) and a miniscule top (7% at tertiary education) (GMR 2015). The expansion in enrolments also masks huge disparities and system dysfunctionalities and inefficiencies across sub-sectors. Key subsectors such as pre-primary, technical and vocational and non-formal education are severely underdeveloped in spite of growing evidence showing their importance. The African education and training systems are also characterized by low quality of teaching and learning, inequalities and exclusion at all levels. Moreover, one of the critical issues in the education system is its segmented sub-sectors which lack articulation either upstream or downstream—and complementary. Therefore currently on more way possible for implementation process the Continental Education Strategy (CES) needs to bring coherence and integration in the development of the various sub-sectors into a holistic system that addresses the needs of imparting knowledge, skills and values required for systematic response to the socioeconomic demands for development in the 21st Century. A major focus of this strategy, therefore, should be on the continued capacity of African- ministries in charge of education and training in terms of their ability to formulate policy, plan and implement reforms. Another key area of focus is the articulation of education and training policies with economic and social sectors to make national human resource development a top priority and a recipient of substantial and sustained investment in the years to come. In line with this, TVET, adult education and tertiary education will deserve a special attention. In other term the CESA is part of 2063 Agenda and in my analyses this how the African Union want to push 2063 Agenda for progress and development.

1-2 What is the Agenda 2063?

In my own analysis with regard to what I have learned in several documents concerning 2063 Agenda, it is a roadmap for the development of a peaceful, integrated, prosperous and people, oriented, it is a vision well designed by AU to defines strategies steps to be achieve in the shortest possible time. The post-2015 development Agenda 2063 is an essential step towards the implementation of Agenda 2063, in some cases it is guided by a vision known as the common African position (CAP) initiated on the development program post-2015 and is based on the following seven pillars that meet the aspirations of the African People:-

  • structural economic transformation and the inclusive growth
  • science, technology and innovation
  • people-oriented development
  • environment sustainability
  • natural resource, risk and disaster management
  • peace and security
  • funding and partnership

2-1 The Current Difficulties in Implementing CESA 2016-2025:-

The main challenge in Africa is to sustain access while improving learning outcomes. There is a need to bring in more than 30 million children currently out of school while at the same time the ensuring that those who are enrolled acquire relevant competencies and knowledge at the end of basic education. This will entail giving, first and foremost, attention to the teaching force, its training, deployment, professional development as well as working and living conditions. This should be accompanied by accountability of teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning. There is also need to uphold the commitment to move from UPE of 6 to 7 years to a basic education of 10 to 12 years as reaffirmed by African ministers at their conference on education post-2015. Investment to improve school infrastructure in hard-to-reach and marginalized areas, to provide learning materials in quantity and quality, strengthening school feeding and health programmes will be critical. Keeping girls in schools is a major challenge that involves improving their performance especially in mathematics and science. ICTs are expected to find effective and lasting solutions to some of these challenges. Harmonization needs to be undertaken at national regional and continental level to define a common range of skills and knowledge according to age and grade level.

2-2 Insecurity and Lack of centers:-

Another difficulties centers are still few in both rural and urban areas, and this factor is related to insecurity issue in my own analysis because some African Countries are still experiencing war at this time, this make it difficult for CESA 16-25 to reach those locations in the meantime, in the same development of my analysis for a decade now the continent is not stable economically and security the Terrorists attacks in both west and East Africa is  a great challenges let alone internal fighting, and most of the countries facing such in security has background Bilateral relationship with US or clashes sometimes, in my analysis and what I read in some documents concerning US policy, their analysts and policy makers continue to frame security threats in Africa using traditional cold-war influenced paradigm this also meant to hinder education development so that they continue their activities in absence of education, this is my worried of this strategy, but hopefully it will succeed as we are together with China on bases on South-South Cooperation. Also due to lack of development African cities are yet to fully embark on the “learning cities” initiative in spite of the opportunities availed to them and the exponential growth of their populations, Even though the CESA 16-25 is cast within AU’s vision and the 2063 as the sector strategy for education. We need to work hard in term of unity, love and solution of African security issues so that fully 2063 will  envisions the type of education and training systems that need to be in place by2025 in order to propel Africa towards the attainment of the goals set out in both the vision and

2-3 Quality and Equity:-

Quality in this sub-sector suffers from poor planning, limited allocation of resources, poorly trained teachers and inadequate materials. Glaring inequalities exist in pre-primary education provision in many African countries. Differentiation in provision of facilities and quality by rich and the poor, rural and urban areas is unambiguously manifested. Private sector is a major provider which clearly indicates the limited involvement of the public sector and calls for regulatory frameworks to monitor quality and relevance. According to recent data from the UNESCO institute of statistics, (UIS), a large proportion of children, youth and Adults do not acquire basic reading, writing and numeracy skills due to the lack of inadequate access, to education as well as the poor quality of learning opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa, a total of 202 million of school-age children and adolescents pan African high-level conference on education (PACE 2018) programme. Have not achieved minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics. They represent a third of the estimated 617 million people concerned worldwide. These figures which reflect a learning crisis, “signal a tremendous waste of human potential that could threaten progress towards the sustainable development Goals (SDGs)” and the continental education strategy for Africa (AU/CESA16-25) targets. This sub-session on  ,, inclusion and gender equality,, will address issues related to access to education): in so doing the session will provide recent information on the state of art of Africa, allow for peer learning on good practices and innovative approaches and facilitate exchanges among countries and stakeholders.

