South Sudan’s Historical Chronology
One: A chronology of key events (from the BBC).
1881 – Revolt against the Turco-Egyptian administration.
1899-1955 – Sudan is under joint British-Egyptian rule.
1956 – Sudan becomes independent.
1958 – General Abboud leads military coup against the civilian government elected earlier in the year
1962 – Civil war begins in the south, led by the Anya Nya movement.
1964 – The “October Revolution” overthrows Abbud and an Islamist-led government is established
1969 – Jaafar Numeiri leads the “May Revolution” military coup.
1971 – Sudanese Communist Party leaders executed after short-lived coup against Numeiry.
1972 – Under the Addis Ababa peace agreement between the government and the Anya Nya, the south becomes a self-governing region.
1978 – Oil discovered in Bentiu in southern Sudan.
1983 – Civil war breaks out again in the south involving government forces and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), led by John Garang.
Islamic law imposed
1983 – President Numeiri declares the introduction of Sharia Islamic law.
1985 – After widespread popular unrest Numayri is deposed by a group of officers and a Transitional Military Council is set up to rule the country.
1986 – Coalition government formed after general elections, with Sadiq al-Mahdi as prime minister.
1988 – Coalition partner the Democratic Unionist Party drafts cease-fire agreement with the SPLM, but it is not implemented.
1989 – National Salvation Revolution takes over in military coup.
1993 – Revolution Command Council dissolved after Omar Bashir is appointed president.
1995 – Egyptian President Mubarak accuses Sudan of being involved in attempt to assassinate him in Addis Ababa.
1998 – US launches missile attack on a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum, alleging that it was making materials for chemical weapons.
1998 – New constitution endorsed by over 96% of voters in referendum.
1999 – President Bashir dissolves the National Assembly and declares a state of emergency following a power struggle with parliamentary speaker, Hassan al-Turabi.
Advent of oil
1999 – Sudan begins to export oil.
2000 President Bashir meets leaders of opposition National Democratic Alliance for first time in Eritrea.
Main opposition parties boycott presidential elections. Incumbent Bashir is re-elected for further five years.
2001 Islamist leader Al-Turabi’s party, the Popular National Congress, signs memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel SPLM’s armed wing, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). Al-Turabi is arrested the next day, with more arrests of PNC members in the following months.
Government accepts Libyan/Egyptian initiative to end the civil war after failure of peace talks between President Bashir and SPLM leader John Garang in Nairobi.
US extends unilateral sanctions against Sudan for another year, citing its record on terrorism and rights violations.
2002 – Government and SPLA sign landmark ceasefire agreement providing for six-month renewable ceasefire in central Nuba Mountains – a key rebel stronghold.
Talks in Kenya lead to a breakthrough agreement between the government and southern rebels on ending the 19-year civil war. The Machakos Protocol provides for the south to seek self-determination after six years.
2003 February – Rebels in western region of Darfur rise up against government, claiming the region is being neglected by Khartoum.
2003 October – PNC leader Turabi released after nearly three years in detention and ban on his party is lifted.
Uprising in west
2004 January – Army moves to quell rebel uprising in western region of Darfur; hundreds of thousands of refugees flee to neighbouring Chad.
2004 March – UN official says pro-government Arab Janjaweed militias are carrying out systematic killings of non-Arab villagers in Darfur.
Army officers and opposition politicians, including Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi, are detained over an alleged coup plot.
2004 May – Government and southern rebels agree on power-sharing protocols as part of a peace deal to end their long-running conflict. The deal follows earlier breakthroughs on the division of oil and non-oil wealth.
2004 September – UN says Sudan has not met targets for disarming pro-government Darfur militias and must accept outside help to protect civilians. US Secretary of State Colin Powell describes Darfur killings as genocide.
2005 January – Government and southern rebels sign a peace deal. The agreement includes a permanent ceasefire and accords on wealth and power sharing.
UN report accuses the government and militias of systematic abuses in Darfur, but stops short of calling the violence genocide.
2005 March – UN Security Council authorises sanctions against those who violate ceasefire in Darfur. Council also votes to refer those accused of war crimes in Darfur to International Criminal Court.
2005 June – Government and exiled opposition grouping – National Democratic Alliance (NDA) – sign reconciliation deal allowing NDA into power-sharing administration.
President Bashir frees Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi, detained since March 2004 over alleged coup plot.
2005 9 July – Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice president. A constitution which gives a large degree of autonomy to the south is signed.
2005 1 August – Vice president and former rebel leader John Garang is killed in a plane crash. He is succeeded by Salva Kiir. Garang’s death sparks deadly clashes in the capital between southern Sudanese and northern Arabs.
2005 September – Power-sharing government is formed in Khartoum.
2005 October – Autonomous government is formed in the south, in line with January 2005 peace deal. The administration is dominated by former rebels.
2006 May – Khartoum government and the main rebel faction in Darfur, the Sudan Liberation Movement, sign a peace accord. Two smaller rebel groups reject the deal. Fighting continues.
2006 August – Sudan rejects a UN resolution calling for a UN peacekeeping force in Darfur, saying it would compromise sovereignty.
2006 October – Jan Pronk, the UN’s top official in Sudan, is expelled.
2006 November – African Union extends mandate of its peacekeeping force in Darfur for six months.
Hundreds are thought to have died in the heaviest fighting between northern Sudanese forces and their former southern rebel foes since they signed a peace deal last year. Fighting is centred on the southern town of Malakal.
2007 April – Sudan says it will accept a partial UN troop deployment to reinforce African Union peacekeepers in Darfur, but not a full 20,000-strong force.
War crimes charges
2007 May – International Criminal Court issues arrest warrants for a minister and a Janjaweed militia leader suspected of Darfur war crimes.
US President George W Bush announces fresh sanctions against Sudan.
2007 July – UN Security Council approves a resolution authorising a 26,000-strong force for Darfur. Sudan says it will co-operate with the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (Unamid).
2007 October – SPLM temporarily suspends participation in national unity government, accusing Khartoum of failing to honour the 2005 peace deal.
2007 December – SPLM resumes participation in national unity government.
2008 January – UN takes over Darfur peace force.
Within days Sudan apologises after its troops fire on a convoy of Unamid, the UN-African Union hybrid mission.
Government planes bomb rebel positions in West Darfur, turning some areas into no-go zones for aid workers.
2008 February – Commander of the UN-African Union peacekeepers in Darfur, Balla Keita, says more troops needed urgently in west Darfur.
2008 March – Russia says it’s prepared to provide some of the helicopters urgently needed by UN-African Union peacekeepers.
Tensions rise over clashes between an Arab militia and SPLM in Abyei area on north-south divide – a key sticking point in 2005 peace accord.
Presidents of Sudan and Chad sign accord aimed at halting five years of hostilities between their countries.
2008 April – Counting begins in national census which is seen as a vital step towards holding democratic elections after the landmark 2005 north-south peace deal.
UN humanitarian chief John Holmes says 300,000 people may have died in the five-year Darfur conflict.
2008 May – Southern defence minister Dominic Dim Deng is killed in a plane crash in the south.
Tension increases between Sudan and Chad after Darfur rebel group mounts raid on Omdurman, Khartoum’s twin city across the Nile. Sudan accuses Chad of involvement and breaks off diplomatic relations.
Intense fighting breaks out between northern and southern forces in disputed oil-rich town of Abyei.
2008 June – President Bashir and southern leader Salva Kiir agree to seek international arbitration to resolve dispute over Abyei.
2008 July – The International Criminal Court’s top prosecutor calls for the arrest of President Bashir for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur; the appeal is the first ever request to the ICC for the arrest of a sitting head of state. Sudan rejects the indictment.
2008 September – Darfur rebels accuse government forces backed by militias of launching air and ground attacks on two towns in the region.
2008 October – Allegations that Ukrainian tanks hijacked off the coast of Somalia were bound for southern Sudan spark fears of an arms race between the North and former rebels in the South.
2008 November – President Bashir announces an immediate ceasefire in Darfur, but the region’s two main rebel groups reject the move, saying they will fight on until the government agrees to share power and wealth in the region.
2008 December – The Sudanese army says it has sent more troops to the sensitive oil-rich South Kordofan state, claiming that a Darfur rebel group plans to attack the area.
2009 January – Sudanese Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi is arrested after saying President Bashir should hand himself in to The Hague to face war crimes charges for the Darfur war.
2009 March – The International Criminal Court in The Hague issues an arrest warrant for President Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.
2009 May – An estimated 250 people in central Sudan are killed during a week of clashes between nomadic groups fighting over grazing land and cattle in the semi-arid region of Southern Kordofan.
2009 June – Khartoum government denies it is supplying arms to ethnic groups in the south to destabilise the region.
The leader of South Sudan and vice-president of the country, Salva Kiir, warns his forces are being re-organised to be ready for any return to war with the north
Ex-foreign minister Lam Akol splits from South’s ruling SPLM to form new party, SPLM-Democratic Change.
2009 July – North and south Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague shrinking disputed Abyei region and placing the major Heglig oil field in the north.
Woman journalist tried and punished for breaching decency laws by wearing trousers. She campaigns to change the law.
2009 August – Darfur war is over, says UN military commander in the region, in comments condemned by activists.
2009 October – SPLM boycotts parliament over a Bill allowing intelligence services to retain widespread powers.
2009 December – Leaders of North and South reach deal on terms of referendum on independence due in South by 2011.
2010 January – President Omar Bashir says he would accept referendum result, even if South opted for independence.
2010 Feb-March – The Justice and Equality Movement (Jem) main Darfur rebel movement signs a peace accord with the government, prompting President Bashir to declare the Darfur war over. But failure to agree specifics and continuing clashes with smaller rebel groups endanger the deal.
2010 April – President Bashir gains new term in first contested presidential polls since 1986.
2010 July – International Criminal Court issues second arrest warrant for President al-Bashir – this time on charges of genocide.
2010 August – Mr Bashir tests ICC arrest warrant by visiting Kenya, an ICC signatory. The Kenyan government refuses to enforce the warrant.
2011 January – People of the South vote in favour of full independence from the north.
2011 February – Clashes between the security forces and rebels in southern Sudan’s Jonglei state leave more than 100 dead.
2011 March – Government of South Sudan says it is suspending talks with the North, accusing it of plotting a coup.
2011 May – Northern troops overrun town of Abyei on disputed border between north and south. South describes it as ”act of war”. Thousands flee.
South becomes independent
2011 July – South Sudan gains independence.
2011 September – State of emergency declared in Blue Nile state, elected SPLM-N Governor Malik Agar sacked. Some 100,000 said fleeing unrest.
2011 October – South Sudan and Sudan agree to set up several committees tasked with resolving their outstanding disputes.
2011 November – Sudan accused of bombing refugee camp in Yida, Unity State, South Sudan.
A Kenyan judge issues an arrest warrant for President Bashir, saying he should be detained if ever he sets foot in the country again.
2011 December – International Criminal Court’s chief prosecutor requests arrest warrant for Sudan’s defence minister, Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein, for alleged war crimes in Darfur.
Sudanese government forces kill key Darfur rebel leader Khalil Ibrahim.
2012 January – South Sudan halts oil production after talks on fees for the export of oil via Sudan break down.
2012 February – Sudan and South Sudan sign non-aggression pact at talks on outstanding secession issues. although tensions remain high over oil export fees.
1899: Sudan comes under British/Egyptian rule.
1916: Sultanate of Darfur incorporated into Sudan.
1955:First civil war begins between the South and North.
1956: Sudan achieves independence.
1958: General Abbud leads the first military coup against the civilian government.
1962: Civil war breaks out in the predominately Christian region of the South.
1964: The ‘October Revolution’ overthrows Abbud and a National Government is elected.
1969: Gaafar Mohamed El-Nimeiri leads the “May Revolution” military coup and becomes President.
1969: Military coup puts Nimeiri in power.
1971: Nimeiri sees that the Communist Leader is executed after a failed coup attempt.
1972: Peace agreement is signed in Addis Ababa and the South achieves partial self-governance. This led to 10 years of peace in the South.
1978: Oil reserves are discovered in Bentiu in South Sudan.
1983: Nimeiri introduces nationwide Islamic Sharia law.
1983: Tensions in the South led to the formation of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) under leader John Garang. The southern based group takes up arms against government forces.
1985: After widespread popular unrest Nimeiri is deposed from Presidency by a group of officers. A Transitional Military Council is set up to rule the country.
1986: Post-Nimeiri elections see Sadiq al-Mahdi become Prime Minister.
1989: National Salvation Revolution (NSR) takes over in a military coup.
1993: After another military coup the Revolution Command Council is dissolved and Omar al-Bashir is appointed president.
1998: The US launches a missile attack on a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum. It alleges that it was making materials for chemical weapons and has links to Al-Qaeda – the government dismisses the claims as false.
1998: A new constitution is endorsed in a referendum.
1999: Following a power struggle with Hassan al-Turabi, the Parliamentary Speaker, President Bashir dissolves the National Assembly and declares a state of emergency. The same year Sudan begins to export oil.
2000: Omar al-Bashir is re-elected President after all other political parties boycott elections.
2001: The Popular National Congress (PNC) signs a memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel SPLM’s armed faction, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). Hassan Al-Turabi, leader of the PNC is arrested the following day.
2001: Citing its record on terrorism and human rights violations, the US extends unilateral sanctions against Sudan for another year.
2002: The government and the SPLA sign a landmark peace deal. A renewable 6 month ceasefire agreement is made. This brings to an end 19 years of civil war.
2003: Two rebel groups in the Western region of Darfur rise up against what they believe to be government neglect of the arid region. The groups arm Arab militia against civilians.
2004: The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebels agree ceasefire in the South.
2004: In Darfur, as the army moves against the insurgency, hundreds of thousands of refugees flee into Chad.
2004 (Mar): UN official says pro-government Arab militias known as “Janjaweed” are carrying out systematic killings of villagers in Darfur.
2004 (May): Further progress is made in North – South relations when the government and southern rebels agree on power-sharing protocols.
2004 (Sept): The US describes Darfur killings as ‘genocide’. The UN says Sudan has failed to disarm pro-government militias but do not accept the term ‘genocide.’ The Sudanese government agrees to the African Union (AU) sending in a protection force.
2005 (Jan): Government and southern rebels sign a comprehensive permanent peace deal.
2005: The UN Security Council says those who commit atrocities in Darfur can be brought before the International Criminal Court (ICC). Three months later Khartoum seeks to head off international action by setting up its own tribunal.
2005: Following the September introduction of a power-sharing government in Khartoum, in October, an autonomous government is formed in the South. The new administration is dominated by former rebels.
2006 (Aug): The UN Security Council vote to send a 26,000 strong peacekeeping force to Darfur but Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir – citing a violation of sovereignty – refuses to allow the deployment of the UN force. Two months later, Jan Pronk, the UN’s top official in Sudan, is expelled from the country.
2007 (May): The ICC issues its first arrest warrants for a Sudanese Minister and a Janjaweed militia leader. Khartoum rejects the statement and says the court has no jurisdiction.
2007 (July): Sudan accepts the deployment of a 26,000 strong AU -UN force to Darfur –UNAMID.
2008: UNAMID officially takes over from the AU peacekeeping force in Darfur.
2008: Troops are deployed in Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR) to assist with the refugee flow from Darfur.
2008 (April): The UN predict that 300,000 people have been killed in the five year Darfur conflict.
2008 (May): Sudanese government bombs hit schools and market places in Darfur, killing 13 civilians. UNHCR withdraws its staff from sites on the Chad/Sudan border citing insecurity.
2008 (June): Northern and Southern forces begin intense fighting over the disputed oil-rich town of Abyei.
2008 (July): The ICC calls for the arrest of President Bashir for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. It is the first appeal the ICC has ever made for the arrest of a sitting head of state. Sudan rejects the charges.
2009 (Mar): The ICC in The Hague issues an arrest warrant for President Omar al-Bashir.
2009 (May): 250 people in central Sudan are killed during clashes between nomadic groups fighting over grazing land.
2009 (July): North and South Sudan accept a ruling by The Hague which gives control of the Abyei region and its oilfields to the North.