2-4 The difficulties in learning:-

Many African children go to primary school unprepared and thus discontinuities between the home and classroom environments are prevalent. Africa is the only continent where the language of instruction is more often than not a foreign language, making it difficult for children to cope with a new language and structured approaches to teaching and learning. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is therefore the next frontier if Africa is to realize sustained quality education and training. The child’s readiness to learn in school, the school’s, readiness to accommodate children with different abilities and the capacity of families and communities to collaborate with schools (to enhance learning) are essential ingredients for a successful educational journey. Despite this growth, quality and equity challenges are manifested in terms of disparities in gender, regional location, minority groups, pastoral communities and the poor. Furthermore, completion rates in many countries are very low. On average, only 70% of children entering primary education

2-5 The problem related to low enrollment in secondary education:-

While it is now established that quality and relevant secondary education can significantly address abject poverty in Africa as it increases chances for gainful employment (Gallup, 2011), the capacity to accommodate graduates of primary education at the secondary level is very limited as it stands at 36% (UNESCO, 2011). Therefore, increasing opportunity, especially for marginalized communities and urban poor and girls remains critical. The relevance of secondary education remains a concern as it relates to employability, technical and vocational training and articulation with tertiary education. Math and science at this level are critical to the development of a well-equipped human capital capable of competing in increasingly science and technology-driven world as well as the foundation for knowledge-based economies.

2-6 Illiteracy is a challenge:-

Illiteracy is a major challenge to the adoption of scientific and technological innovations geared towards improvement in health, agriculture and livelihoods. If its growth is not stemmed in the coming years, it may jeopardize economic and social progress on the continent. To make matters worse, Africa has the highest proportion of children, youth and adult out of school. Six out of the ten countries with the highest out-of-school children are African (UNESCO 2015). As many governments in Africa have relied heavily on external development resource to expand learning opportunities, its current decline may worsen the out-of-school populations. With one of the fastest population growth rates, there is a danger that Africa may be dragged down by a massive population of illiterate people. Very few African countries in Africa have embarked on massive literacy campaigns of the likes of Cuba, Nicaragua and other Asian countries in the 1960s and in the absence of systematic data collection and analysis on NFET in Africa, only proxy data can be used to describe the sub-sector. First of all, and with very few exceptions, most African governments invest only 1% of their total education budget into informal and non-formal education development. Most of the work is being carried out by NGOs, both local and international, through funding of development agencies. If the illiteracy rate has not improved over the last decades, it means that informal and non-formal education development in Africa is still very weak compared to Asia and Latin America and therefore much is left to be done. The 2015 GMR puts Africa’s illiteracy rate at 41%, making it the highest in the world. According to that report, the progress to address this situation has also been the slowest in the world and women represent the largest proportion of the African illiterate population.

Top of Form

 

Bottom of Form

3-1 The practical Reasons in Implementing CESA 16-25:-

The goals and intents or practical reasons for implementing of CESA 16-25 are unambiguously ambitious as they seek to achieve better results than any previous education strategic frameworks, be it regional or international. Therefore, here is Africa’s response which comes at the heels of the Conference of Education Ministers held in Kigali and the World Education Forum in Incheon (Korea). First and foremost, CESA 16-25 is a continental strategy that matches the 2016-2025 framework of the African Union 2063 Agenda, meets the Common African Position (CAP) on the Post-2015 Development Agenda and draws lessons from previous continental plans and strategies with regard to the role and place of the AUC (AU) which, unlike member states, has no territory for the implementation of strategies in the field. Furthermore, it capitalizes on numerous and active players ready to mobilize financial, human and technical resources within national, regional and continental coalitions for education, science and technology. Thus, CESA 16-25 seeks to provide each education stakeholder the opportunity to make his or her best contribution to education and training in Africa. The Report of Annual Continental Activities (RACA) will be the opportunity and the medium to highlight activities that are carried out across the continent in support of education and training as well as the main institutions in charge of the sector at national, regional, continental or even international levels. RACA will also provide the opportunity for joint evaluation mechanisms to help compare and track progress achieved and thereby enable a stimulating exchange of experiences.

  • First start with AU Vision

The vision read The African Union envisions a “peaceful and prosperous Africa, integrated, led by its own citizens and occupying the place it deserves in the global community and in the knowledge economy.” CESA 16-25 is meant to deliver the necessary human capital for the realization of the AU Vision.

Quality of CESA 16-25 Education:-

It include promotion of education sciences and technology, University, secondary schools and primary plus any sort of education activities in Africa, There is no systematic data to substantiate any quality claims of informal and non-formal education programs. Most of it relies on formative evaluation of programs and projects that show that children, youth and adults do benefit from informal and non-formal education programs as these have been designed to address real needs. In terms of equity, informal and non-formal education programs and projects are characterized by a concerted effort to ensure gender balance and reaching out to marginalized and vulnerable groups.

3-2 The core reasons:-

 In recognition of the critical role that education plays in the development of the continent, a committee of 10 heads of state and government (two from each geographical region) was established following the decision by the African Union summit (Assembly/Dec.572(XXV). Its mission is to defend and promote the development of education, science, technology and innovation on the continent. They are therefore responsible to actively engage their peers in their respective regions for Education, Science and, Technology (EST). They will undertake to invite heads of enterprises from the public and / or private sector, members of the civil society and philanthropists on the continent and abroad to get involved in the development ESTI. The team of ten may present the ESTI sector in Africa and the evaluation of the implementation of the CESA 16-25 to their peers. This could be done on the basis of the agreed upon Annual Continental Activities Report quoted in this strategy that will be submitted to them. The Specialized Technical Committee of Education and Science and Technology (STC /EST) will be responsible for the implementing, monitoring, evaluating and drafting the CESA 16-25 report. Regional Working groups are ideal opportunities to evaluate, monitor and assess the implementation of the CESA 16-25 by involving national experts and representatives (of development agencies) and joint follow up missions.