2010 (Feb): An ICC appeals court rules that a previous judgement that charges of genocide could not be considered against al-Bashir, was wrong. The case has been passed back for a decision on the case for charging al-Bashir with genocide.
2010 (Apr): National elections return Al-Bashir as President of Sudan, and Salva Kiir as President of South Sudan. Opposition parties allege vote rigging.
2010 (Dec): An upsurge in fighting in Darfur as the ceasefire between the SLA and the government breaks down. Followed by the end of the peace talks in Doha.
2011 (Jan): With over 99% in favour, South Sudan votes overwhelmingly in favour of independence in a vote widely regarded as free, fair and credible.
2011 (5 June): clashes begin in Southern Kordofan
2011 (July): Formation of the South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA)
2011 (9 July): South Sudan becomes independent.
2011 (13 July): Sudan’s parliament passes a law cancelling the Sudanese nationality of Southerners
2011 (14 July): South Sudan is admitted by the General Assembly as the 193rdmember of the UN
2011 (18 July): South Sudan launched its own currency
2011 (20 July): Rebel leader Gatluak Gai signs a peace deal with the SPLA, and is shot dead three days later in Unity State
2011 (27 July): South Sudan becomes the 54th member of the African Union
2011 (August ongoing): cattle raids and violence across South Sudan with a number of military and civilian deaths
2011 (1 August): Salva Kiir Mayardit appointed the South Sudan Council of State, consisting of fifty representatives
2011 (5 August): Sudan blocked a shipment of oil from South Sudan after Juba reportedly refused to pay customs fees – the South accused Khartoum of sabotaging its economy
2011 (27 August): New Cabinet of South Sudan is announced, considered representative of ethnic groups and across states; it is made up of 29 ministers and 27 deputies
2011 (3 September): State of emergency declared in Blue Nile state, elected SPLM-N Governor Malik Agar sacked. Some 100,000 said to have fled unrest.
2011 (9 October): South Sudan and Sudan agree to set up several committees tasked with resolving their outstanding disputes
2011 (11 November): Sudan accused of bombing refugee camp in Yida, Unity State, South Sudan
Three: South Sudan: a timeline to independence (from the Christian Science Monitor).
On Saturday, July 9, 2011, after decades of civil war and almost two centuries of rule by outsiders, South Sudanwill finally become an independent state. Here’s a look at the road the fledgling nation has traveled to get to where it is today.- Ariel Zirulnick, Staff writer
Sudan under Turkish-Egyptian rule (1820s-1890s)
Sudan was a collection of mostly autonomous, non-cohesive kingdoms and tribes until the 1820s, when Turkish-Egyptian forces took control of the territory and created a colonial administration. However, neither the original invaders nor the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abdalla, who came in the 1880s, were able to bring southern Sudan under their control. Although Mr. Abdalla, known as “the Mahdi,” did unify some of the central and western tribes with what is now northern Sudan, the South remained a loose confederation of kingdoms and tribes.
British colonization of Sudan (1890s-1953)
In the 1890s, British forces invaded the Mahdi’s Sudan, bringing it under their control, imposing their policies, and filling the top administrative posts with British officials.
After World War I, the Sudanese nationalism movement gained steam. Conscious that the British could not suppress Sudanese desire for independence, the British colonizers signed an agreement in 1953 that granted the Sudanese self-governance.
While free from British rule, however, the undeveloped, mainly Christian and animist South would still be ruled by an administration based in the remote capital of the Muslim-dominated North,Khartoum.
Independent Sudan and the growing North-South divide (1953-1970s)
Within the newly autonomous Sudan, a divide was growing. The southern part of the country began calling for a federal system that would allow it a level of autonomy from the central government. Khartoum refused, provoking a mutiny by southern military officials that launched Sudan’s first civil war, lasting from 1955 to 1972.
The northern Sudanese sought, almost from the beginning, to unify the country under Arab-Muslim control, based in the north. In doing so, they alienated Christians and animists in the South, as well as other marginalized groups. Arabization and Islamicization efforts crystallized southern opposition to the central government, although the South was split over whether it wanted a federal system or complete independence from the North. A series of civilian governments through the 1960s exacerbated the divide between the North and South by refusing to grant any degree of self-determination to southern Sudan.
Secular socialist leader Col. Gaafar Muhammed Nimeiri, who took power in 1969, crafted a policy granting autonomy to the south and signed it into agreement in 1972. Southerners showed their appreciation by helping Col. Nimeiri put down two coup attempts. However, his early support was swept away when mounting opposition forced him to abandon his unpopular support for the South.
Strong support for an Islamic state and the discovery of oil in the south were the final blows to the south’s plea for autonomy. Nimeiri eliminated the separate southern region in 1983, putting control in the hands of the central government and making Arabic the official language there as well. The decision launched the Sudan’s second civil war and gave birth to the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement and Army (SPLA/M).
The second civil war and the rise of the SPLA/M (1980s-2005)
Nimeiri was overthrown in 1985. During the transitional governance period, several half-hearted attempts at peace failed over the question of exempting the South from Islamic law, an unacceptable prospect for many in the central government but something the South insisted upon.
Sudan’s current President Omar al-Bashir – now wanted in the International Criminal Court for war crimes – took power via coup in 1989, installing the National Islamic Front government. His party’s emphasis on incorporating Islam into the country’s political and legal systems further exacerbated the North-South conflict.
Meanwhile, the SPLA/M gained influence, becoming the main voice for South Sudanese. Bashir’s alienation of western and eastern regions of Sudan drove them to the sides of the southern rebels, led by the SPLM/A and united under the leadership of Col. John Garang.
Several agreements were signed between Khartoum and some of the southern rebel factions to end the open conflict between the North and South, but the SPLA was not one of the parties to the agreement.
The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005)
The Khartoum government and the SPLM began talks about an agreement to end the civil war in 2002. Talks on the role of state and religion and southern self-determination continued through 2004. In January 2005, the two signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which laid out a plan for southern autonomy for the next six years followed by a referendum vote in the South on its independence.
The CPA also includes a power-sharing arrangement for the central government that made SLPM leader Garang the vice president of unified Sudan. When Garang died in a helicopter crash only a few months later, Salva Kiir, his vice president, became the vice president of the central government. He also took over leadership of the SPLM and eventually the South’s government.
In the years between the signing of the CPA and the referendum vote, tensions between the North and South calmed considerably, although they still sometimes boiled over into open conflict.
The referendum on independence (Jan. 9, 2011)
On Jan. 9, 2011, South Sudanese turned out en masse to vote in a referendum on their independence, with more than 99 percent of those in the South voting in favor of secession from northern Sudan. Despite concerns about violence around the vote, it went off mostly peacefully, and the vote was soon followed by waves of South Sudanese returning to their home ahead of independence.
Despite the mostly peaceful vote, many contentious issues between the North and South remain unresolved, such as the status of the border region of Abyei, which was supposed to hold a referendum of its own to determine whether it would opt to join a newly independent South Sudanor stay with northern Sudan. Abyei and another border region known as South Kordofan have been plagued by fighting between northern armed forces and the fledgling state’s army, as well as attacks by southern rebels.
South Sudan’s independence (July 9, 2011)
On July 9, South Sudan officially becomes an independent state. With the situation in South Kordofan so shaky and Abyei’s status still unresolved, its transition to independence is unlikely to be completely smooth. It still faces internal tribal and ethnic divisions and rebel militias, as well as the continuation of hostilities with the North.
Check out the first of a three-part series chronicling the challenges facing the world’s newest country here.
Four: Timeline: South Sudan (from the AP).
South Sudan will proclaim full independence, becoming the world’s newest nation on July 9th 2011. (AP)
Key milestones in relations between soon to be independent south Sudan and the north of the vast African country:
– 1983: Sudanese president Gaafar al-Nimeiri decides to rescind a 1972 agreement under which southern Sudan enjoyed internal autonomy. The measure, which implies the introduction of Islamic sharia law in the region, rekindles an independence movement led by John Garang and his Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA).
– 1989: Omar al-Bashir ousts Nimeiri in a coup. He remains in power to this day.
– January 2005: North and south sign a US-brokered ceasefire agreement providing for a period of autonomy for the south followed by a referendum on full independence in 2011. The region around the town of Abyei, which has oil and is claimed by both south and north, is accorded special status.
– July 2005: Garang killed in a helicopter crash and is succeeded as southern leader by Salva Kiir.
– May 2008: Fighting in Abyei between troops from southern Sudan and those of the central government in Khartoum leave 100 people dead and raze the town.
– July 2009: An international arbitration court in The Hague draws new borders around Abyei, locating its main oilfields in north Sudan, outside the disputed region.
– April 2010: Sudan holds its first multi-party elections since 1986. Kiir becomes the south’s first elected president.
– October 2010: Talks between north and south fail to produce an agreement on Abyei’s future status.
– January 2011: As planned, south Sudan holds its independence referendum, with almost 99 percent voting in favour. Plans are laid for the region to split from the north and achieve full international recognition on July 9.
– March 2011: At least 70 people killed and three villages razed in clashes between the Arab Misseriya tribe, which is backed by Khartoum, and the pro-southern Ngok Dinka people.
– April 2011: Bashir says he will not recognise the south’s independence if it insists on claiming Abyei.
– May 21: Northern Sudanese troops backed by tanks seize Abyei town and its environs.
– June 3: UN Security Council demands that Sudan withdraw its troops from Abyei, a call swiftly rejected by Khartoum.
– June 5: Fighting erupts between the northern army and southern-aligned militia in South Kordofan, which borders the south and is the north’s only oil-producing state. The conflict escalates tensions between Khartoum and Juba.
– June 12: Bashir and Kiir fly to the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa for emergency talks aimed at resolving the crises in Sudan’s central border region.
– June 20: North and south Sudan sign an African Union-sponsored deal in Addis Ababa to demilitarise Abyei.
– June 27: UN Security Council votes to send a 4,200-strong Ethiopian peacekeeping force to monitor the withdrawal of northern troops from Abyei.
– July 1: Bashir orders the army to continue its campaign in South Kordofan, to “cleanse” the state of pro-southern rebels.
– July 9: South Sudan to proclaim full independence, becoming the world’s newest nation.
Five: North, South Sudan now separate nations (from the CBC News).
Abyei, Nuba conflicts, unresolved issues make for tense independence day in South, Jul 8, 2011 4:29 PM ET
The Republic of South Sudan declared its independence from Sudan on July 9, six months after the people of Southern Sudan voted overwhelmingly to separate from the rest of the country.
Also on July 9, the 2005 peace deal that led to the referendum expired. That agreement — between the government of Sudan and southern rebels — ended a civil war that began in 1983.
Since the referendum vote, three conflicts — between rebel groups and Southern Sudanese forces; between Northern and Southern forces in the border region of Abyei; and between the Sudanese army and a pro-Southern group in the Nuba mountains — have claimed over 2,360 lives.
The two sides are still negotiating key issues such as citizenship rights, oil rights and border demarcation.
Southern Sudan Quick Facts
Status: Autonomous region of Sudan.
President: Salva Kiir Mayardit (since 2005).
Location: Bordered by the Central African Republic, Congo, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia, as well as the northern region of Sudan.
Area total: 644,329 sq. km (29% forest).
Population: 8,260,490 (Sudan Census, 2008).
Population density: 13 per sq. km.
Median age: 18 years.
Literacy rate: 27% (males 40%; females 16%), persons 15 years and over.
Poverty: Half the population live on less than the equivalent of $1 a day.
Livelihood: Crop farming and animal husbandry are the main source of livelihood for 78% of households.
Major cash crops: Sorghum, maize, rice, sunflower, cotton, sesame, cassava, beans and peanuts.
Cattle: 11,735,000 head in 2009.
Sudan was a collection of independent kingdoms and principalities until 1820, when Egypt conquered the region and united the disparate territories. Egypt held the area until a revolt in 1885. A religious leader, Muhammad ibn Abdalla, led his followers in a nationalist uprising. His people, called the Mahdi (“expected ones”) ruled until 1898 when a joint British-Egyptian force overwhelmed the Mahdists.
Sudan was under British-Egyptian administration until 1953, when Britain and Egypt agreed to Sudanese self-government. Sudan became independent on Jan. 1, 1956.
The country has yet to experience long-term peace. The government in the capital, Khartoum, was Arab-led and reneged on promises to southerners, leading to a mutiny by southern army officers. This triggered a 17-year civil war from 1955 to 1972. The war restarted in 1983.
Here is a timeline of events from Sudan’s independence:
Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Ibrahim Abboud overthrows the government of Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari in a bloodless coup.
A wave of riots against the authoritarian rule of Abboud forces the military to relinquish power. Parliamentary elections are held in April 1965.
Sudan Quick Facts
President: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir.
Population: 41.4 million in 2008.
Official language: Arabic (mother tongue of half the population).
Major religions: Sunni Muslim in the north (70% of Sudan’s total population); indigenous beliefs, mostly Christian in the south and Khartoum.
Location: Bordered by the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya and Uganda
Area total: 2.5 million sq. km., the largest country in Africa.
Life expectancy: 58 years.
Resources: Petroleum, copper, zinc, tungsten, silver, gold, cotton, peanuts, millet, wheat, sugar cane, cassava, mangos, bananas, papaya, sweet potatoes, sesame, sheep.
Industries: Textiles, cement, sugar, shoes, pharmaceuticals, light-truck assembly.
Trading partners: China, Japan, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, India, Britain, Germany, Indonesia, Australia.
A coalition government is formed between the Umma and National Unionist Parties under Prime Minister Muhammad Ahmad Mahjoub. The government is unable to unite the country as it falls into factional fighting, economic stagnation and ethnic skirmishes.
May 25, 1969
A military coup is staged by Col. Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiry, who becomes the country’s new leader. He abolishes parliament and outlaws all political parties. He installs himself as president. Nimeiry briefly loses power in July 1971 to the Communist Party, but his rule is restored within days.
The Addis Ababa agreement ends the north-south civil war and establishes the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region.
President Nimeiry institutes traditional Islamic Shariah law. He also declares a state of emergency to make sure Shariah is applied widely. Emergency courts are established. Punishments ranging from amputations for theft to public lashings for alcohol possession become commonplace.
In the south, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), with a political wing, the SPLM, is formed under leader John Garang. Nimeiry’s actions spur the SPLA to restart the civil war.
Nimeiry announces the end of the state of emergency. He dismantles the emergency courts and institutes a new judiciary act that continues the practice of Shariah law.
Sadiq al-Mahdi was prime minister of Sudan from 1986 until a military coup in 1989. The current president, Omar al-Bashir, led the coup. (Reuters)
Senior military officers mount a coup and suspend the constitution. Gen. Abdel-Rahman Swar ad-Dahab becomes Sudan’s new leader.
Sudan holds its first free elections in 18 years. A new coalition government is led by Sadiq al-Mahdi of the Umma Party as prime minister. Over the next few years, the coalition dissolves and reforms several times, but always with the Umma Party in charge. The civil war continues.
The U.S. launches a cruise-missile strike against a pharmaceutical complex in Khartoum.
June 30, 1989
Gen. Omar al-Bashir announces he will lead a new 21-man cabinet in Khartoum on July 9, 1989. Al-Bashir had just become military ruler after leading a coup. (Aladin Abdel Naby/Reuters)Brig.-Gen. (later Lt.-Gen.) Omar al-Bashir leads military officers in a bloodless coup. The move is supported by the National Islamic Front party. The officers install a Revolutionary Command Council. Al-Bashir becomes president and chief of the armed forces. Fighting between the SPLA and government forces resumes in October.
The government announces a new penal code with harsh punishments, based on Shariah law.
In what’s known as the Bor massacre, conflicts between SPLA factions lead to the slaughter of at least 2,000 Dinka people in Bor, Southern Sudan.
Al-Bashir appoints all 300 members of a new transitional National Assembly.
After 10 years, the ongoing civil war has claimed 600,000 lives and displaced millions.
A Sudanese mother tries to feed her severely malnourished child at a feeding centre in Ayod on March 31, 1993. Thousands of Sudanese fled the civil war to Ayod. (Corinne Dufka/Reuters)
Two principal rival factions of the SPLA agree on a ceasefire.
The government announces a unilateral ceasefire. Then the main SPLA faction responds with its own ceasefire.
The SPLA unites with the opposition in the north, including the Umma Party, to create the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). The SPLA and partners start an insurgency in the eastern Sudan and northern Blue Nile areas.
The government signs a series of agreements with rebel factions, except the SPLA. Many rebel leaders become part of the government.
July 20, 2002
The government and the SPLM reach a historic agreement on the roles of the state and religion and the right of Southern Sudan to self-determination. It’s called the Machakos Protocol, after the town in Kenya where peace talks were held. Both sides sign an understanding for a cessation of hostilities. Discussions and further agreements continue through 2004.
Women sit under the shade of a large tree on a dry riverbed at a makeshift camp for displaced people near Seleah village in Sudan’s West Darfur province in 2004. At the time, the camp was home to thousands of Sudanese who fled their towns and villages. (Ben Curtis/Associated Press)Another rebellion starts up in the Darfur region in western Sudan. Residents are mostly black and accuse the government of ignoring the development of the region. Government installations are attacked. Soon, the Janjaweed militias, with air support from the Sudanese government, start attacking villages. Over the next eight years the Darfur conflict would claim 300,000 lives and drive 2.7 million people from their homes. For subsequent events in Darfur see CBC’s “The crisis in Darfur, a timeline.”
SPLA leader John Garang, right, flanked by deputy commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, answers a question during a press conference in Kenya’s capital, Nairobi, on Jan. 8, 2005. The next day, Garang signed the peace agreement that ended 21 years of civil war. Garang died in a helicopter crash in July 2005. Kiir Mayardit is now president of Southern Sudan.(Thomas Mukoya/Reuters)The government and southern rebels sign the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, providing for a degree of power-sharing between north and south; limited autonomy for the South for six years then a referendum on independence; equitable distribution of profits from oil fields in the south. More than two million people died in the war.
Rebel leader John Garang becomes first vice-president of Sudan but is killed in a helicopter crash three weeks later.
Oct. 22, 2005
Autonomous government formed in Southern Sudan under new SPLA leader Salva Kiir Mayardit.
Sudan is declared the world’s most vulnerable state on a ranking produced by Foreign Policy magazine and the Washington-based Fund for Peace think-tank.
Nuala Lawlor, the acting chargé d’affaires for Canada in Sudan, and her European Union counterpart are expelled from Sudan. No reason is given, though Sudan’s official news agency reported that government officials believed Lawlor had been meddling in Sudan’s internal affairs. One week later, Canada expels a Sudanese diplomat as a response to Lawlor’s expulsion.
Arab militias and southern Sudanese forces clash in the oil-rich Abyei region in the Spring. Al-Bashir and Salva Kiir agree to international arbitration.
Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir reacts during a meeting in Khartoum on April 20, 2010. The week before, al-Bashir won the first contested presidential election since 1986, after boycotts left little opposition. (Mohamed Nureldin/Reuters)The death toll from violence in Southern Sudan for 2009 reaches 2,000 and another 250,000 people are displaced, according to Doctors without Borders.
March 4, 2009
President al-Bashir is indicted on charges by the International Criminal Court in The Hague. The charges had been filed by the ICC prosecutor in July 2008, alleging he orchestrated the violence that has devastated Darfur and left hundreds of thousands dead. Al-Bashir becomes the first sitting head of state to be charged by the ICC.
July 22, 2009
The Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague rules on the disputed boundary of Abyei, giving an area with an oilfield and its pipeline infrastructure to the north. The governments of Sudan and Southern Sudan said they would respect the ruling.
Agreement reached on the terms for an independence referendum in Southern Sudan.
Al-Bashir wins Sudan’s first contested presidential election since 1986. The main opposition parties boycotted the vote. Kiir Mayardit is re-elected president in Southern Sudan.Voters in the Southern Sudan referendum marked their ballot with a thumbprint under one of two symbols. (Government of Southern Sudan)
Jan. 9-15, 2011
Voting takes place in the Southern Sudan independence referendum. The independent Southern Sudan Referendum Commission conducted the vote. Besides Sudan, ballots were cast in Canada (Calgary and Toronto), Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Australia, Britain and the United States.
A separate referendum in the oil-rich region of Abyei, which lies along the new border between the two Sudans, is postponed because of violence and instability in the region.
Jan. 30, 2011
A girl holds a Southern Sudan flag during the announcement of the preliminary results of the independence referendum on Jan. 30. Almost 99 per cent of voters in the south opted to split from the north. (Tim McKulka/UNMIS/Reuters)Southern Sudan’s referendum commission announces that 99 per cent of voters in the South opted to secedefrom the country’s North. In northern Sudan, 58 per cent of voters chose secession. In Canada, 97 per cent of Sudanese expatriates who voted chose that option.
February 9-10, 2011
One of the most serious battles between the SPLA and rebels claimed over 100 lives in Jonglei state. In this case, the fighting involved forces loyal to renegade SPLA commander George Athor. Following that battle, many civilians from the town of Phom el-Zeraf died when they fled into a river as Athor forces shot at them.
Then in April, SPLA soldiers fired indiscriminately on civilians in Jonglei during an attack on a rival ethnic group, killing or wounding hundreds, according to witness testimony in a confidential U.N. report.
June 5, 2011
Fighting erupts between government forces and an SPLA-aligned militia in the Nuba mountains of South Kordofan, which borders the South and is the North’s main oil-producing state.
Many of the states’ residents have long been sympathetic to the South. The 2005 peace agreement promised them “consultations,” which have not even been scheduled.
Sudanese military planes have bombed civilian areas. More than 70,000 Nuba have fled the region.
June 20, 2011
The governments of Sudan and Southern Sudan sign an agreement that calls for the withdrawal of Sudan troops from the disputed border region of Abyei. A UN-backed peacekeeping force from Ethiopia will be in Abyei until a referendum to decide which part of Sudan its residents will join.
Serious fighting had broken out in May, leading more than 140,000 people to flee the region.
July 9, 2011
The Republic of South Sudan declares independence, becoming the 54th state in Africa.
Six: Timeline to Catastrophe: Sudan’s Continuing Slide Toward War (From Eric Reeves Blog)
January 1, 1956: Sudan becomes independent of condominium rule by Great Britain and Egypt; it will be ruled for the next 55 years by three riverine Arab tribes (the Shaigiyya, Danagla, and Ja’alin).
1964: TheSudanese Muslim Brothers form a political party, the antecedent to the National Islamic Front.
1970: The Unregistered Land Act is passed in Khartoum: the Act provides a legal basis for large-scale land acquisitions, accelerating the encroachment of mechanized farming in traditional Nuba farmlands.
1972: The Nimeiri regime in Khartoum abrogates the Abyei referendum promised in the Addis Ababa Peace Agreement.
1970s: This is period in that sees the progressive annexation of Dinka Ngok lands by Misseriya Arabs.
Early 1980s: The Nuba people increasingly resist the aggressive Islamizing and Arabizing efforts of the regimes of Jaafer Nimeiri, Sadiq el-Mahdi, and finally the National Islamic Front (later renamed the National Congress Party, or NCP).
May 1985: Jafaar Nimeiri is overthrown.
June 30, 1989: The National Islamic Front seizes power in a military coup, deposing an elected government and deliberately aborting the most promising chance for a north/south peace since independence in 1956.
1990s: The National Islamic Front wages a genocidal campaign against the people of the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan; jihad is declared in January 1992, later confirmed by fatwas from pro-regime imams in Khartoum (April 1992).
1995: The first in-depth reports of the genocidal war in the Nuba Mountains are published; a secret airlift is organized by a small group of aid organizations.
1999: The oil pipeline from Heglig to Port Sudan is completed; the first 600,000 barrels of oil are exported in a shipment at the end of August.
2000: Brutal, final genocidal warfare continues in the oil regions of what was then Western Upper Nile.
November 2001: U.S. Special Envoy for Sudan, former Senator John Danforth, declares that the Nuba Mountains are “at the top” of the U.S. government agenda.
July 2002: The National Islamic Front/National Congress Party (NIF/NCP) regime and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) sign the Machakos Protocol, which guarantees South Sudan the right to a self-determination referendum and commits the parties to “addressing the root causes the conflict” in Sudan.
October 2002: The NIF/NCP regime and the SPLA/M sign a”Cessation of Offensive Hostilities Agreement.”
December 2002: The people of the Nuba mandate the SPLM to negotiate their “self-determination.”
January 2003: Despite mandating the SPLM to negotiate their future, there is deep foreboding among the Nuba.
April 2003: Khartoum’s counter-insurgency campaign in Darfur becomes genocidal following the successful Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) attack on el-Fasher air base; both regular military forces and Arab militia forces (theJanjaweed) attack non-Arab/African villages on a massive scale, displacing in the course of several years more than three million (internally as well as refugees in eastern Chad) and killing as many as 500,000 civilians.
May 2004: A protocol promising “popular consultations” for South Kordofan and Blue Nile states is signed by Khartoum and the SPLM.
May 2004: The Abyei Protocol is signed, guaranteeing the “residents” of Abyei a self-determination referendum; the Protocol stipulates the formation of an Abyei Boundaries Commission (ABC) to delineate Abyei’s borders.
January 9, 2005: TheKhartoum regime and the SPLM sign the “Comprehensive Peace Agreement” (CPA), including the protocols for Abyei, as well as South Kordofan and Blue Nile.
July 14, 2005: The ABC, comprising distinguished students of Sudan—chosen by both sides—submits its report to President Omar al-Bashir; it is never seriously considered by the NIF/NCP leadership.
May 2006: The “Darfur Peace Agreement” is signed in Abuja, Nigeria by the Khartoum regime and one rebel faction; the agreement is a disastrous failure, and leads to the fragmenting of the rebel movement; Khartoum fails to adhere meaningfully to any terms of the agreement.
2007: The international community fails to provide an effective security force for Darfur, instead relying on an unprecedented and hopelessly compromised UN/African “hybrid” mission. Since the day on which the force (UNAMID) took up its mandate (January 1, 2008), more than 1 million Darfuris have been newly displaced and insecurity has steadily eroded for humanitarian organizations.
May 2008: Abyei town is destroyed by Khartoum’s regular military and militia allies, with large numbers of casualties, and displacement of Dinka Ngok to Agok in South Sudan; personnel of the UN peacekeeping mission (UNMIS) do nothing to protect civilians as they are attacked.
July 2008: The AU Peace and Security Council calls for the formation of a “high-level panel” to examine the crisis in Darfur and formulate recommendations on accountability and reconciliation in the region. This panel is led by former South African President Thabo Mbeki; it accomplishes nothing.
November 2008: Khartoum begins heavily arming Arab militias in South Kordofan; the UNMIS commander in Kadugli (capital of South Kordofan), Karen Tchalian, is widely regarded as ineffective and strongly biased toward Khartoum.
March 4: Khartoum expels from Darfur thirteen of the world’s most distinguished humanitarian organizations, providing together approximately 50 percent of total capacity in Darfur. It is an unspeakably cruel action, justified on the preposterous pretext of “espionage.” Although many tie the expulsions to the International Criminal Court indictment of President al-Bashir for atrocity crimes, the fact is that Khartoum had long been looking for an occasion on which to expel these organizations.
July 22, 2009: The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) in The Hague issues its “final and binding” award on Abyei; the finding is favorable to Khartoum in several respects, significantly reducing the territory of Abyei and moving two highly productive oil sites—Heglig and Bamboo—to South Kordofan. The SPLM accepts the ruling; yet it will be only a matter of months before Khartoum claims that the PCA ruling did not settle the Abyei issue.
2010: Throughout 2010 there is increasing military activity in South Kordofan, including the heavy arming of militia forces. The Small Arms Survey in particular details much of this military build-up, beginning in 2008. Julie Flint notes “significant unexplained movements of tanks and troops in recent months,” and the ominous appointment of “Major General Ahmad Khamis as commander of the 14th Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) infantry division in Kadugli. Head of Military Intelligence in the region during the civil war, Khamis has been consistently named as being responsible for detentions, torture, and executions.”
August 2010: TheObama administration signals that Darfur will be “de-emphasized” in U.S. Sudan policy, at the insistence of special envoy Scott Gration. At the same time, Khartoum begins to promulgate its “New Strategy for Darfur,” a blatant attempt to create the pretext for eliminating an international humanitarian presence in Darfur. “Development,” the regime argues, will replace humanitarian services, despite a vast population still in desperate need of food, clean water, shelter, and primary medical care. Thabo Mbeki, chair of the African Union High-Level Panel on Implementation, and U.S. envoy Gration “strongly support” the “New Strategy.”
August 8: Following a navigational error by a Russian pilot, South Sudan impounds a Khartoum-bound cargo helicopter carrying military men loyal to renegade rebel leader George Athor. The helicopter carries abundant evidence of the regime’s material support for Athor and his forces. (Sudan Tribune)
September 16: Senior members of the National Islamic Front/National Congress Party in Khartoum officially ratify the “New Strategy for Darfur.”
October 25: Senator John Kerry, Chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee—and representing the Obama administration—declares of Abyei that “a few hundred square miles cannot be allowed to stand in the way of progress when the fate of millions of people is at stake.” Abyei, as defined by the PCA, is approximately 4,000 square miles, and of enormous historical significance, a fact that seems to escape Kerry entirely.
Kerry’s extraordinarily destructive diplomatic blunder will serve as background to claims about Abyei made by the Khartoum regime over the next year and more.
November 8: A U.S. State Department spokesman insists special envoy Scott Gration has offered no plan for Abyei, despite the specific proposal offered by Gration at Green Tree Estate (Long Island, New York) onSeptember 24 – 25. The proposal brought by Gration and his office is detailed by the International Crisis Group in a November 23, 2011 Briefing (“Negotiating Sudan’s North-SouthFuture,” page 4); this State Department denial is part of a growing pattern of disingenuousness.
November 8: The U.S. State Department officially announces that Darfur will be “de-coupled” as an issue in bilateral negotiations with Khartoum over the regime’s continuing presence on the State Department list of terrorism-sponsoring nations. Khartoum sees the decision as an abandonment of Darfur in the interest of securing the Southern self-determination referendum, scheduled for January 9, 2011. This assessment is reflected in the statements of a number of senior regime officials.
October – November: Misseriya militia are massing around Diffra (Abyei), according to Africa Confidential(November 19, 2010). This continues a pattern of increasing militia military force that the Small Arms Survey (Geneva) has been tracing in South Kordofan since 2008.
October – November: Senior U.S. officials urge South Sudan to “compromise further” on Abyei, despite the terms of the Abyei Protocol and the “final and binding” ruling of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Gration declares, “There’s no more time to waste …. The parties must be prepared to come to Addis [Ababa negotiations] with an attitude of compromise.” Secretary of State Hillary Clinton declares that “the parties must make the tough compromises necessary to settle the status of Abyei.” Ironically, by this time the U.S. has lost whatever control over negotiations it may have had. The AU’s Mbeki becomes the default mediator, and fails badly yet again. Africa Confidential (November 19, 2010) reports the view of Dinka Ngok civil society: “Mbeki was basically telling the Ngok that the Abyei Protocol and PCA boundaries must all be renegotiated because the Misseriya wouldn’t budge, [said one prominent member of Abyei civil society].”
Khartoum sees that the U.S. and AU are prepared to “de-couple” Abyei as well as Darfur; this guarantees that the Abyei self-determination referendum will not take place as scheduled, and prepares the way for the May 21military seizure of Abyei by the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and its Misseriya militia allies.
Of the October negotiations in Addis, Deng Alor (from Abyei and former foreign minister of the Government of South Sudan) recalls:
“Gration came last month [October 2011], I think in his attempt to arrive at any solution—not necessarily a just solution [to Abyei]. We were in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. That was the first time the issue of the division of the [Abyei] area into two came up. Gration was saying there would be not enough time now for us to set up a commission for Abyei. And maybe the best for us to do would be just to transfer the area back to the south, the way it was transferred to the north by the British, (who) used an administrative decree. [Gration] said President Bashir could use a presidential decree to do that.