There are so many reasons behind the implementation of the CESA 16-25, the above photo, I had downloaded online and its really represent the initial implementation strategy process, the African Union heads of African states or governments in their variety, during their twenty-sixth ordinary session on 31st January-2016 in Addis Ababa, adopted the continental education strategy for Africa (CESA 16-25) the framework of transforming education and training systems in Africa, as called for in Agenda 2063. Since then, much has been done by stakeholders to popularize CESA and develop implementable plans, through the CESA thematic clusters. By the way the move was very successfully in initial point of views, we need to watch the AU carefully on implementation of this process, we are ready for appreciation to the members’ states, RECs and Education development Agencies who take up ownership of this collective Agenda. This is more basically platform to engage all stakeholders and highlight reflections, debates activities and innovative intervention for strengthening education and training toward, ,,the Africa we want,, the last session for the implementation strategy, it was the session of specialized technical committee on education, science and technology held in Cairo, Egypt from the 21st-23rd of October, 2017 commended progress made in CESA implementation, and took decisions on a range of matters; including, school feeding, the pan African University as well as African writers and teacher Development, they also called for establishment of the African Union teachers prize. This shall aiming at developing the professionalism in teaching, it is an important instrument for celebrating and rewarding the committed teachers, while strengthening their professionalization of teaching to ensure quality education and training. A gender mainstreaming guideline for CESA has been developed by FAWE in collaboration with AU-CIEFFA, which will ensure that all CESA activities, no one shall be left behind on the basis of gender, the CESA indicators manual has been finalized by Au-IPED in collaboration with ADEA and will be available for the implementation by the end of the 1st quarter 2018. Both instruments were validated with input from member states RECs and a wide range of stakeholders, this first semester of 2018, many exciting activities are already scheduled that will far reaching impact across the education landscape. These include capacity assessment and capacity building of member states in EMIS, experience sharing around ICT and skills training for youth empowerment, development of programmes for the flagship pan African virtual and E. University and promotion of STEM education. The first school day of school feeding was celebrated in Zimbabwe from 27th February to 1st march 2018, the CESA was initiating in collaboration with UNESCO and are working together on Pan African conference, to be held in Kenya April 2018. This is on alignment of the Global education 2030 and the CESA. A major event in scheduled on innovating education, which will provide a market place for the 21st century ideas and instruments for promoting access, enhancing education delivery, learning and school safety among other innovations, therefore the members states are working on implementation reasoning and hopefully it will be fruitful in 2018. In a short summary the practical Reasons for the implementation of CESA 16-25 reflect the following summarized points:-

  • strong political will to reform and boost the education and training sector
  • peaceful and secure environment
  • gender equity, equality and sensitivity throughout the education and training system
  • resource mobilization with emphasis on domestic resources
  • strengthen institutional capacity building through a- good governance, transparency and b- accountability
  • orientation and support at different levels and types of training
  • the creation and continuous development of conducive learning environment

3-3 The Initial Process of the Strategy:-

The expertise that lobby for the practical and implementation of the strategy first The African Union, the embodiment of the collective will of the African people, the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), the regional economic communities (RECs) and other regional bodies have carried out consultations and reflections that have produced visions and strategic frameworks on every facet of the fulfillment of the African Renaissance. The latest of these is the Agenda 2063, which has charted a bold strategic trajectory spanning the next 50 years to transform the continent into a prosperous, integrated, secure and peaceful, democratic, and dynamic force in the world. This optimism may look far-fetched but it is increasingly being reinforced by the current unprecedented rate of growth of African economies while other regions are experiencing sluggish expansion. Furthermore, and as stated by the African Development Bank (AfDB) in its 2011 vision document entitled, Africa in 50 Years’ Time, The Road Towards Inclusive Growth “Africa has some of the most abundant natural resources in the world, many of which are yet to be tapped. These include not just minerals and oil, but also bountiful possibilities for clean energy. But natural resources are not Africa’s only advantage. While Western countries are shouldering the burden of aging populations, Africa is the world’s youngest continent. If it invests in education and training to develop the potential of its youth, Africa could become one of the most dynamic and productive economies”. As indicated in the AfDB report, Africa’s prosperity can be achieved only if the continent invests in the education and training of his youth. This call has been reechoed by national governments, regional communities and continental groupings. During the last two decades, they have heavily invested in the schooling and training of African children and youth and articulated strategic policy frameworks and plans to achieve accessible, dynamic and relevant educational development. At the African Union, the transformative role of education and training has always been acknowledged. AU has launched two successive strategic frameworks referred as decades of education, and the second of which is being concluded in 2015. The gains, have however not been fully optimal as much is still left to do to improve access, quality and relevance. The lessons learned from both the African Union- led developmental efforts and those supported by the international community clearly indicate that educational development is first and foremost a national and regional responsibility. And that meaningful educational development cannot be achieved outside of a clearly defined vision and strategic framework, owned and articulated around the socioeconomic and cultural aspirations of the people. Clearly, educational programs designed and financed from the outside unavoidably lack coherence and their impact remains limited.

3-4 Aims and purposes for the Strategy 16-25:-

The aims is basically to Reorienting Africa’s education and training systems to meet the knowledge, competencies, skills, innovation and creativity required to nurture African core values and promote sustainable development at the national, sub-regional and continental levels. Guiding Principles and Pillars The following guiding principles and pillars serve as a compass for African decision-makers and implementers of the CES. The principles indicate key orientations for reform agendas and the pillars encompass both sine qua non conditions and the building blocks on which the CESA 16- 25 will stand.

  • Guiding principles:
  • Knowledge societies are driven by skilled human capital as stipulated in the Agenda 2063

2- Holistic, inclusive and equitable education with good conditions for lifelong learning is sine qua non for sustainable development

  • Good governance, leadership and accountability in education management are para-mount

4- Harmonized education and training systems are essential for the realization of intra-Africa mobility and academic integration through regional cooperation.

  • Quality and relevant education, training and research are core for scientific and techno- logical innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship.
  • A healthy mind in a healthy body -physically and socio- psychologically- fit and well fed learners.
  • Pillars: Strong political will for reform and boost the education and training sector

  • Build capacities of education managers and administrators on use of ICTs in the planning, implementation, monitoring, strategies and programs
  • Promote the development of online contents taking into account African and local specificities
  • Capitalize on existing and successful ICT-driven initiatives that enhance access including the Pan-African E-University
  • Provide appropriate and sufficient equipment facilities (e.g. connectivity, power) and services
  • Create mobile and online education and training platforms and accessibility to all students regardless of their circumstances SO 4: Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills as well as improved completion rates at all levels and groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration a. Establish and institutionalize assessment of classroom learning outcomes at various stages
  • Build the capacity of teachers in formative assessment and its utilization for the improvement and remedial of learning outcomes
  • Set up national qualification frameworks (NQFs) and regional qualification frameworks 24 (RQFs) to facilitate the creation of multiple pathways to acquisition of skills and competencies as well as mobility across the sub-sector
  • Develop continental qualifications framework linked to regional qualifications and national qualification frameworks to facilitate regional integration and mobility of graduates
  • Establish and strengthen quality assurance mechanisms and monitoring and evaluation systems SO
  • Accelerate processes leading to gender parity and equity
  • . Scale up successful retention experiences in the service of at-risk gender groups (girls and boys) and enhance their performance
  • Ensure successful progression from one level to another throughout the system
  • Mobilize communities to become partners in ensuring that girls (and boys as appropriate) enroll, stay and achieve in schools
  • Develop relevant interventions to address constraints of access and success at all levels

3-5 Clarification on CESA 16-25:-

Therefore in a brief note let me say this new Continental Education Strategy for Africa (CESA) is meant which will run from 2016 to 2025 .This strategy, as depicted in the figure, which is part of the global AU Agenda 2063 and the main Reason for this strategy is based on the results of the consultation process and reflections mentioned above. It draws lessons from the evaluation of the Second Decade of Education and self-final evaluation of EFA in order to highlight the main lessons for the future. In addition, it will capitalize on post 2015 sector strategies such as STISA 2024, the Decade Revised Action Plan for Youth, and Continental Strategy for  Africa  and the in the vision Ten priority areas were identified for the region: equitable and inclusive access education for all; inclusion, equity and gender equality; teachers and teaching; educational quality and learning outcomes; science, technology and skills development; education for sustainable development (ESD) and global citizenship education (GCE); youth and adult literacy; skills and competencies for life and work; financing, governance and partnerships; and education in crisis situations. In the wake of the World Education Forum (Incheon 2015), the African Union is keen to develop its own benchmarks that takes stock of the global goals; hence to enhance the development of the above explanation in the region this is the most important part in reflecting the practical reasons for the implementation process, and general overview of the vision will be presented.

 

3-6 The Overview of Sub-Sectors:-

In this section, each of the sub-sectors of the education and training systems will be briefly analyzed with focus on access, quality and equity followed by challenges to be addressed. It is worth noting that data used here may not be up-to-date and are often disaggregated into different geographical regions of Africa, SSA, and North Africa, leading the latter to be linked to the Middle East. The use of education and training as a concept is deliberate here as oftentimes education is perceived as schooling only. The recognition here is that education encompasses training but to avoid misconception and emphasize the education and training continuum the two are used as one concept. TVET, for instance, is a component of both the upper secondary education and the first tier of the tertiary education. Pre-vocational education on the other hand starts from the early grades; hence the preference of education and training continuum.

3-6-1- Educational Development in Africa:

TVET is also notices to be part of the education development in Africa, in reflection to the practical reasoning for the implementation CESA 16-25 and in the State of Affairs and Perspectives The continental strategy of TVET uses the term TVET in its broadest sense to cover all aspects of training and skills acquisition and all types of training, whether formal, non-formal or informal. It also includes issues of demand and supply of skills, employability, capacity building, self-employment, retraining, versatility and continuous learning. TVET should be understood as cross-cutting and as extending from primary to higher education. These last years, the African continent has witnessed horrendous attacks on schools and universities, in particular by extremist groups. Those attacks and military use of schools and universities represent a huge threat for students and teacher’s security as they damage and destroy the few available school infrastructures. It lead to high drop-out rates, reduce enrollment and lower the teaching quality and the results. Girls are particularly negative affected as it exacerbates the challenges they already face to access education in conflict zones. Protecting the schools and universities from attacks and preserve them from military use is vital in order to ensure the continuation of education during war and in post conflict situation .It is the responsibility of governments to define the entire education system, including technical and vocational education as a coherent single set made up of different parts: preschool, primary, secondary, TVET and higher education. The respective governments should invest in and monitor this coherence which stands as a guarantee for the success of national and regional integration. Pre-primary education is the pillar on which future learning and training are grounded. However, it is a neglected area in terms of policy and investment. The sub-sector is therefore characterized by disparities, poor management and lack of coherent curriculum and linkages with primary education. It is a sub-sector that deserves a special attention in CESA 16-25. Access Although there has been improvement in this sub-sector in the last decade, pre-primary enrollments in Africa are far below than those in other regions. Enrollment is about 20% on average in SSA for the age-cohort. However, it is much higher in Northern African countries such as Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Although policies and strategies in some cases exist, implementation in terms of infrastructure, teacher development and materials has been generally very slow.

3-6-2 Primary Education:-

In the last two decades, Africa has made tremendous progress in expanding access to primary education as well. From 1999 to 2012, the adjusted net enrollment ratio jumped from 59% to

79%. In terms of numbers of children enrolled, this translates into 144 million school-age children accessing primary education. This is a result of mobilization of efforts and resources made by national governments and other stakeholders under the auspices of EFA, MDGs and policies of free primary education enacted by an increasing number of African governments.

 Quality and Equity in Sub-Saharan Africa complete it against 95% in North Africa and the Middle East. Quality of education as measured by learning outcomes has been a concern. Some of the children going through the system are not acquiring the knowledge and skills expected at each stage. In some instances, data on learning achievements point to more than two-thirds of the children failing to read competently at the grade levels they are in (Adams and Van der Gaag, 2013). This is a result of poor quality of teaching, facilities and dire lack of learning materials. Moreover, leadership, school management and quality assurance in this sub-sector have been ineffective in bringing about meaningful reforms.