“The National Congress said fine, you can do that, provided this area is divided into two—you give us the northern part. And I think he fell for that. When we came to the plenary and this issue was brought up [by the northern government], Gration immediately supported it. And this made the National Congress more difficult. They have become intransigent, because now they feel they have support from the United States.”
“We took it up with Gration and he insisted [on this approach]. He even tried to mobilize people for this, from the State Department and from the (Obama) administration. Senator (John) Kerry came, and he tried to convince us to accept the division of the area.” (from “The Road Back to Abyei,” Douglas Johnson, January 2011)
Various regional sources indicate that Gration’s pressure on the South to accede to a further division of Abyei was extreme, a counterproductive diplomatic effort incisively analyzed by Johnson in “The Road Back to Abyei.”
November 2010 – January 2011: Khartoum engages in a bombing campaign that targets various sites in South Sudan:
•November 11: fighter jets and Antonov bombers drop at least one bomb on Kiir Adem (Northern Bahr el Ghazal);
•November 12: aircraft return and bomb south of the River Kiir again, killing five civilians and wounding seven Southern troops; the attacks were confirmed by an AP reporter in Kiir Adem;
•November 24: military aircraft return and again target Kiir Adem, wounding four soldiers;
•December 6, 8, 10: military aircraft repeatedly attack Timsaha (Raja County), Western Bahr el Ghazal; the SPLA reports that the last attack included the dropping of eighteen bombs;
•December 13: UN investigators confirm the attacks in the Timsaha region of Western Bahr el Ghazal;
•January 10, 2011: Timsaha (Raja County) Western Bahr el Ghazal is bombed again, the day after the Southern self-determination referendum.
December 14: With less than a months to the scheduled self-determination referendum, the Southern leadership claims that Abyei is being held hostage.
December 16: The head of UN peacekeeping warns that resumed war in Sudan could displace 2.8 million civilians. (Bloomberg)
December 16: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights warns that Khartoum is “blocking aid workers from entering the country ahead of next month’s referendum on independence for the south.” Almost 1,000 aid workers are affected. Given the denial of humanitarian access that will begin in a matter of months, it is difficult not to see in this decision by Khartoum the first outlines of the future campaigns in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. (AP)
December 18: Shul Angok, press secretary for the Abyei administration, warns that the SAF “was continuing to increase its military presence in South Kordofan,” in areas from which the assault on Abyei will later be launched. (Sudan Tribune)
December 19: In speaking approvingly of the flogging of a woman charged with adultery, President al-Bashir finds it apropos to declare: “there would be no question of diversity when a knew constitution was drafted, if the South became independent.” In speaking of the widely publicized flogging of a Southern woman, al-Bashir declares Islamic “shari’a has always stipulated that one must whip, cut, or kill.” (BBC) (Reuters)
December 29: Senior NIF/NCP official Nafi’e Ali Nafi’e accuses the UN missions in Sudan of “being the main actor in sustaining internal conflicts,” and asserts that they play “the greatest role in fomenting conflicts in the country.” (Sudan Tribune)
2011: Thenorthern Sudanese economy begins to tailspin, a process that continues to the present; the IMF projects negative real GDP growth for the northern economy: (-) 0.2% in 2011 and (-) 0.4% in 2012. The economy is burdened by the loss of oil revenue, lack of foreign currency reserves, inflation hovering at 20 percent, an immense (and unserviceable) external debt of $38 billion, and growing unhappiness among workers, as sugar and petrol subsidies are removed.
2011: Khartoum increases its arming and proxy use of Southern renegade militia forces. The clear purpose is to weaken South Sudan, and to tie down SPLA troops and resources. Civilian destruction is the primary ambition of the renegade militias, particularly those of George Athor and Peter Gadet (the latter leads the “South Sudan Liberation Movement” [SSLA] for much of 2011). The Small Arms Survey, inspecting weapons captured from these two militia groups, finds strong evidence that they have been provided by Khartoum. Details include the nature of the weapons, their distinctiveness, and even sequential serial numbers in some cases. They are predominantly of very recent Chinese manufacture, although some Iranian weapons have also been found. The first months of 2011 will see tremendous civilian destruction as a result of Athor’s military actions (see a series of reports from the Small Arms Survey).
Authoritative regional sources report that the SSLA is laying anti-tank mines (Chinese T-72 AT-mines) in large numbers in oil-rich Unity State. These indiscriminate weapons also come from Khartoum. Their primary effect is to greatly restrict the movement of humanitarian personnel and civilians.
January 6: According to Business Day (South Africa), Thabo Mbeki “has paid a glowing tribute to Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir ahead of the country’s secession referendum on Sunday. Mr Mbeki said at a function at the University of Khartoum yesterday Mr al-Bashir—who was indicted in the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes in Darfur in 2009—had accepted the secession referendum in a graceful, generous and humane manner.” It is difficult to imagine a more obscene ignorance or disingenuous self-congratulation (Mbeki will later lash out at those who remain concerned about the prospects for peace in Sudan).
First week of January: Threats of a violent takeover of Abyei are announced in rallies in Muglad.
January 7 – 9: Repeated and well-coordinated attacks on the Abyei village of Maker (15 kilometers northwest of Abyei town) kill dozens and wound many more (Small Arms Survey, April 27, 2011).
January 8: The first of the rebel groups of the former Eastern Front merges with the Justice and Equality Movement of Darfur; eastern Sudan becomes increasingly explosive throughout the year.
January 9: The Southern self-determination referendum is held, peacefully and joyfully, as some 99 per cent of Southerners vote for independence.
January 13: The regime-controlled Parliament in Khartoum passes a law cancelling the Sudanese nationality of Southerners in the north; this response to the vote for Southern independence is enormously consequential for the 700,000 Southerners the UN claims remain in the north (Khartoum’s figure is 150,000, a telling discrepancy, revealing an ominous goal rather than a census count).
January 13: In the wake of the January 7 – 9 attacks on Maker, the first Kadugli Agreement is signed by leaders of the Misseriya and Dinka Ngok communities; it focuses on grazing rights and compensation for the killing of Ngok civilians in 2010. The agreement will fail completely.
January 14: In Khartoum U.S. special envoy Scott Gration—now despised by all parties to the conflicts except Khartoum, as well as by humanitarian personnel and Sudan advocates—promises the NIF/NCP leadership that the U.S. will remove Sudan from the list of terrorism-sponsoring nations by the end of the Interim Period (July 9, 2011) if “everything goes smoothly.” At this point, violence has already accelerated in Abyei, and the region has not held the self-determination referendum promised by the CPA. Evidently because the SPLM has not “compromised” further on Abyei, the issue has been “de-coupled” in U.S. policy as defined by Gration.
January 17: The second Kadugli Agreement is signed, and focuses on migratory routes, Southerners returning to Abyei, and security arrangements. It, too, will fail completely. (For an authoritative account of both agreements, see Small Arms Survey, April 2011)
January 30: The UN reports eight attacks by Arab militia forces on Southerners returning to the South in the three weeks since the self-determination referendum; the attacks occur north of Abyei, and many others will occur subsequently—most unreported. (AP)
Late January: SPLA and SAF “Joint Integrated Units” are deployed to Abyei per the Kadugli agreement on security.
February: Khartoum accelerates economic warfare against the South following the vote for independence, blocking many North/South trading routes. These tactics will escalate throughout the year, culminating in theNovember 2011 announcement that the regime will sequester a portion of oil produced in the South until exorbitant transit fees are paid. By June 13 IRIN is reporting serious food shortages as a result of this closure of trading routes.
February 15: The NIF/NCP regime declares that there will be no extension of the UN peacekeeping force (UNMIS) in north Sudan, including South Kordofan, where military activities and deployments are rapidly escalating.
February 17: In a pattern of violence that will stalk Jonglei state for all of 2011, AFP reports massive civilian destruction and displacement:
“Over 20,000 people fled clashes last week between rebels and the army in south Sudan’s troubled Jonglei state in which over 200 people died, a senior official said on Thursday. ‘People have run from the fighting, and 20,000 people have been displaced,’ said Stephen Kuol, Jonglei’s state education minister, releasing the findings of an assessment mission to the devastated Fangak region in which he took part.”
“The figures could not be independently verified, and the report of a United Nations team that visited the site of the clashes has not yet been released.
Many of the victims—the majority of them civilians—reportedly drowned in a river as they tried to escape the two days of fighting. Kuol, who comes from the area and who helped to bury some of the victims in mass graves, said he witnessed ‘floating corpses’ following the violence last week, which he described as ‘mass butchery.’ Followers of the renegade southern general George Athor are accused of carrying out the attacks, which broke a ceasefire many had hoped would end the conflict.”
To be sure, the problems of insecurity in South Sudan, and lingering ethnic animosities, are complex and difficult issues confronting the new Government of South Sudan. And there is much to criticize in government performance to date. But the role of renegade militia forces such as that of George Athor, robustly supported by Khartoum to engage in precisely this sort of civilian destruction, must not be underestimated.
March 21 – 22: Four separate bombings attacks are reported in Raja County, Western Bahr el Ghazal (at Raja, Firka, Timsaha, and Upuranus) ….
For the complete timeline through December 30, 2011, in two parts because of length, see:
The Worlds soon to be 196th Country gets independence on July 9th. Just wanted to share with you just a few snippets about the events leading to South Sudan’s independence;
– 1983: Sudanese president Gaafar al-Nimeiry rescinds a 1972 agreement under which southern Sudan enjoyed internal autonomy. This implies the introduction of Islamic sharia law in the region, rekindles an independence movement led by John Garang and his Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA).
– 1989: Omar al-Bashir ousts Nimeiry in a coup. He remains in power todate.
– January 2005: North and South sign a US-brokered ceasefire agreement providing for a period of autonomy for the South followed by a referendum on full independence in 2011. The region around the town of Abyei, which has oil and is claimed by both south and north, is given a special status.
– July 2005: Garang is killed in a helicopter crash. He is replaced as southern leader by Salva Kiir.
– 2008: Fighting in Abyei between troops from Southern Sudan and those of the central government in Khartoum.
– 2009: An international arbitration court in The Hague sets new borders for the region around Abyei, attributing its main oil fields to the north.
– April 2010: Sudan holds its first multi-party elections since 1986. Kiir becomes the south’s first elected president.
– October 2010: Talks between north and south fail to produce an agreement on the future status of Abyei.
– January 2011: South Sudan holds its independence referendum, with almost 99 percent voting in favor. Plans are laid for the region to split from Khartoum and become fully independent on July 9.
– April 2011: Bashir says he will not recognize the south’s independence if it insists on claims over Abyei.
– May 21: Northern Sudanese troops backed by tanks seize Abyei town and its environs.
– June 5: Clashes between northern and southern troops in the province of South Kordofan, which borders the south and is the only major oil-producing region attributed to the north.
– June 12: North-south talks sponsored by the African Union open in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. The two sides agree in principle to demilitarize Abyei.
– June 15: New clashes erupt in Abyei.
Eight: Sudan: A Historical Perspective (from the Sudan.net)
Man has lived in the Sudan for at least nine million years and the valley of the Nile which wanders more than 4,000 miles from the lakes of Central Africa to the Mediterranean may well he the cradle of civilisation rather than the Euphrates. About four centuries before Christ the Ox-driven water wheel which still plays a vital role in the country’s economy, was introduced to the Sudan. At the same time came camels, brought with them by the Persians when Cambyses invaded Egypt in 525 BC.
Homer knew of the Sudan and his countrymen visited it, to barter cloth, wine and trinkets for gum arabic, spices and slaves. Nero sent a reconnaissance expedition far up the river but the commander’s experience with the “sudd” (Arabic for obstruction), a vast and impenetrable papyrus swamp in the southern Sudan, dissuaded the emperor from any thought of conquest. During the reign of Justinian, many Sudanese kingdoms were converted to Christianity and churches dotted the sweep of the Nile until the spread of Islam in the XVIth century.
Modern Sudanese history owes much to Napoleon. It was the victory in 1797, at the battle of the Pyramids which shook the power of the Mamelukes, the Caucasian ruling class of Egypt, and paved the way for the rise to power of the Albenian soldier of fortune Muhammad Mi.
Muhammad Mi sent his third son Ismail at the head of 10,000 men across the desert and, by 1821, all of north and central Sudan was his. For the first time, the Sudan- the name means “Land of Blacks” – began to take shape as a political entity.
Salvation was to come from the desert. Muhammad Ahmad, the son of a Dongola boat-builder, was born in 1844. He grew into a soft-spoken mystic and soon retired to Aba Island, 150 miles south of Khartoum, to live the life of a religious recluse, proclaiming himself in 1881 to be the Mahdi, the second great prophet. The tribes of the west rallied to the Mahdi’s call for a war against the infidels and despots and, early in 1884, the Mahdi was master of all Sudan save Khartoum.
Britain, who meanwhile had moved into Egypt, resolved that the Sudan could not be held, and sent General Charles Gordon to evacuate Khartoum. No man could have been more ill-fitted for the job, and after 317 days the Mahdi’s dervish hordes overran the city’s defences and razed Khartoum.
Five months after the fall of Khartoum, the Mahdi died of typhus; he was succeeded by Khalifa Abdallah. Hardly had he come to power when the Sudan was plunged in a series of civil wars. In September 1898 the Anglo-Egyptian force led by General Herbert Kitchener met the Khalifa’s 60,000 warriors on an open plain outside Omdurman, the new Sudanese city built across the Nile. Khalifa’s casualties comprised 10,800 killed and 16.000 wounded, and Kitchener entered Omdurman as a conqueror.
On January 19, 1899 Britain and Egypt signed a condominium agreement under which the Sudan was to be administered jointly. In the twelve ensuing years, the Sudan’s revenue had increased seventeen fold, its expenditure tripled, and its budget reached a balanced state which was to be maintained until 1960. Mounting Egyptian nationalism in the period after World War I culminated in 1924 in the assassination in the streets of Cairo of Sir Lee Stack, Governor – General of the Sudan; British reaction resulted in the expulsion of all Egyptian officials from the Sudan.
After the Anglo-Egyptian “entente” of 1936. a few Egyptians were allowed to return to the country in minor posts. But the signing of the 1936 agreement stimulated Sudanese nationalists who objected both to the return of the Egyptians and to the fact that other nations were deciding their destiny. Expression of this feeling was seen in the formation of the Graduates’ Congress, under the leadership of Ismail al-Azhari.
By 1945, two political parties had emerged. The National Unionist Party led by al-Azhari, demanded union of the Sudan and Egypt; it had the support of Sayed Sir Ali al- Mirghani, head of a powerful religious sect. The Umma Party, backed by Sayed Sir Abdur-Rahman al-Mahdi demanded unqualified independence and no links with Egypt.
END OF CONDOMINIUM
On February 12, 1953, Britain and Egypt signed an accord ending the condominium arrangement and agreeing to grant Sudan self government within three years. The agreement also provided for a senate for the Sudan, a Council of Ministers, and a House of Representatives, elections to which was to be supervised by an international commission.
The elections, which were held during November and December 1953, resulted in victory for the NUP, and its leader, Ismail al-Aihari, became the Sudan’s first Prime Minister in January 1954. The replacement of British and Egyptian officers in the Sudanese civil service by Sudanese nationals followed rapidly.
On December 19, 1955, the Parliament voted unanimously that the Sudan should become “a fully independent sovereign state”. British and Egyptian troops left the country on January 1, 1956; the same day a five-man Council of State was appointed to take over the powers of the governor general until a new constitution was agreed.
Two years, later, on 17 November 1958 a bloodless army coup led by General Ibrahim Abboud toppled the Government of al-Azhari. On his assuming power, General Abboud declared that he would rule through a thirteen member army junta and that democracy was being suspended in the Sudan in the name of “honesty and integrity”.
TROUBLE IN THE SOUTH
In 1966, Sadik al-Mahdi, the 30 year old president of the Umma party, took over as Prime Minister. Internally the security situation in the southern Sudan continued to cause anxiety; successive Prime Ministers visited the South in April and October but neither threats nor blandishments succeeded in curbing the rebels.