3-6-3 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET):-

Another important as concerning practical reasons in implementation of CESA 16-25 In most industrialized countries, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) plays a very important role in producing the skilled workforce that underpins industry and propels economic growth. The continental strategy for TVET aims to bring a paradigm shift in TVET by developing the idea that TVET prepares youth to become more of job creators than job seekers this is one of the practical reasons for implementing CESA we have to implement it so that the public discard the idea that TVET is a refuge for those who failed in general education. The Strategy demonstrates that even the most sophisticated qualifications require prior training and this falls well within the broader framework of the Technical and Vocational Education Training. Access In spite of progress made in expanding TVET, it is still a low priority policy area which is reflected in enrolment which stands at only 6% of total enrolment in secondary education. This level of enrollment is actually a decline from the previous rate recorded in 1999 (7%) and only one country has made some gains since then. Expanding TVET training facilities is costly and the challenge for African governments is to prioritize this sub-sector as it is a key to the realization of Vision 2063 through critical generation of employment and infrastructure development. In recent years, given the rapid technological developments taking place in the labour market, flexibility, adaptability and continuous learning in training programmes has become a major requirement. One of the most important developments in the sector of TVET in recent years is a paradigm shift that favours a more holistic approach to adopt and recognize skills acquisition in all types of training, be it formal, informal or non-formal. This is all the more important as most of the training is happening in the informal sector which represents on average 80% of African economies. TVET must be a coherent system whose purpose is to meet the demand of economic development of the continent in terms of quality skilled human resources and sufficient enough to support the needs of human activity for the collective social well-being. TVET should no longer be considered as a simple amalgamation of technical and / or professional institutions ranging from the primary level to higher levels, including private ones. By adopting the continental strategy of TVET (Decision Assembly / Dec.525 (XXIII), Heads of states and AU governments have indicated their desire to shift away from the old perception of TVET. first step towards the revitalization of TVET to elevate its status in promoting youth employment and map out the components of TVET ecosystem.

4-1 The Experiences and Lessons of Implementing CESA 16-25:-

With regard to what I have learned in this study the lessons shall refer to the activities that needed to be improved in all access of the human life in Africa, the mission of CESA 16-25 and it objectives the communication of the mission into practical through teaching, workshop, meetings and conferences for African educators and leaders to understand the matters regarding the policy implementation of CESA, this is what this term paper will regard as lessons and life experiences of implementing the strategy  and There has been an introduction of more lessons in term of presentation by the members of AU and all stakeholders in Nairobi Kenya on 25/April/2018, various presentation has been done on issues to do with advancing inclusion, gender equality, teaching and learning through a life-long learning approach to address the unfinished education for all Agenda:-

4-2 Inclusion and Gender equality:

Reading inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all rests on equal access to all levels of education regardless of location, sex, age, race or ethnicity, disabilities or any vulnerability. The high numbers of out- of school children and youth as well as low adult literacy rates show that providing individual with en equal and personalized opportunity for education progress is still a challenge across the continent. Despite commendable progress made over the past two decades to expend basic education, further efforts are needed to minimize barriers to learning and to ensure that all learners in schools and other learning setting experience a genuine inclusive and gender equal environment this panel will discuss solutions to create system-wide change for overcoming barriers to equality educational access, participation, learning process and outcomes, it will pay particular consideration to marginalized groups, including youth and adults who did not attend formal education or training to ensure educational pathways that are free from bais and equip all learners with the skills they need for life, work and citizenship.

4-2-1 Lesson on out-of-school children:-

Presentation on out-of-school children, Adolescent and youth: status and trends in Africa this lesson was presented by Mr-Said OuldVoffal, the head of Education survey UNESCO institute for Statistic (UIS), in his key remarks he said three years after the adaptation of sustainable development Goal 4 (SDG4) and secondary education there has been no significant progress in reducing the global number of out-of-school children, Adolescents and youth. The UNESCO institute for statistic (UIS) has just released data and related analyses, highlighting trends at the global and regional levels, to form discussions and provide stakeholders with the data needed to target policies, strategies and resources to get all children, adolescents and youth in school and learning. The objective of the session is to present analyses of the most recent data out-of-school children, adolescents and youth in Africa. These analyses will highlight equity issues related to gender disparities in participation of boys and girls to education in the region. Moreover, in addition to children and adolescents out of school in the region there is a huge proportion of those who are in school but not reaching minimum proficiency levels in mathematics and reading.

4-2-2 Lesson on Gender Equality Strategy for CESA 16-25:-

Under the theme: the way to a systematic change towards equity, equality and quality education. This lesson was presented by Dr. Rita Bissoonouth, Head of mission, African Union/international center for Girls and women, s education. In her few important remarks with regard to the topic, she said AUC framework and protocols invite member state to incorporate gender equality in their strategies, plans and monitoring and evaluation framework, however, the AUC documents present little guidance and information regarding qualitative outcome indicators to measure change overtime, particularly on the impact of gender equality in education as is expected by The AU aspiration and the Agenda 2063 .in partnership with the AU and through a consultative process, FAWE has developed the gender equality in education strategy for CESA 16-25; a tool to guide African states on how to best to integrate equality in education. It also includes an indicator framework to enable member states measures progress towards gender equality and its benefits for development. The presentation of the gender equality strategy will show how to address some of the issues that negatively affect girls, education in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

4-2-3 Lesson on inclusion of Refugees in education sector planning:-

This presentation was made by: MsIta Sheehy, a senior education Advisor, UNHCR, this presentation it was carry out or jointly organized by the education systems strengthening task (SYSTeam) of regional coordination group on SDG 4 (RCG4) of which UNHCR is a member, has summarize the opportunities for collaboration to support countries to include refugees in education systems and contribute to the attainment of SDG4. UNHCR, education partners to increase opportunities for refugee access to education system in host countries. This aligns with global thinking on addressing the reality of prolonged displacement, moving from a policy of supporting separate systems for refugees to one of strengthening national and local systems for an inclusion approach. The inclusion declaration, the 2030 Agenda the 2016 New York declaration and its comprehensive refugee response framework have contributed to and consolidated UNHCR, institutional approach to supporting governments to address the education needs presented by medium-term refugee displacements, an inclusion policy brings opportunities and challenges for government local authorities, hosting communities, supporting agencies and refugees themselves that merit serious consideration in the highlight of the meeting the SDG 4 goal of equity inclusion and quality.