The Ministry for Southern Affairs sought to restore normal life to those parts of the southern provinces under government control, but there was little or no security in Equatoria Province and the armed forces launched a major offensive against the rebel camps there in October 1970.
The war ended officially in March 1972, when Colonel Numeiry signed a peace pact with Major-General Lagu, the Leader of the Anya-Nya rebels in the south.
In July 1976, President Numeiry survived the most serious threat so far to his eight-year-old regime. A coup attempt, masterminded by former finance minister Hussein alHindi and former prime minister Sadik al-Mahdi, both in exile, involved the infiltration of some 2,000 heavily armed civilians into Khartoum and Omdurman. The rebels caused much destruction, including the immobilizing of Sudan’s Air Force on the ground.
Retribution was quick and severe, 98 were executed for their part in the plot, and several hundred were imprisoned. The July coup attempt brought Sudan closer to its two most powerful neighbors. A mutual defence pact was signed with Egypt immediately after the attempt, and this was followed by tripartite talks with Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
INDUSTRIAL UNREST (1981)
Industrial unrest in Sudan in 1981 included a national strike by the country’s 43,000 railway and river transport workers in early June in support of a pay claim. After the SSU secretariat had on June 14 condemned the strike as politically motivated and as a “conspiracy directed from abroad”. On June 16, President Numeiry ordered the security forces to arrest the “saboteurs” responsible for the strike and decreed new measures to ban work stoppages and to bring all trade unions under the closer “supervision” of the SSU (Sudan Socialist Union).
Since 1971 Sudan has moved from close friendship with the USSR towards firmer lies with the West and the Arab world. This new direction in external relations has been matched by a change in internal economic policy. Nationalization of private and foreign-owned businesses was reversed in 1973 with many confiscated businesses being returned to private ownership.
INTRODUCTION OF ISLAMIC LAW
President Jaafer Mohammed al-Numeiry announced on Sept.8, 1983 that the penal code had been revised in order to link it “organically and spiritually” with Islamic Law (Sharia). Theft, adultery, murder and related offences would hence forth be judged according to the Koran, and alcohol and gambling were both prohibited; non-Moslems, however, would be exempt from Koranic penalties except when convicted of murder or theft.
The inauguration of the new code was marked by a ceremony in the capital, Khartoum, on Sept.23, presided over by President Numeiry, in which stocks of alcohol were dumped in the river Nile. The introduction of the new code followed a thorough reform of the judicial system announced by President Numeiry in June 1983.
Schools in Khartoum were closed on Aug.28 1983 following student protests concerning social conditions in the capital, which had suffered a series of power cuts throughout August. A strike by doctors began on March 1, 1984, in protest over low pay and the deteriorating situation in the health service. All 2,000 of the country’s doctors tendered their resignation on March 8 to be effective from March24. The government rejected the resignations, however, and declared the doctors’ union to be illegal. The union was subsequently reinstated.
TIME OF CHANGE
when a rising tide of refugees briefly provoked rioting in the city of Port Sudan in 1982, Sudanese President Gaafar Numeiry came under mounting pressure from some members of his government to close his nation’s borders. Numeiry would have none of it. During a climatic Cabinet debate on the issue, he dramatically invoked the ancient Arab tradition of hospitality toward strangers. They are the guests of Sudan”, he said.
By February 1985 there were about 1 million refugees in the country, and their number could swell beyond 2 million, in 1986, according to relief officials. A spokesman for the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees has described the situation as rapidly becoming “a disaster of major proportions”.
By March 1985, some 500 metric tons of relief goods have been airlifted into Eastern Sudan on flights financed or provided by the United States of America, Sweden and by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Items delivered include 20,000 tents, 83,000 blankets, 19,000 water containers, 7 water tanks, 6 water storage tanks (50,000 litre capacity), 61,000 doses of oral rehydration salts, disinfectants, 10 emergency relief kits (to cover the needs of 100,000 persons for three months), refrigerators for medicines, 100,000 doses of measles vaccine 3 500 drums of fuel, 65 tons of high protein energy foods, 3 pre-fabricated warehouses and 10 additional vehicles. Further items have been made available in kind, particularly by agencies currently working in Sudan.
On the basis of the present caseload estimates, the United Nations high Commissioner for Refugees’s financial requirements (other than basic food) for the relief program amounted as of 11 January 1985 to US$ 14,526,000.
One of President Numeiry’s trickiest political problems has been the arrival among the refugees of Ethiopian Jews, called Falashas (the Amharic word for strangers). The remnants of an ancient tribe that has kept alive Jewish religious practices, these Ethiopians became the object of a secret evacuation by Israel, code-named Operation Moses. According to various estimates, between 3,000 and 7,000 of them reached Israel before word of the rescue operation leaked out. Numeiry, whose government is a member of the Arab League and has no diplomatic relations with Israel, was embarrassed by the spotlight on Sudan co-operation in the re-settlement and ordered the airlift cut off. That left several thousand Falashas still in Sudan, many with relatives in Israel.
Numeiry quickly came under intense pressure from Western governments to find a way to help the Falashas on humanitarian grounds. In February 1985 a senior Sudanese official got in touch with the refugee commission in Geneva to discuss its possible role in evacuating the Falashas. One major setback to the program is the fact that the Falasha refugees in Sudan have blended into the anonymity of the camps and are sharing in the tragic fate of its occupants.
Once regarded as the potential bread basket of the Arab world, Sudan has in four years gone from being an exporter to an importer of its sorghum, a grain like staple crop. Through a combination of bad weather and overgrazing of arable land production fell from 3.4 million tons in 1981 to 1.3 million tons in 1984. The result has been bread shortages throughout the country, even in the capital of Khartoum.
In the troubled southern Sudan, an almost two-year old guerrilla war waged by the members of the Southern Sudan People’s liberation Army has spread from the Upper Nile and Bahr El Ghazal regions to Equatoria. The rebels, who are mostly Christians and animists, have chafed under domination for years and especially object to the Islamic law imposed by Numeiry in 1983.
Their major victory has so far been to interrupt, by killing, or by capturing non-Sudanese workers, two major economic projects: oil fields under exploration by Chevron Oil Co., and the Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan.
Washington has kept a scrupulously correct distance from any involvement in the insurgency problem. This is despite the fact that it views the Sudan as a strategically important nation, both as protector of the southern flank of Egypt its primary Arab ally, and as a possible staging ground for any military operations mounted to protect the Middle East’s oil fields.
In early 1985 discontent with Numeiry’s regime had been growing and in April while in visit to the USA, he was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. Gen. Swar Al Dahab, who after a period, passed the reigns of government to civilian rule, headed by Sadiq Al Mahdi. Again in 1988 and early 1989 following farther discontent in the country and within the military, another bloodless coup d’etat took place on June 30, 1989 led by Brig. Omar Hassan ‘Ahmed El Bashir who formed a 15 member Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation. Head of State, Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, he quickly dismantled civilian rule, constitution was suspended, and the National Assembly and all political institutions were dissolved. In mid October 1993 Brig. Omar Hassan Ahmed El Bashir dissolved the Revolutionary Command Council; and on October 30 announced the formation of a new government. Further changes took place until the last reshuffle in the Cabinet in December 1996.
SUDAN HISTORICAL TIMELINE
A time line overview of big and small events in the history of Sudan.
Please note: the current situation in Sudan is EXTREMELY complicated and this outline of the historic background can not give the full image. The page is only an attempt of a general overview and still under construction!
MODERN TIME SUDAN
1820: Sudan is conquered by Turkey and Egypt.
1881: Rebellion against the Turkish-Egyptian administration.
1882: The British invade Sudan.
1885: An Islamic state is founded in Sudan.
1899: Sudan is governed by British-Egyptian rule.
1955: Revolt and start of the civil war.
1956: Sudan gains independence.
1958: A military coup takes place in Sudan. The civilian government is removed.
1962: The civil war breaks out in the southern (mainly Christian/African) parts of Sudan.
October 1964: People of Sudan rebels. The military junta falls after a communist general strike. A national government is formed.
May 1969: New military coup placing Jaafar Numeiri at power.
1971: Leaders of the communist party are executed for attempting a coup against Numeiri.
1972: A peace agreement is signed in Addis Ababa. The southern Sudan achieves partly self-governance.
INGREDIENTS FOR WAR: OIL AND SHARIA
1978: Large findings of oil are made in Bentiu, southern Sudan. The oil becomes an important factor in the strife between North and South.
1983: Numieri introduces the Islamic Sharia law to Sudan leading to a new breakout of the civil war in the Christian south. In the south the forces are led by the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) under command by John Garang.
1985: President Numieri is removed from power in a military coup.
1986: A civilian government is made in an effort to restore peace after general elections.
1989: Al-Bashir and his Islamic Front (NIC) takes power in a military coup.
1995: The Sudanese government are accused of being part of an attempt on the life of Egyptian prime minister Mubarak. UN decides on sanctions against Sudan.
US ATTACK ON SUDAN
1998: USA launches a missile attack on a chemical plant in Khartoum assumed to develop chemical weapons possibly in coorporation with the Al’Qaeeda terror network. Civilians are killed in the attack. The Sudanese government denies any link to terror and chemical weapons.
1998: A new constitution in Sudan.
1999: The president dissolves the national assembly and declares state of emergency.
1999: Sudan start an export of oil assisted by China, Canada, Sweden and other countries.
2001: An internal struggle in thegovernment, leads to the arrest of an ideological leader who were making peace attempts with the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)
March 2001: Hunger and famine in Sudan affects 3 million people.
May 2001: A Danish pilot flying for the International Red Cross is attacked and killed when delivering aid in southern Sudan. All flights in the area are temporarily stopped.
June 2001: Peace negotiations breaks down in Nairobi, Kenya.
August 2001: The Nile river floods leaving thousands homeless in Sudan.
September 2001: the UN lifts on sanctions against Sudan to support ongoing peace negotiations.
October 2001: Following the New York terror attacks, USA puts new sanctions on Sudan due to accusations of Sudan’s involvment with iInternational terrorism.
During 2001: More than 14,550 slaves are freed after pressure from human rights groups.
NEW HOPE FOR PEACE?
January 2002: A ceasefire between government forces and the SPLM are finally agreed upon.
July 20th 2002: the government and SPLA signs a protocol to end the civil war.
July 27th 2002: President al-Bashir meets for the first time with SPLA leader John Garang. Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni has arranged the meeting. The war in Sudan is also having huge impact on the northen Uganda.
July 31st 2002: Government attacks SPLA again.
October 2002: The ceasefire is confirmed again, but remains very uncertain. Pecae negations still continues during the next years.
February 2003: The 2 rebelgroups representing the African population in Darfur starts a rebellion against the government as protest against neglection and suppression.
December 2003: Progress is made in the peace negotiations. The negotiations are mainly focused on sharing the important oil-ressources.
UPRISING IN DARFUR
January 2004: Government army strikes down on uprising in Darfur region in the Western Sudan. More than 100,000 people seeks refuge in Chad.
May 26th 2004: A historic peace agreement is signed, but the situation in Darfur remains unchanged and extremely critical.
January 9th 2005 : In Nairobi the government and rebels signs the last parts of the peace treaty for Southern Sudan. All fighting in Africa’s longest civil war is expected to end in January 2005, but the peace agreement still doesn’t cover the Darfur region. More than 1.5 million people lost their homes since the conflict in Darfur broke out early 2003.
March 15th 2005: United Nations Security Council agrees to send 10,000 peace keeping soldiers to Southern Sudan. Again the descision does not cover the Darfur region.
Nine: History of South-North Sudan: Chronology (from the Sudan-Update)
Middle Ages: Christian kingdoms along the Nile coexist with Muslim neighbours.
End of Middle Ages: Collapse of Christian kingdoms; rise of Funj Sultanate
17th century: emergence of Sultanate of Darfur.
1821: Turco-Egyptian conquest of Sudan “unifies” small independent Sudanese
1840: Captain Salim Bey occupies areas along the Nile to Gondokoro, near Juba.
Bahr al-Ghazal is invaded and occupied by other Turco-Egyptian officials.
1881: Start of Mahdist uprising against the government.
1883: Mohamed Ahmed “al-Mahdi” captures Al-Obeid.
1885: Mahdist forces capture Khartoum after a long seige; British General C.G
Gordon is killed.
1885: Al-Mahdi dies; the Khalifa Abdullahi takes over.
1892: Belgians from Congo/Zaire capture Western Equatoria up to Mongalla – the
“Lado enclave” is made part of the Belgian Congo. French forces under Major
Marchand occupy parts of Bahr al-Ghazal and Western Upper Nile to Fashoda
settlement on the river; by 1896 the French had an administration in these
1896: Belgians agree to release the Lado enclave to British control when King
Leopold of Belgium dies.
1897: French forces from Djibouti set off across Ethiopia aiming –
unsuccessfully – to link up with the Fashoda expedition and annex Southern
Sudan to French West Africa. The “Fashoda incident” results from Marchand’s
encounter with British forces.
1898: Anglo-Egyptian forces led by General Kitchener overthrow the Mahdist
state in the battle of Omdurman. The two countries begin to establish
1899: Condominium Agreement signed. French agree to withdraw.
1908: Wad Haboba uprising in the Gezira.
1910: Belgium’s King Leopold dies; the Lado enclave is added to British-held
1916: Reconquest of Darfur.
1900-1920s: “Pacification” of the country, characterized in the south and Nuba
mountains especially by periods of extreme violence.
1920s: Sayyid Abdel Rahman al-Mahdi, head of Ansar sect and Sayyid Ali
al-Mirghani, head of Khatmiyya sect, are encouraged by the British to
reconstitute their movements into political organizations along quasi-secular
The British concentrate on development in the North, building railways and a
modern civil service. The West and South are maintained under “native
administration” using chiefs and sheikhs identified or created by the colonial
government, with little investment for social or economic development.
Education, using English in the South rather than Arabic as the lingua franca,
is minimal. After “pacification”, Southern Policy brings the Closed District
Ordinance to the South and the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile. Some
governors want to incorporate the South with Uganda: Southern region governors
attend administrative conferences in East Africa, not Khartoum.
1922: Passports and Permits Ordinance controls travel between North and South.
1924: The “White Flag” military uprising – ejection of Egyptian forces from
Sudan. Assassination of Sir Lee Stack.
1925: Permits to Trade Order limits Arab trading in the South.
1928: Language policy for the South establishes English as the lingua franca
and encourages local languages at the expense of Arabic.
1930s-1940s: Nationalist politics develop rapidly in the North.
1937: Establishment of the Graduates’ Congress.
1947: Juba Conference organized by colonial government – Southern chiefs agree
with northern nationalists to pursue a united Sudan. A crash programme of
integration follows, as Southern Policy is abandoned.
1953: The 800 administrative posts vacated by the British are “Sudanized” as
“self-rule” is introduced, with a Westminster-style parliament. A provisional
constitution is introduced, and Ismail al-Azhari is made Prime Minister.
Northern politicians allocate four posts to Southerners, reflecting both racial
prejudice and the inadequacy of Southern education. In the south,
‘Sudanization’ is regarded as ‘Northernization’. Southerners are not
represented at the Cairo Conference on self-rule, on the grounds that they have
‘no party or organisation’.
1955: In Equatoria, the Torit mutiny of southern soldiers refusing transfer to
the north marks the beginning of the first civil war, lasting 17 years.
Massacres of northern administrators, teachers and traders in the south follow
1956: Independence on 1 January follows growing political pressure and British
exhaustion. Ismail al-Azhari becomes Prime Minister of the first national
government, formed by the conservative Unionist and Umma parties.
1958: Military takeover headed by General Abboud is precipitated by economic
crisis and growing parliamentary division. Abboud dissolves the political
parties and institutes a state of emergency.
1962: Missionaries Act expels Christian missions from the South.h7
1963: The Anya-Nya movement for southern secession is formed.
1964: The Abboud regime steps up military action in the south, forcing
thousands of southerners to seek asylum in neighbouring countries.