4-3 Inclusion of the children with disability and Children with Albinism:-

This presentation was initially presented by: Ms Claire Perrin- Houdon-technical unit coordinator. Programme Magadascar, Humanity and inclusion, she said that every learner benefits when there is investment in quality teacher training for teachers to respond  to the diversity for all learners, pre-service training of all primary education teachers on general inclusive education pedagogy, a sustainable and scalable way of rolling out inclusive education. Teachers should also be trained on the specific needs of children with disabilities or children with Albinism. This presentation compare ,,good practices,, in introducing inclusive education modules into national pre-service teacher training in Burkina Faso and Madagascar since 2013 the Ministry of education (MOE) in Burkina Faso has implemented a 20 hour inclusive education Modules in all 8 primary teacher training colleges training includes general inclusive education and specialized modules such as Braille and sign language in 2016/17 the Ministry of education in Madgascar developed a 20 hour pre-service training module for 14 teacher training centers, training 945 student teacher

4-4 Promoting Youth and Adult Literacy:-

This presentation focus on country efforts who have experienced large gains in youth and adult literacy in the 15 years. The presentation was initially done by: Mr-Olivier Pieum, UNESCO Dakar office. In his key remarks highlights some main points related to the CESA mandate on strategy addressing the session about UNESCO, s role, on CESA he said empathy that the UNESCO has been supporting Ministries in Charge of education and training in integrating an innovative approach of skills development. This approach consists in strengthening synergies between technical and vocational education and training (TVET), literacy and non-formal education (LNFE), and information and communication technologies (ICTs) programmes, notably in Senegal and Mali; Synergy is based on a learning process that combines the provision of language and foundational skills using digital resources that reduce learning time. It is a low-cost learning opportunity for people, illiterates and those excluded from the formal education system. The design of the process is carried out in a participatory approach integrating the professionals of the Trade sector and methodologist several phases have already been completed, in particular: the development of integrated reference frameworks for linguistic skills and technical and professional skills the development of the terminologies on business (woodwork) and national languages. The Digital learning resources are made available through a database- the implementation phase of the first Cohort in Senegal is scheduled for next October.

4-5 Secondary Education:-

Notwithstanding notable gains between 1999 and 2012 when Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) rose from 24% to almost 50%, access to secondary education in Africa is on the whole constrained by lack of opportunities and limited investment. Demand for secondary education outstrips the supply leading to stiff competition for the available opportunities. Private sector has a niche here but the response has not been commensurate with the growing demand. On average access to both lower and upper secondary education in low income African countries (as measured by GDP and where data exist) is very low (44.7 and 23.2% respectively). Moreover, the completion rates for both levels are also very worrisome as only 29.5% and 13.9% of those accessing the lower and upper secondary level respectively complete them. There is also the issue of those who complete both levels but lost to the system as they do not access the subsequent level. At the end of the lower level, 6% is missing at the enrolment at the upper level and of the 13.9% who complete the upper level, only 6.1 % access tertiary education.

4-5-1 Quality and Equity:-

In spite of limited data on learning outcomes at the secondary education level, proxy data such as completion rates and examination results show that quality is a concern. In low income African countries, the completion rates for lower and secondary education are very low as only 29.5% and 13.9% of those accessing the lower and upper secondary level respectively complete them. In most countries, the transition from primary to secondary works to the advantage of boys which leads to the enrolment imbalance of girls that stands between 30 and 35% of the total enrollment.

Girls’ performance in math and science is poorer than boys due to limited facilities combined with classroom (and societal) culture which tends to discourage girls.

4-5-2 Tertiary Education:-

Virtually all development players now concur that for any meaningful and sustainable economic growth to be realized and sustained, tertiary education must be centrally placed in the development agenda of nations. Countries around the world are striving to build the sector either under pressure, as in the case in Africa, or as priority in their strategic development plans, as in the case of developed and emerging countries. For sure, building a tertiary education system is no more a luxury African countries were once chastised for indulging in it; but a critical imperative for national development and global competitiveness. The following three components, higher education, scientific research and TVET are increasingly singled out as concerns of AU member states.

STISA – 2024 places special emphasis on higher education as the grouping of the largest research centers in Africa. This is expressed in terms of scientific production relating to the development of Africa. Higher education provides a conducive environment for the development of STI and a suitable exploitation of the full potential of science, technology and innovation to support sustainable growth and socio-economic development. It also improves competitiveness with regards to the global process of research, innovation and entrepreneurship requiring increasingly quality knowledge production from universities in African countries.

4-5-6 Access to specialization in Africa:-

In spite of the impressive growth recorded in this sector during the last two decades, enrolment still stands at about 7% of the age cohort—low in comparison to other regions of the world. Furthermore, whereas many countries are pushing to reverse the proportion of the fields and disciplines in favor of science and technology, the enrolment landscape continues to be dominated by humanities and social sciences. The private providers have continued to play an important role in this growth, as they currently enroll about 25% of the students in the continent. It is therefore possible to implement favorable policies towards scientific and engineering fields and empower women to access and succeed in their studies and/or research.

4-6       University education Quality and Equity:-

Quality and relevance of university education have emerged as serious concerns of the sector for some time now. Post-graduate education remains underdeveloped and its contribution to research and innovation remains minuscule. Notwithstanding the meager relevance of world ranking of universities to the African context, and with the exception of South Africa and Egypt, none of the African universities appears in the top of these rankings. Africa contributes around 1%of the global knowledge, the lowest in the world, and yet remains an exclusive consumer which further marginalizes it as a producer of knowledge. The impressive growth however grapples with considerable inequities in gender, social class, geographic location, minority groups, and disability among others Reorienting enrolments, post-graduate education, research and innovation linked to economic, social and industrial development remain a challenge. The capacity to absorb the massive number of graduates of the secondary education systems necessitates building additional modern infrastructure and providing innovative delivery, such as distance and open/virtual learning, using ICTs and other available means. Tertiary education in Africa is also faced with an aging population of professors and trainers. A sizeable number of the most experienced and better trained faculties will be retiring soon. There is therefore an urgent need for renewal of the teaching force. The working and living conditions of both faculty and students also need to be improved in order to attract more young people. The mounting cost of tertiary education is also a key challenge. Continental and sub-regional integration schemes (e.g. harmonization) combined with private sector involvement hold a key to expanding access and promoting relevance and advancing quality. We should never lose sight of the close relationship recommended by the continental strategy of TVET between the education system as a whole and the end user of the product in order to reverse the growing trend in jobless graduates.