October 1964: A general strike and popular uprising brings down the military
regime. Civilian rule is restored by an alliance of trade unionists, students
and other “modern” forces. Transitional government headed by Sirr al-Khatim
March 1965: Most parties from north and south attend Round Table Conference on
the “Southern Problem” organised by Professor Mohamed Omar Bashir, later
founder of Sudan Human Rights Organisation. Southern parties split over
1965: Parliamentary elections are held; government formed under Mohamed Ahmed
Mahjoub, an independent turned Umma Prime Minister.
December 1965: Hassan al-Turabi’s Islamic Charter Front forces expulsion of
Sudan Communist Party from Parliament, assisted by Umma’s Mohamed Ibrahim
Khalil. Chief Justice resigns.
1966-67: Aged 30, Sadiq al-Mahdi is elected as MP, becomes Prime Minister
(from 26 July 1966 to 15 May 1967) after an acrimonious challenge to Umma
1967: Sudan sides with the Arab world and declares war on Israel; it breaks
relations with the United States and looks to the Soviet Union for assistance.
1967-present: Period of consistently lower rainfall than previous long-term
1968: Mechanized Farming Corporation established to channel international
loans (World Bank et al) into expansion of rainfed agriculture in southern
Kordofan, White Nile and Upper Nile.
1968: Parliamentary elections follow a period of divisions within Umma and
May 1969: A group of officers led by Colonel Jaafar Mohamed Nimeiri takes
power in a military coup with leftist and Communist support.
1970: Joseph Lagu becomes sole leader of the Anya-Nya.
March 1970: After threats from religious right-wing leaders, Nimeiri
retaliates. In Wad Nubawi, Omdurman, 35-40 rebellious officers and 300-400
civilians are killed.
March 1970: Thousands of Ansar loyal to the Mahdi family are massacred when
the air force, with Egyptian assistance, bombs their stronghold at Aba Island.
Imam al-Hadi al-Mahdi is killed trying to flee to the Ethiopian border.
November 1970: Nimeiri begins to rid his government of left-wingers and
July 1971: After a shortlived coup by Hashim al-Ata and officers allied to the
Sudan Communist Party, Nimeiri is returned to power. He purges the leftists
from the army and government and accuses the Eastern (Soviet) bloc of
complicity, eventually severing relations. Nine army officers are executed; 38
others die in mysterious circumstances.
1972: Relations with the US and the West are opened, and an “open door” policy
is adopted towards the “free market”.
March 1972: Addis Ababa Agreement ends 17 years of civil war. Signed by
Nimeiri and Joseph Lagu following talks between Khartoum and the South Sudan
Liberation Movement, it is based on regional autonomy for the South and the
ending of discrimination on the basis of religion, sex or ethnic background.
1972-75: Severe drought fails to create widespread famine: the population is
still buffered by agricultural production primarily for local needs.
April 1973: Sudan adopts a “permanent constitution” as a one-party state under
Nimeiri’s Sudan Socialist Union. The judiciary is made answerable to the
president, who also commands the armed forces. The State Security Act is
adopted, which creates numerous political offences and gives the security
services broad powers of search and arrest.
1973: Large-scale Sudanese emigration to the oil-rich Arab states begins.
August 1973: Widespread unrest led by students and backed by Muslim
Brotherhood. An unknown number killed.
1974: Riots in Juba follow rumours that Egyptian farmers will be settled in
the area drained by the prospective Jonglei canal.
1975: Sudan hailed as potential “breadbasket of the Arab world”; large-scale
mechanized agriculture is expanded into southern Kordofan.
September 1975: Failed military coup attempt by Lt-Col Hassan Hussein, linked
to Muslim Brotherhood and Umma/Ansar families in Kordofan. Dozens of rebel
1976: Major failed coup attempt by Brigadier Mohamed Nur Saad, using elements
of army with exiles trained in Ethiopia and Libya; Ansar-led with Muslim
Brotherhood and DUP. 1-2,000 killed in fighting; 100+ executed. Unexplained
disappearance of 800 others after special trials under Vice-President AbulQasim
1976: Sadiq al-Mahdi tried in absentia, sentenced to death.
1977: International debt repayments become due.
1977: Nimeiri embarks on “national reconciliation” with elements of the Umma,
DUP and Muslim Brothers.
1978: A joint Sudanese-Egyptian project is launched to construct a canal
through the Sudd marshes of the South, employing the French CCI company. Oil
is discovered near Bentiu, Upper Nile, Southern Sudan, and Chevron company
announces discovery of oil in Kordofan.
1978: Faisal Islamic Bank opens in Sudan, the first Islamic banking operation
in the country.
1978: Despite export-oriented mechanized agricultural policies, economic
crisis comes to a head as international primary commodity prices plummet and
oil prices soar. The IMF intervenes and negotiates the first of several
structural adjustment programmes.
1979: Fall of Idi Amin in Uganda leads to the return of many well-qualified
Equatorians to Southern Sudan. The balance of power in the South starts to
shift away from the Nilotic Dinka and Nuer.
1980: Jonglei Canal construction begins, despite concerns of local people.
1981: Sorghum becomes Sudan’s second biggest export.
April 1981: Chevron announces discovery of commercial oil deposits in the
Unity (South) survey field. Coupled with the Heglig (Kordofan) fields, the
recoverable reserves are estimated at 236m barrels.
January 1982: Widespread unrest – Defence Minister and 22 senior army officers
dismissed after criticising political situation.
1982: Renewal of Nile Valley Waters Agreement with Egypt.
September 1983: Nimeiri introduces “Sharia” or “September” laws. In eighteen
months 200 people – mostly displaced – suffer amputation for theft.
1983: South is “redivided” into three regions, and the single regional
government is abolished. Equatorians celebrate while unseated Dinka and Nuer
1983: Civil war resumes after mutinies at Bor garrison, Pibor, Pochalla,
Wangkai and Ayod, leading to the formation of the SPLA/SPLM.
February 1984: After SPLA attacks on its oil fields in the south, Chevron
1984: Jonglei canal work is halted by SPLA activity.
1984-85: Severe famine in western and eastern parts of the country follows
successive years of inadequate rains. Agriculture aimed at external markets
means the population is increasingly vulnerable to shortages.
18 January 1985: Execution of Ustaz Mahmoud Mohamed Taha, progressive Islamic
philosopher, sentenced to death for “apostasy” by Emergency Courts.
16 April 1985: Widespread strikes and demonstrations follow rises in food
prices. Nimeiri is overthrown after a popular uprising headed by the “National
Alliance for National Salvation” leads to a military coup by his defence
minister, General Abd al-Rahman Swar al-Dahab. A Transitional Military Council
is set up; Swar al-Dahab (later head of the Dawa Islamiyya) declines to revoke
Sharia laws but “huddud” penalties are suspended.
1985: First SPLA incursion into the Nuba mountains: 100 Baggara Arabs are
killed at Gardud. The Transitional Military Council begins supplying arms to
the Misiriya Zurug and Hawazma clans of the Baggara.
March 1986: Koka Dam Agreement in Ethiopia, between SPLA/SPLM and northern
National Alliance, the civilian leadership within the TMC, reaches formula for
peace and a consitutional conference. Endorsed by the Umma party, it is
rejected by the DUP and the NIF.
April 1986: Elections – Sadiq al-Mahdi becomes Prime Minister of a coalition
Umma/DUP government. Veteran Nuba leader Fr Philip Abbas Ghaboush wins a seat
in Khartoum North, defeating the NIF candidate, while his Sudan National Party
wins 12 seats. Overall the Umma and DUP share 70 per cent of the 300-seat
parliament while the NIF gains 18 per cent of the northern-dominated ballot:
there is no voting in half the 86 southern constituencies on grounds of
June 1986: Sudan signs the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman
or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.
September 1986: Change in Army leadership: Lt-Gen Fawzi Ahmed al-Fadil
appointed chief of staff.
1986: First case of AIDS in Sudan officially notified.
1987: Sadiq al-Mahdi abandons Koka Dam Agreement on receiving arms from Libya
and Iraq, declares a state of emergency and begins a policy of arming militias
of Baggara as parallel force. His government introduces a “kasha” campaign of
forced expulsions of war-displaced southerners from the capital.
March 1987: Hundreds of displaced Ngok Dinka are massacred by Rezeigat in
Ed-Da’ein, Darfur, in apparent retaliation for an SPLA attack on a Rezeigat
militia at Sahafa. A subsequent report on the massacre details the kidnapping
and enslavement of Dinka women and children as part of the militia raiding
pattern in northern Bahr al-Ghazal.
1987: SPLA starts a unit in the Nuba Mountains.
1988: Famine in Southern Sudan, growing since 1986, becomes intense: 250,000
die of hunger-related diseases in 1988. Deliberate “scorched earth” and relief
denial policies of government, militias and SPLA are the primary cause of food
shortage, compounded by drought, floods and pest infestations.
November 1988: “November Accord” negotiated by the DUP with the SPLA/SPLM,
agreeing in principle to freeze Sharia laws, cease-fire and cancel the state of
emergency. Returning DUP leader Muhamed Osman al-Mirghani receives a popular
hero’s welcome at Khartoum airport. Initially rejecting the accord, Sadiq
forms a coalition with the NIF, excluding the DUP.
February 1989: Army issues ultimatum to Sadiq demanding progress towards peace
and disbandment of militias. NIF leader Hassan al-Turabi is appointed deputy
March 1989: Reports say two million Southern Sudanese – one in five
Southerners, mostly Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk from Upper Nile – are displaced;
one million live in and around Khartoum.
March 1989: NIF leaves government; DUP rejoins coalition. Sadiq begins peace
talks with SPLA/SPLM; a cease-fire is announced. UN Operation Lifeline Sudan
resumes famine relief to the south.
April 1989: Sharia laws are frozen; a date is set for a constitutional
conference on 18 September 1989.
June 1989: On the eve of a key cabinet meeting, and with the government
delegation ready to meet Garang in Addis Ababa on 4 July, a military coup on 30
June thwarts the peace process. Coup leaders deny alignment with the NIF, and
ban all political parties, but NIF policies and individuals are prominent. A
new security agency is created, originating in the NIF’s pre-coup security
apparatus. Referred to as the “Security of the Revolution” or “Islamic
Security”, the agency is primarily responsible for the mass arrests and torture
after the coup.
July 1989: The Bashir regime holds meetings with the SPLA and the cease-fire
September 1989: Government appoints “steering committees” to manage the assets
of trade unions and professional associations dissolved when it took power.
October 1989: The cease-fire between Khartoum and the SPLA breaks down when
the regime embarks on an offensive to recapture SPLA-held territory. The
failure of the offensive eventually leaves the SPLA in complete control of the
territory bordering Uganda and parts of Zaire.
21 October 1989: The formation is announced of the National Democratic
Alliance, a coalition of northern and southern Sudanese opposition forces
including the Umma, Democratic Unionist and Communist parties and the SPLM.
27 October 1989: An attack by Murahaleen militia on Kamda in the Nuba
Mountains leads to 20 villages being destroyed and 98 people killed, despite
army attempts at intervention.
November 1989: The Special Courts Act is introduced: security courts to try
violations of constitutional decrees and emergency regulations, and drug and
currency offences. Sentences are severe.
5 November 1989: With its Popular Defence Act, the RCC establishes the Popular
Defence Force (PDF), a paramilitary organization which includes the militias
operating in the south and west and has the added role of training members of
December 1989: War escalates in the South; large shipments of arms from China,
ordered by Sadiq, are paid for by Iran.
December 1989: At least 600 Shilluk Southern migrant agricultural workers at
Jebelain on the White Nile are massacred by an Arab militia.
March 1990: Sudan and Libya announce an agreement to “integrate” the two
countries, signing a trade protocol.
April 1990: 28 officers are executed a few hours after a failed coup attempt.
May 1990: Four privately-owned newspapers, ostensibly non-political, are
July 1990: A group of lawyers is allowed to address a special court and
cross-examine prosecution witnesses in a case against a journal editor. Since
the 1989 coup lawyers had only been allowed to attend proceedings as “friends”
September 1990: Dozens of army officers, mostly lower-ranking officers from
Darfur and Southern Sudan, are arrested in Khartoum and accused of conspiracy
to overthrow the government. Some are reportedly executed.
September 1990: Military intelligence begins detaining educated Nuba men in
Kadugli and Dilling.
November 1990: Widespread arrests in major northern towns including Wad
Medani, Atbara, Al-Obeid and Khartoum, following demonstrations by students and
trades unionists against government policy.
31 December 1990: Bashir announces that Shari’a law is to be implemented with
immediate effect in northern Sudan.
End 1990: UN Food and Agriculture Organization warns of wide-scale famine in
Sudan, launching an appeal for 1.3 million tonnes of food. Khartoum is
reluctant to acknowledge the crisis, referring only to a “food gap”.
March 1991: New penal code introduced, based on an interpretation of the
Islamic shari’a, originally drafted by Dr Hassan al-Turabi of the National
Islamic Front when Attorney General in 1988.
March 1991: 300 southern civilians are killed by Arab militias at Rokon,
between Maridi and Juba, reportedly for refusing to act as human shields
against SPLA attacks on the military.
April 1991: Dr Hassan al-Turabi is elected secretary general of the first
Popular Arab Islamic Conference in Khartoum.
April 1991: Khartoum announces general amnesty for all political prisoners;
those freed include 300 prisoners of conscience, but at least 60 more are not
released. Those released are put under tight restrictions.
April 1991: 17 Zaghawa people are shot in the courtyard of a Darfur mosque by
May 1991: After the fall of the Mengistu regime in Addis Ababa, some 300,000
Southern Sudanese are forced to return to Sudan from border areas in Ethiopia,
and are bombed by the Sudanese air force.
June 1991: Amendments to the National Security Act do nothing to prevent
arbitrary incommunicado detention and torture, according to Amnesty
July 1991: Members of the Revolution Security police open fire on
demonstrators at Khartoum University, killing one. Dozens of students are
arrested; 12 detained student leaders are reportedly beaten.
August 1991: A thwarted coup attempt is announced by the government; 81
supporters of banned political parties are detained, as well as military
officers. At a military tribunal, death sentences for 11 are announced but
August 1991: SPLA Commanders Riek Machar and Lam Akol lead a “creeping coup”
attempt against Colonel Garang. They say Garang is too authoritarian and lacks
political direction. The coup is unsuccessful but leads to the formation of a
breakaway “Nasir” faction.
September 1991: Rising malnutrition, especially in the western region. UN
attempts to assist 4.5 million people out of an estimated 8.7 million Sudanese
and refugees in need of food aid. Tens of thousands die by the end of the year
from hunger-related disease.
October 1991: Army seals off the Nuba Mountains and begins operations to drive
out the Nuba and destroy SPLA strength there.
November-December 1991: Over 200,000 flee Bor district after 5,000 civilians
are massacred by forces loyal to SPLA-Nasir.
December 1991: The secret war against the Nuba is highlighted by reports from
Africa Watch and Survival International, which point to growing incidence of
“disappearances” of educated Nuba and the deaths of thousands of men, women and
children in raids by the army and government-backed militias.
December 1991: Renewed government attempts to evict migrants from southern and
western Sudan from the squatter areas of Khartoum; at least 47 are killed.
7 January 1992: Speaking for the European Community, the British Ambassador
and the Dutch Charge d’Affaires protest to RCC member Col Muhammad al-Amin
Khalifa at the mass bulldozing of displaced people’s homes, after 16 were
killed on 22 December 1991.
January 1992: Jihad declared in Nuba Mountains at Al-Obeid meeting of regional
governors of Southern Kordofan. The regional military commander pledges to
“cleanse” every area “sullied by the (SPLA) outlaws”.
January 1992: University of Khartoum Vice-Chancellor Prof Muddathir al-Tangari
is dismissed after protesting at government behaviour concerning the
university. He is replaced by his deputy, NIF militant Prof Ma’mun Humayda.
January 1992: $12m in donations from Iran and Gulf-based businessmen are
deposited in the Faisal Islamic Bank to help the FIS (Front Islamique du
Salut), which has won the first round of elections in Algeria. Dr Hassan
al-Turabi of Sudan’s National Islamic Front predicts that Algeria will become
the world’s second Islamic republic and advises it to seek unity with Iran.