4-7 Informal and non-formal Education and training and illiteracy:-

Non-formal Education and training encompasses all the structured education and training programs and projects taking place outside of the formal system. On the other hand, informal education occurs in everyday life in families, workplace and one’s leisure time. It has taken decades for the Informal and non-formal Education and training to be recognized as an important sector contributing to educational development in Africa. Alternative modes of education that fall under the Informal and non-formal education and training label have provided learning and training opportunities to millions of African children, youth and adults. The concept of lifelong learning is also embedded in these two alternative modes of education and deserves recognition by African policymakers.

5-1 The More effective ways of implementing CESA 16-25:-

  • communication

Communication and advocacy is the main pillar for the implementation of CESA, Good communication is central to ownership and mobilization of stakeholders in the successful implementation of CESA 16-25. This entails the deployment of multiple approaches and actions at different levels and numerous stakeholders.

5-2 Conferences by PACE:-

Recently The African High-level conference on education (PACE) held a meeting in Nairobi Kenya, 25-27 april/2018 the conference was conducted as a roadmap on delivery the implementation of the plan CESA 16-25 under the theme Bridging continental and global education framworks for the Africa we want. The conference was actually aiming at building previous consultations in Africa Sub-Saharan and Arab states, regions, and other relevant regional meetings, which endorsed the call for action on SDG 4 education goals 2030, PACE 2018 aims at strengthening the partnerships in education and such accelerate the implementation of SDG 4 and CESA 16-25 at country level, all African Countries, every country is encouraged to designate a delegation of four persons headed by the Ministry of Education. In view of the Agenda, the delegation may include a senior education official, a senior Finance Ministry official and a representative from civil society. In countries where more than one Ministry Responsible for education (and training), the country will indicate which minister will lead the delegation, in those cases, the other Ministries are advised to send senior representative per Ministry. Two members of the delegation will be provided with transport and accommodation support by the event organizers. Countries are encouraged to fund the participation the remaining members of the delegation or seek support at country level from education development partners to facilitate their participation. In advance of PACE, countries will be encouraged to respond to a brief  their questioners to ascertain their status regarding alignment of their education policies, plans and strategies for both the SDG4 and CESA 16-25 frameworks, selected countries has prepare short presentation on best practices in certain thematic or organization areas, as reflected in this concept Note. This presentation has been coordinated by the UNESCO regional offices in Africa and the Beirut office in the Arab and compiled for presentation at the event, this initiative was conducted at Safari Park Hotel in Nairobi Kenya 25-27/April/2018. The participants:-

  • Ministers of education from 54 African members states
  • Senior technical officials from ministries of education/SDG 4 focal points and other relevant ministries representatives in particular from finances, planning, development, labour
  • Africa Union commission for Human Resources, sciences and technology
  • Pan-African Parliament
  • Pan- African Universities and research institutions
  • Regional economic communities ( RECs, CEA, ECOWAS, IGAD, SADC and UMA)
  • Association for the Development of education in Africa (ADEA)
  • African development Bank (AFDB)
  • Education 2030 co-convenors (ILO, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UN Women and World Bank)
  • Global partnership for education
  • Inter-governmental organization (CONFEMEN, Commonwealth, ALECSO and League of Arab etc)
  • Regional and international organizations civil society representatives
  • Youth organizations representatives
  • Private sector representative
  • Development partners representative
  • UNESCO Regional offices in Sub-Saharan Africa and north Africa, UNESCO institutes (IBE, IIBA, IIEP, UIL and UIS) and head quarters education Division
  • National and international press and media

Those responsible for its implementation will be assigned to “ reorient Africa’s education and training systems to meet the knowledge, competencies, skills, innovation and creativity required to nurture African core values and promote sustainable development at the national, sub-regional and continental levels. The strategic objectives below articulate a set of high-level results that the CESA 16-25 will aim to achieve by 2025 in order to fully reorient African education and training systems towards the achievement of the AU’s vision and Agenda 2063. Under each strategic objective a set of intermediate-level goals, that can be called action areas (AAs), are provided in order to specify the critical elements and results the CESA 16-25 must accomplish before achieving the strategic objectives. These action areas will be the basis on which operational plans for implementing the CESA 16-25 will be developed. Both the strategic objectives and action areas are derived from the section on background and perspectives on educational development in Africa and seek to redress issues of internal efficiencies of the systems while charting the path to the future.

5-3 Access to implementation:-

Since each area of interest mentioned in this CESA 16-25 either as a guiding principle, strategic objective or pillar may deserve a separate program if not a full implementation strategy, the strategy proposes that all stakeholders and actors be given freedom to act and take positive initiatives proactively. They will be all integrated within the framework of the coalition for education, training and STI using an approach that gives more visibility to actions undertaken on the continent in education and training. Some of the initiatives identified already include STISA -2024, the Continental Strategy for TVET, education of the girl child, school feeding, school health, school administration or the teaching profession in terms of training and / or living and working conditions. The Annual Continental Activity Report suggested by the CESA 16-25 is intended to document activities, outputs, and results within the coalition at the national, regional and continental levels.

5-4 Funding Mechanism for Implementation:-

Innovative mechanisms for sustainable financing and mobilization of resources are a pre-requisite for the success of the CES. New financing mechanisms to mitigate the burden on the public must be implemented including the effective deployment of the private sector.