January 1992: ‘The physical elimination’ of 3,000 SPLA fighters in southern
Darfur is announced by State Governor Col Tayib Ibrahim Muhammad Kheir (Tayib
Sikha). The Darfur SPLA leader, former NIF member Daoud Yahya Bolad, is
arrested in Wadi Salih province and killed.
February 1992: 300 member transitional national assembly appointed as
legislature until parliamentary elections promised for an unspecified date.
March 1992: Khartoum launches its largest-yet offensive against the SPLA. One
aim is to cut off sources of relief to civilians in SPLA-held areas. 100,000
people are displaced.
1992: Nearly half a million displaced people and squatters are forcibly
expelled from their homes in the Khartoum area to desert camps with inadequate
water, food and shelter.
April 1992: 23 women and a child are imprisoned in Omdurman after holding a
peaceful demonstration in memory of the 28 military officers summarily executed
in April 1990.
May 1992: Hassan al-Turabi tells the US Congress that Khartoum has only a few
political prisoners, treats women fairly, receives no arms from Iran and wants
to live in peace with non-Muslims. He is later assaulted by a Sudanese
protester in Canada.
May 1992: SPLA-Mainstream tightens its siege of Juba, capital of Equatoria.
May 1992: After a government attack on the SPLA-held town of Kapoeta, some
22,000 Sudanese seek asylum across the Kenyan border, including 12,500
June 1992: The government begins in earnest the forcible mass relocation of
the Nuba from the conflict zone in the Nuba Mountains. Thousands of civilians
are moved to “peace villages” – displaced persons’ camps – further north. Some
of the camps are attached to mechanized commercial farming projects, often on
land previously farmed by Nuba villagers. Others are in inhospitable desert
areas; men and women are often segregated.
June 1992: SPLA infiltrates Juba city and briefly captures the military
headquarters on 7 June. Over 80 government officers – from the armed forces,
police, prison and wildlife services – are subsequently detained and many are
September 1992: William Nyuon Bany, former deputy commander-in-chief of
SPLA-Mainstream and negotiator at Abuja, separates from Garang and begins
independent military operations in eastern Equatoria. His group is loosely
allied to SPLA-Nasir.
September 1992: Catholic bishops from SPLA-controlled Southern Sudan accuse
government troops of genocide in Juba, and call on Catholic bishops throughout
east Africa to press for international consideration for Sudan.
September 1992: UN temporarily suspends Operation Lifeline Sudan after SPLA
rebels kill three UN workers and a photojournalist.
17 October 1992: Malakal, main town in Upper Nile, is attacked and briefly
occupied by a group led by young Nuer religious prophet Wut Nyang and the
Anya-Nya II militia in part allied to SPLA-Nasir (renamed SPLA-United), which
claims credit. After the government recovers the town, 135 Southern Sudanese
civil servants are detained and reportedly tortured in “ghost” houses.
November 1992: SPLA-Nasir peace proposals include a 2-3 year period of
temporary unity pending a referendum among southerners and border peoples on
November 1992: Under external pressure, the government establishes a committee
to investigate hundreds of arrests and disappearances during the siege of Juba.
December 1992: UN General Assembly condemns Bashir regime for gross violations
of human rights.
December 1992: Government troops in the south are allegedly offered financial
rewards for impregnating southern women. The “largest ever” massacre of Nuba
people, at Heiban, is carried out on 25 December, and Amnesty International
later reports operations tantamount to “ethnic cleansing”.
December 1992: The three factions of the SPLA agree at UN-supervised meetings
in Nairobi to guarantee the flow of relief supplies to citizens affected by war
in Southern Sudan.
The number of foreign asylum seekers in Sudan increases to over one million by
the end of 1992.
January 1993: Egypt and Sudan at loggerheads over territorial rights to the
Red Sea region of Halaib. Each accuses the other of harbouring opposition
elements, with Egypt claiming that Egyptian fundamentalists are being trained
in Sudan to destabilize the Mubarak government.
January 1993: An estimated 60,000 people are said to have died from kala-azar
(leishmaniasis) in Parayang, bordering Upper Nile and Bahr al-Ghazal.
January 1993: Turabi suggests that the RCC will hand over to civilian
administration within months.
January 1993: SPLA claims Khartoum has executed four senior southern Sudanese
generals for collaborating with SPLA fighters during the July 1992 SPLA siege
February 1993: Pope John Paul II stops over in Khartoum; tells a public
gathering that peace will only come with respect for freedom, justice and human
February 1993: Garang urges Khartoum to hold new peace talks under the
auspices of the United Nations.
February 1993: Lonrho company chairman Tiny Rowland reveals his “membership”
of the SPLA.
March 1993: Minister of Planning Ali al-Haj reports 40,000 applications from
Arab agricultural entrepreneurs to buy land in Southern Kordofan for mechanized
27 March 1993: SPLA-Mainstream attacks anti-Garang (SPLA-United) leadership
meeting in Kongor. Veteran politician Joseph Oduho is killed; a UN WFP worker
March 1993: Temporary cease-fire in southern war zones. Plans for new round of
peace talks in Abuja, Nigeria.
April 1993: The opposition National Democratic Alliance meets for five days in
Nairobi and announces a “historic” agreement on religion and the state.
April 1993: A group of people is detained in connection with an alleged
Egyptian-supported invasion of Sudan. They are later paraded on television in
chains and appear to have been tortured.
April 1993: Thousands of displaced from Nuba Mounains and Bentiu reach
northern Kordofan. Women say the PDF raped them: there is an unusually high
rate of pregnancy.
April 1993: World Bank and Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
suspend loans to Sudan, which has failed to pay its arrears.
April 1993: Garang proposes a referendum on Southern self-determination,
shortly before resumption of Abuja peace talks.
May 1993: Peace talks collapse at Abuja.
June 1993: Yusif Kuwa, leader of the Nuba SPLA-Mainstream division, appeals
for aid on his first visit outside Africa.
June 1993: Mosques and headquarters of the Ansar, Khatmiyya and Ansar al-Sunna
al-Muhammadiya are the targets of crackdowns by NIF security on Sudan’s
traditional religious leadership. Several leaders are briefly arrested, and
the Mahdi’s tomb is “nationalized”. Turabi describes the old sects as
obstacles to democracy.
June 1993: UNHCR in Uganda takes on the protection of 96 Sudanese children who
had returned from military training in Cuba, helping prevent them being
transported back into Sudan by SPLA-Mainstream.
July 1993: Egypt’s President Mubarak and Sudan’s Lt-Gen al-Bashir meet at the
Cairo summit of the Organization of African Unity, for the first time in 18
months, following mediation by PLO leader Yasser Arafat. Hostilities over the
Halaib territory are temporarily patched up.
July 1993: SPLA factions fight over Kongor.
18 August 1993: US State Department adds Sudan to its list of states
August 1993: Jimmy Carter flies to Khartoum for informal talks with the Bashir
government; he says there is “no proof” that Sudan supports international
August 1993: Khartoum denies allegations that it is assisting Somali leader
General Aideed. A ship carrying sugar from Port Sudan to Somalia is searched
by the US Navy.
August 1993: One of several attempts by the NIF at dialogue with members of
the exiled northern opposition parties fails to reach a positive conclusion in
August 1993: 60,000 Southern Sudanese flee to Uganda in three weeks, after
government troops begin an offensive against SPLA in Western Equatoria, backed
by MiG fighters and Antonov bombers. 38,000 were already under care in Keruwa
camp. Another 42,000 cross into Ethiopia in August, and 4,800 into Zaire.
August 1993: Talks between government representative Ali al-Haj Muhammad and
SPLA-United’s Dr Lam Akol in Fashoda, during the coronation of the new Shilluk
king, lead to further SPLA-Mainstream accusations of United’s complicity with
August 1993: 47,000 displaced Dinka civilians are told by SPLA-Mainstream not
to cross into Uganda. Equatorian refugees in Koboko, Uganda, claim that
Garang’s Dinkas looted their property in Kaya and raped their women.
September 1993: Food shortfall of 73,000 tonnes in Northern Kordofan is
predicted by aid agencies but denied by government. Drought and locusts, plus
fighting in Southern Kordofan, are blamed.
September 1993: Five government officials are killed in an air crash en route
to Bentiu for further talks with the SPLA-United faction. They include Fadl
al-Seed Abu Gaseissa, Director of the Peace and Development Foundation, which
promoted Islam in the South through development assistance.
September 1993: The heads of state of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda and Kenya
establish a committee to resolve the civil war in Sudan, in their capacity as
members of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development. Bashir
accepts the initiative but warns against foreign intervention.
September 1993: Arakis Energy of Canada says it will press ahead to explore
develop the former Chevron oil concessions it has acquired in Southern Kordofan
and Southern Sudan. Experts are sceptical of the small company succeeding in
the instability of the area.
September 1993: Riek Machar arrives in Nairobi, emerging from Southern Sudan
for the first time since his attempted coup against Garang in August 1991.
2 October 1993: The Patriotic Resistance Movement of South Sudan is launched
in Nairobi by veteran politician and former Garang ally Alfred Lado Gore. It
appears to represent members of Equatorian tribes who reject the
SPLA-Mainstream (dominated by the Dinka) and the SPLA-United (dominated by
4 October 1993: Three days of riots in Omdurman, Wad Medani and Al-Obeid in
response to the economic crisis, following a fuel shortage and rises in fuel
13 October 1993: Turabi meets the Pope in the Vatican.
16 October 1993: The ruling Revolutionary Command Council dissolves itself.
It has been waning in the last year, and its dissolution assists the promotion
of a civilian image.
October 1993: A brigadier imprisoned in Suakin is subjected to renewed violent
assault after he details in a letter to the Justice Minister the grotesque
torture he had previously undergone in Shalla prison, Western Sudan.
22 October 1993: Washington declaration signed by rival SPLA faction leaders
Garang and Machar. They concur on “self-determination for the people of
Southern Sudan, Nuba Mountains and marginalized areas”, and on opposition to
the NIF regime and any subsequent regime that denies the right to
November 1993: William Nyuon is accused of breaking the cease-fire between the
SPLA factions by launching attacks against SPLA-Mainstream positions in Eastern
10-11 November 1993: Khartoum University students protest at alleged
vote-rigging of union council elections in which National Islamist candidates
won all 40 seats. Over 300 are arrested amid the most militant demonstrations
20 November 1993: Foreign ministers of the Horn of Africa countries belonging
to IGADD (Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development) meet in
Nairobi to address the conflict in Sudan. The IGADD initiative follows the
resolution passed in Kampala by African members of the Eastern and Southern
African Preferential Trade Area to seek a solution to the conflict.
November 1993: Interim report by UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Gaspar
Biro corroborates the “grave violations” that have taken place in Sudan.
November 1993: Between 15 and 20 Chinese ground attack aircraft are delivered
to Sudan, reportedly financed by Iran.
November 1993: The Popular Defence Force militias are being boosted while up
to three thousand are being retired from the regular armed forces. 45,000 new
militia members are on public display at the PDF’s fourth anniversary
November 1993: Hassan al-Turabi flies to Afghanistan, ostensibly to mediate
between warring Islamic factions.
December 1993: The opposition National Democratic Alliance fails to agree on a
common response to the question of self-determination for Southern Sudan.
December 1993: Senior government figures celebrate Christmas in the three main
Southern towns to dispel allegations that the regime is anti-Christian.
December 1993: Military Industrialization Authority Act.
December 1993: Sudanese universities are scheduled to admit 30,000 new
students, six times the number of admissions in 1991. There are now 18
universities compared with five in 1989.
December 1993: Thousands of militia fighters died in Southern Sudan and the
Nuba Mountains in the last year, and the practice of arming teachers,
government officials and students is coming under question because of the
January 1994: Eritrea’s President Afeworki complains that “foreign Muslim
extremists” have declared war on his nation after 20 invaders from Sudan are
January 1994: Archbishop of Canterbury flies to Southern Sudan for three
days. A diplomatic row over his cancellation of a visit to northern Sudan
leads to the mutual expulsion of ambassadors from Britain and Sudan.
January 1994: Unprecedented build-up of government military forces is reported
in Southern Sudan. Over 1,000 people are said to be fleeing towards the
borders. Towns and displaced people’s camps near the Ugandan and Zairean
borders are subjected to high-altitude bombing.
February 1994: Two dozen worshippers are killed in a machine-gun attack on a
mosque of the Ansar al-Sunna al-Muhammadiya minority religious sect, whose
leader had recently criticised the religious credentials of the Bashir regime.
February 1994: Lam Akol, Shilluk member of SPLA-United, is dismissed.
April 1994: Members of the ultra-conservative minority Ansar al-Sunna sect
stage a sit-in protest to demand the release of their leader, Sheikh Abu Zeid
Muhammad Hamza, and the return of mosques “confiscated” by the authorities.
April 1994: Egypt expresses anxiety at the SPLA’s announcement of a “New
Sudan” and rejects the idea of secession for Southern Sudan.
April 1994: Student demonstrations at Gezira University lead to 1,000 arrests.
April-May 1994: Southern Sudanese refugees are crossing into Gambela, Western
Ethiopia, at over 1,000 a month, according to UNHCR.
May 1994: Arok Thon Arok, a key Dinka member of SPLA-United and a founder of
the SPLA, resigns blaming Riek Machar’s “dictatorial tendencies”. News emerges
separately that Martin Majier, an SPLA-Mainstream commander detained by Garang,
was killed in March 1993.
June 1994: SPLA-United spokesman John Luk is arrested by his own faction at
Waat, and accused of siding with the dismissed Commander Lam Akol.
June 1994: Kajo-kaji in Equatoria is retaken by government forces.
June 1994: Bad harvest and civil war mean that famine threatens Bahr al-Ghazal
July 1994: SPLA-United commanders Faustino and Kerubino advance into Wunrok,
northern Bahr al-Ghazal. Battles with SPLA-Mainstream lead to 1,000 mostly
civilian deaths; both factions loot possessions from local people.
July 1994: More than 50,000 displaced people are expelled from Khartoum in a
series of night raids over two weeks. Areas such as Haj Yusif, Kalakla and Umm
Bedda are targeted for “restructuring”.
July 1994: Sadiq al-Mahdi, released from detention, adds to confusion over
allegations of conspiracy levelled against him and senior Umma party colleagues
by the regime. He retracts claims that two Umma officials were tortured, and
describes their actions as regrettable.
July 1994: Fighting is reported among groups loyal to different leaders within
SPLA-United, with hundreds of lives lost. Gordon Kong, one of the original
three Nasir rebels, is detained on the orders of Riek Machar.
August 1994: Sudan boycotts the Cairo International Conference on Population
and Development. Bashir describes it as “a stark call for the demolition of
August 1994: The wanted Venezuelan terrorist known as Carlos the Jackal is
captured in Khartoum and taken away by French forces. It emerges that in
addition to assisting Khartoum obtain right of passage for its armed forces
through Central Africa, Paris has made available satellite photographs
identifying the positions of the SPLA in Southern Sudan.
August 1994: The Beja Congress in Cairo reports that a “terror” campaign is
being waged by the government against Beja people in Eastern Sudan.
August 1994: Sudan reiterates its refusal to deal with the UN Special
Rapporteur on Human Rights, Dr Gaspar Biro. Two converts to Christianity are
lashed for apostasy, but a crucifixion sentence against them is lifted.
September 1994: The IMF reverses its decision to expel Sudan.
September 1994: Uganda alleges that breakaway SPLA commander William Nyuon has
helped channel arms from Khartoum to the Lords’ Resistance Army of Joseph Kony
in northern Uganda.
September 1994: Bashir claims some of the IGADD states convening peace talks
in the Horn of Africa are “not neutral”: there is deadlock over the issues of
self-determination and the separation of state and religion. Garang endorses
the IGADD declaration of principles
October 1994: Lam Akol, dismissed from the breakaway SPLA-Nasir (United)
faction in February, challenges Riek Machar’s leadership. He claims to command
forces in mid-west Upper Nile under the name SPLA-U.
October 1994: In Akobo, a reconciliation conference is held between warring
Lou and Jikany clans of the Nuer, under the aegis of Riek Machar’s
newly-renamed Southern Sudan Independence Movement.