1- Strategic and investment plans A ten-year education sector investment plan at continental, regional and national levels must first be developed in participatory and collaborative manner

2-At Continental level: Estimate the cost of implementing the CESA 16-25 including the requisite resources for management, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation

3- At Regional level: Estimate the cost of implementing the CESA 16-25 at the level of RECs, including resources required for management, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation with special emphasis on Centre of Excellence, networking and mobility

4- At National level: Estimate the cost of CESA 16-25 pertinent objectives in accordance with national priorities

  National Mobilisation of Resources:-

Given the importance of national resource mobilization for CESA 16-25 implementation, it is essential that sustainable business models be developed that will reflect the following principles

  1. Diversification and increasing of funding sources owing to new partnerships, south-south cooperation, private investments, foreign direct investments, diaspora, foundations and other champions.
  2. Cost sharing with different stakeholders including tuition fees at all levels
  3. Strengthening effective and efficient management resource systems in public institutions
  4. Expansion of private education and training providers

Mobilisation of Public-Private Partnerships:-

 This mobilisation should provide incentives to the private sector with the view to facilitating its involvement in:

  1. Providing direct financial support to public institutions
  2. Granting scholarships
  3. Providing mentorship and internships opportunities
  4. Supporting the management of levies to support education and training
  5. Contributing to special funds for education and training

 Contribution of Technical and Funding Partners

The strategy for mobilizing the technical and funding partners:

This will consist of reaching out to them at the continental level and beyond so that they provide a strong backing to the implementation of CESA 16-25. Based on past experiences on the continent and from successful experiences in other continents, partners are invited to provide meaningful and consistent support to the implementation of the ambitious programmes embedded in CESA 16-25. Bilateral and multilateral partners are invited to engage in national, regional and continental negotiations to develop the human capital required for a more prosperous continent in particular the world in general.

5-5 Some African Countries are implementing the policies:-

CESA 16-25 is designed to involve the widest possible coalition for education, training and STI in Africa. At the top of the pyramid of monitoring system is a team of ten heads of state and governments, champions of education, training and STI which reports to the Conference during the AU Summit. The CESA 16-25 requires all stakeholders and actors to be given freedom to act and take positive initiatives within the framework of the coalition for education, training and STI. This approach implies the acceptance of the following processes Malawi is now implementing TEVET policies The Government of Malawi is making strides to expand provision of improved technical, entrepreneurial, and vocational education and training (TEVET) to its young people by building community technical colleges and community skills development centres in its smaller centres and introducing harmonized curriculum. With technical assistance from UNESCO and funding from the EU, the Skills and Technical Education Programme (STEP) is promoting Pan-African High-Level Conference on Education (PACE 2018) – Programme 20 inclusion by enhancing the image of TVET, providing opportunities for women and girls to try their hand at a trade, and identifying and responding to challenges faced by females in traditionally male occupations. STEP is informing its work from studies on career guidance and counseling, sexual reproductive health, gender-based violence, and inclusion. The important initiatives underway are apprenticeship schemes for women, supporting administrators to reduce cases of gender based violence in the colleges, development of student orientation materials, training on codes of conduct for instructors and trainees, as well as review new teaching/learning materials through a gender lens.

CONCLUSION

This is a very inclusive program that will assist and take Africa forward for development, but in my opinion the only challenges is political instability, security and lack of commitment from other nation due to financial constraints or other factors related to vision, when specific leader who might be in charge of leading a certain country in Africa might lack access to clear vision in educational aspect, as for this program is very interested it will aim at The ambition of Africa to take charge of its own destiny, as defined by AU’s Agenda 2063, hinges on the availability of competent and qualified human resources, able to imagine, create, propose and implement innovative development plans rooted in African values by those who are ready and have clear clue on education important as a tool for nation development in any country, therefore today if Africa has come to realized the important of education and create this strategy I think the development will materialized soon. This Designed will prop up the AU’s Agenda, CESA 16-25 draws on lessons learned from two decades of education and experiences from other parts of the world to propose, within a holistic vision integrating all sub-sectors of education and training systems, a concrete set of actions under the strategic objectives. As a guarantee of success, the Strategy will be underpinned by a systematic campaign of mobilization of both national and external resources through support provided by technical and financial partners and a national, regional and continental coordination framework. The successful implementation of CESA 16-25 will eventually enable Africa not only to have the necessary human capital for its sustainable development, but above all to become a major player in the knowledge economy and be a credible competitor in a globalized world.

References:-

1-African Union, Commission. 2014. Common African Position on the post 2015 development agenda. AU: Ethiopia

  • African Development Bank, 2011. Africa in 50 Years’ Time: The Road towards InclusiveGrowth. African Development Bank Group.
  • Adams, Anda and Van der Gaag, Jacques.2013. Where is the Learning? Measuring Schooling Efforts in Developing Countries. The Brookings Institution.African Union Commission, 2014. Continental Strategy for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) to foster Youth Employment in Africa.

5-African Union, Commission, 2014. Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Africa

6-Allais, S. 2010. The implementation and impact of National Qualifications Frameworks: Report of a Study in 16 countries. ILOGeneva.

7-Chong Jae Lee 2006,”The Development of Education Korea: Past achievements and current Challenges, Background paper for the East Asia StudyTour for Senior African EducationPolicy Makers Organized by World Bank on June 19-23, 2006.

8- Crabtree, Steve and Pugliese, Anita. 2012. “Poverty Drops with Secondary Education in

9-Ndoye, Mamadou and Walther Richard. 2013. Critical knowledge, skills and qualificationsfor accelerated and sustainable development in Africa: Synthesis Report of the 2012TriennaleAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa.

10 United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). 2013.

11-Continental education strategy for Africa 2016-2025

12- PACE 2018/Nairobi, Bridging continental and global education framework for the Africa we want, AU

The opinion expressed here is solely the view of the writer. The veracity of any claim made is the responsibility of the author, not PaanLuel Wël Media (PW) website. If you want to submit an opinion article, commentary or news analysis, please email it to paanluel2011@gmail.com. PaanLuel Wël Media (PW) website do reserve the right to edit or reject material before publication. Please include your full name, a short biography, email address, city and the country you are writing from.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s