October 1994: Squatter settlements in Gamayir and Khuddair, Omdurman, are
destroyed during the forcible removal campaign: armed riot police engage in a
shoot-out and at least five squatters are killed and fourteen severely injured.
October 1994: A new offensive is launched in the Nuba Mountains: government
forces seek to encircle the area under SPLA control and deny villagers access
to water points, with a “shoot to kill” policy.
October 1994: Over a hundred civilians are killed in an attack on Akot by Riek
Machar’s “Southern Sudan Independence Movement”. Five thousand families are
made temporarily homeless, and SPLA-Mainstream is accused of looting the town
when its forces re-take it.
October 1994: Most female prisoners in Omdurman prison are to be released,
according to the Chief Justice.
19 October 1994: Southern Sudanese women asylum-seekers and their children in
Cairo stage a sit-in protest at the UNHCR office, asking for assessment
interviews to be speeded up. They are expelled by Egyptian security forces
with water hoses and sticks.
December 1994: Eritrea breaks diplomatic relations with Sudan, claiming that
300 “Islamic Jihad” members are being trained inside Sudan as insurgents.
Sudan responds with a claim that Beja dissidents are using Eritrean territory
December 1994: Chukudum agreement – Umma Party and SPLA Mainstream concur on
“self-determination” for South using existing boundaries.
January 1995: Opposition representatives meet in Asmara at the invitation of
Eritrean head of state.
Ten: CHRONOLOGY OF South-North SUDANESE HISTORY THROUGH 2000 (from the University of Berkeley, USA)
Ancient and Medieval Sudan
Note: Because most archeological work in Sudan has been done along the northern banks of the Nile, more is known about the ancient history in these areas of Sudan than in other areas. The chronology below reflects this. More historical and archeological work is waiting to be done.
2700-2100 BC Period of growing contact with Egypt and some Egyptian conquest in Nubia (located along the Nile in northern Sudan).
1900-1575 BC Rise of Nubian independence during Egypt’s Middle Kingdom.
1575-1090 BC Egyptian conquest and rule in the northern Sudan under the New Kingdom pharaohs.
1090-750 BC Emergence of the kingdom of Kush centered in Napata (near the modern day town of Merowe and the 4th cataract of the Nile).
750-656 BC Nubian Kingdom at Kush conquers Egypt and establish the 25th Dynasty of Pharaohs.
656-590 BC Kush withdraws back to Sudan. In 590 BC, the Kush capital moves to Merowe.
590 BC-350 AD Rise and gradual decline of the Kingdom of Kush at Merowe. Strong iron age society emerged with a distinctive Sudanese culture.
350-550 Other kingdoms develop along the Nile in northern Sudan (Nobatia, Alwa, Makuria).
543-570 Conversion of rulers of Sudanese Nile Kingdoms to Christianity.
640 Arab Muslim conquest of Egypt and beginning of Muslim contacts with northern Sudan.
ca 1200 Rise of Daju Dynasty in Darfur.
1300-1350 Defeat of last Christian king in Nubia and ascension of first Muslim king to the throne in Dongola.
1400s Replacement of Daju Dynasty by the Tunjur Dynasty in Darfur.
1504 Fall of Soba, capital of Alwa, and end of last Christian kingdom in Sudan. Beginning of Funj sultanate (a feudal-like kingdom controlling the central Nile valley region during a time of increasing Islamization in northern Sudan).
1580 Beginning of Keira sultanate in Darfur.
Foreign Conquest and the Anti-Colonial Struggle
1820-1822 Mohammed Ali’s Turco-Egyptian forces conquer much of northern Sudan bringing the Funj sultanate to an end. The Keira sultanate maintains its independence from the Turco-Egyptian regime until 1874. The Bahr al-Ghazal region in the south is conquered in 1871.
1863-1879 Egyptian government introduces anti-slavery measures, encouraged by Britain.
1881 Muhammed Ahmad declares himself al-Mahdi, the awaited guide. Mahdist conquest of Sudan begins.
1885 Mahdist forces capture Khartoum ending Turco-Egyptian rule. Gen. Charles Gordon, a British citizen working for the Turco-Egyptian regime and in charge of the evacuation of Khartoum, is killed. Later that year, Muhammed Ahmad dies and is succeeded by Abdallah al-Tai’ishi, known as the Khalifa.
1896 Anglo-Egyptian forces begin conquest of the Mahdist State in Sudan.
1898 Battle of Omdurman – Mahdist forces are defeated; the Khalifa is killed. The Keira sultanate in Darfur under Ali Dinar asserts its autonomy. British and French forces nearly fight at Fashoda in a rivalry over control of the Nile waters.
1899 Anglo-Egyptian Condominium is established. Britain and Egypt are legally equal rulers over Sudan, although Britain is the de facto senior partner.
1899-1945 Intermittently, “pacification” or military campaigns take place in the South and the Nuba Mountains in order to make various ethnic groups submit to Anglo-Egyptian rule.
1916 Sultan Ali Dinar of Darfur is defeated by Anglo-Egyptian forces ending the Keira Dynasty. Darfur is fully incorporated into Sudan.
1924 Anti-Imperialist Demonstrations. Lee Stack, Governor-General of Sudan, is murdered in Cairo. Britain reacts by reducing Egyptian influence in Sudan.
1925 Completion of Sennar Dam and opening of the Gezira Scheme.
1943-45 Formation of first political parties in Sudan including the Ashigga and the Umma (Mahdists) Party.
1947 Juba Conference: Southern leaders accept the idea of unification with Northern Sudan.
1948 Opening of Legislative Assembly.
1953 Anglo-Egyptian Agreement. Outlines end of Anglo-Egyptian Condominium and steps to self-rule. First parliamentary elections see the National Unionist Party (NUP) win the majority.
1955 Equatoria Corps mutiny in the south, beginning the first long civil war between southern rebels and the government based in the North.
1956 SUDANESE INDEPENDENCE PROCLAIMED. Political power shifts to a coalition between the Umma Party and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), an off-shoot of the NUP.
1958 The Umma-PDP coalition maintain their majority in parliamentary elections. In November, General Ibrahim Abboud leads a successful military coup.
1959 Nile Waters Agreement with Egypt outlines Egyptian compensation for lands to be flooded by rising waters behind the Aswan Dam.
1962-63 Intensification of conflict in the south.
1964 October Revolution. Popular demonstrations led by professional groups (doctors, lawyers, etc.) oust the Abboud Regime.
1965 Elections for a new parliament are held. An NUP-Umma coalition wins.
1968 Elections are held again. The Umma party forms a government.
1969 Military coup led by Ja’far Numeri overthrows the elected government. Political parties are banned. Known as the “May Revolution,” the new regime adopts its own form of socialism.
1970 Banks and number of businesses are nationalized.
1971 After an abortive coup attempt, Communists are purged, jailed and executed. The Numeri regime re-establishes political and economic ties with western powers. Over the next decade Sudan will become one of the largest recipient of US aid in sub-Saharan Africa.
1972 Addis Ababa Agreement ends conflict between the north and south and establish an autonomous region in the south.
1976 Attempted coup by Mahdists is nearly successful and leads to secret talks between the government and the Mahdists led by Sadiq al-Mahdi. An amnesty is declared the next year and leads to six year “process” ofNational Reconciliation.
1977-1983 Islamic reforms are introduced culminating with the 1983 “September Laws” which extend shar’ia or Islamic law to all areas of life throughout the country.
1983 A local government reorganization divides the autonomous Southern region into three separate regions. Questions emerge over control of oil fields located in the south. Economic troubles over the last decade have left the economy in shambles. The 105th battalion, composed of southerners, mutinies at Bor in the South marking the beginning of the second civil war.
1984-85 A devastating drought hits Sudan.
1985 As in 1964, demonstrations in the streets led by professional organizations cause the overthrow of Numeri’s regime. A Transitional Military Council rules for one year.
1986 Parliamentary elections are held. Sadiq al-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party, becomes Prime Minister. The civil war continues.
1988 November: The opposition party, the Democratic Unionist Party, and the Southern People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) sign a peace agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia calling for an end to the September laws. The agreement forces the government to enter into talks with the SPLA.
1989 June: Omer al-Bashir leads a successful military coup, pre-empting announcement of an agreement to end the September Laws and possibly the war in the south. Eventually, Hassan al-Turabi, leader of the National Islamic Front, emerges with a major, if un-official, role in leading this regime. al-Bashir becomes chairman of the newly formed Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC). He serves concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense.
1989 August: The rebel army, the SPLA, splits into factions, which begin fighting each other as well as the government.
1990 The Bashir government reveals its intentions to establish an Islamic state.
1991 The Bashir government sides with Iraq during the Gulf War, losing the support of Saudi Arabia and other Arab nations.
1992-93: The IMF threatens to expel Sudan from the Fund.
1993 September: the six member Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) (Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan), under the leadership of Daniel Arap Moi, president of Kenya and chair of IGADD, agrees to mediate the conflict in Sudan.
1993 October: The RCC is dissolved after appointing al-Bashir as President. The RCC’s executive and legislative powers are devolved to the president and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), an appointed legislative body,
1995 A cease-fire is declared by all sides to allow medical personal in to deal with a variety of diseases present in the South. It lasts for four months.
1995 May: Mass arrests of dissidents including the former Prime Minister, Sadiq al-Mahdi.
1996 March: Presidential and National Assembly elections are held. Omer Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir of the National Congress Party is elected as president for a five year term. He wins 75.7% of the vote. 40 other candidates share 24.3%. The government is dominated by the National Congress Party, the Movement for National Salvation and the National Islamic Front. The National Assembly is unicameral (400 seats; 275 elected by popular vote, 125 elected by a supraassembly of interest groups known as the National Congress). Elections are held on a non-party basis.
1996 Hassan al-Turabi becomes speaker of the National Assembly
30 June 1998: A new constitution drafted by the Presidential Committee goes into effect on after being approved in nationwide referendum.
1999 January: A new constitutional amendments allows the formation of political parties, or rather political “associations.”
1999 July: Oil explorations in south-central Sudan begin again on a limited basis with several foreign partners.
1999 December: al-Bashir dissolves parliament and declares a state of emergency in a move to curb the influence of parliament speaker Hassan al-Turabi, for years the leading ideologue in Bashir’s Islamist regime.
2000 May and June: Al-Bashir supporters sack Hassan al-Turabi as the secretary-general of the ruling National Congress Party, which Bashir heads. Turabi sets up the Popular National Congress party in protest.
2000 October: The United States successfully persuades other countries to vote for Mauritius and deny Sudan its expected rotation to the “Africa” seat on the Security Council.
2000 December 11 & 12: Dates set for parliamentary and presidential elections. Ninety seats in the 360-seat parliament, covering 270 constituencies, are reserved for women, teachers, businessmen, farmers and herders. Al-Turabi says he will not run against Bashir for president, but would put forward a candidate in his place.
Eleven: North-South Sudan Timeline :Political unrest history (from the Darfur Australian Network)
1956 Sudan becomes independent from British/ Egyptian rule
1958 – 1971 Unrest in the country, October Revolution and May Revolution military coups take place
1972 Addis Ababa Peace Agreement: South to become a self governing region
1978 Oil discovered in Bentiu in Southern Sudan
1983 Civil war in the South between the Government and Garang led Sudan People’s Liberation
President Numeiri declares Sharia law (Islamic Law) which pits the Christian/animists in the
South against the Muslims in the North
1985 Widespread unrest, Numeiri deposed, Transitional Military Council rules Sudan
1986 General elections, Coalition government set up: Sadiq al-Mahdi becomes Prime Minister
1988 Democratic Unionist Party/Coalition draft cease-fire agreement with SPLM; cease-fire not
1989 Military coup: National Salvation Revolution in power
Al-Bashir becomes president
1993 Omar al-Bashir appointed President, Revolution Command Council dissolved
1995 Sudan accused of masterminding assassination attempt on Egyptian President Mubark
1998 Pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum – allegedly manufacturing chemical weapons – attacked
by US missiles
1998 Referendum for new constitution endorsed by over 96% voters
1999 Power struggle between President al-Bashir and Speaker of the House, Islamic leader
Hassan al-Turabi, National Assembly dissolved, state of emergency declared
Advent of oil
1999 Sudan begins to export oil
2000 President al-Bashir meets National Democratic Alliance in Eritrea
Elections: Main opposition parties boycott, al-Bashir is re-elected for another five years Darfur Australia Network
2001 Memorandum of Understanding signed by al-Turabi’s party, the Popular National Congress,
rebel group of SPLM, Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). Government arrests several
opposing political leaders including al-Turabi
Nairobi: Peace talks fail between al-Bashir and SPLM leader Garang
Initiatives: Government accepts offer of Egypt/Libya to end civil war
Unilateral sanctions extended: U.S. cite terrorism and rights violations
North/South Peace deal
2002 Nuba Mountains (key rebel stronghold): al-Bashir and SPLA sign landmark ceasefire
agreement, providing a 6-month renewable ceasefire
8-year peace process ended: deal to end conflict in South Sudan
Kenya: Breakthrough agreement between the Government and Southern Rebels to end 19-
year civil war.
Machakos Protocol: South to seek self-determination after 6 years
Darfur Conflict starts
2003 Feb Western Darfur: Rebels rise against Government; cite neglect of region by Khartoum
2003 Oct PNC leader Turabi released from detention after 3 years, ban on PNC lifted
2004 Jan Western Darfur: army quells rebel uprising; hundreds of thousands of refugees flee to
Darfur conflict kills tens of thousands, displaces millions
2004 Mar UN official says government sponsored Arab “Janjaweed” militias carrying out systematic
killings of African villagers in Darfur
Detentions: Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi, army officers and opposition politicians
detained over alleged coup plot
2004 May Breakthrough: division of oil and non-oil resources between North and South
Power sharing: Government and southern rebels agree on power sharing
2004 Sept Intervention to stop genocide
Sudan fails to meet targets for disarming Janjaweed militias; UN forces intervene to protect
U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell describes Darfur killings as genocide
Comprehensive Peace agreement (CPA)
2005 Jan Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) (also known as the Naivasha Agreement) signed
between Khartoum Government and Southern rebels; this ends two decades of civil war,
instates a permanent ceasefire & wealth- and power-sharing agreement, and calls for the
border between the North and the semi-autonomous South to be demarcated
Garang’s term in government cut short Darfur Australia Network
Systematic abuses in Darfur: UN report accuses the government, stops short of calling the
Sanctions and War Crimes
2005 Mar UN Security Council authorises sanctions against ceasefire violators in Darfur; Council votes
those accused of war crimes in Darfur to be referred to the ICC
2005 June Reconciliation Deal: Government and exiled opposition National Democratic Alliance (NDA)
sign reconciliation into power-sharing administration
Detainee Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi released
2005 July Garang sworn in as first Vice President: constitution gives South a degree of autonomy is
2005 Aug Garang killed in plane crash after visiting Ugandan ally Museveni.
Salva Kiir succeeds Garang as First Vice President of Sudan and President of Southern
Widespread clashes between northern Arabs and southern Sudanese
2005 Sept Power-sharing government formed in Khartoum
2005 Oct Autonomous government formed in the South in accordance with January 2005 peace deal.
Administration dominated by former rebels
Darfur Peace Agreement
2006 May Peace Accord signed between Khartoum government, main rebel faction in Darfur and the
Sudan Liberation Movement. Smaller rebels groups left out and reject accord. Fighting
2006 Aug U.N. Security Council adopts a resolution authorising up to 22,500 troops and police to
replace the cash-strapped and ill-equipped AU troops
UN peacekeeping force in Darfur rejected by Khartoum; Sudan says its sovereignty
African Union struggles to contain escalating Darfur violence
2006 Oct UN top official expelled: Jan Pronk leaves Sudan
2006 Nov Peacekeeping Mandate: African Union extends AU peacekeeping force’s mandate in Darfur
by six months
Heavy fighting erupts around southern town of Malakal, between the north Sudanese forces
and former rebel foes in the south; hundreds thought to have died
2007 Apr UN troop deployment to reinforce AU peacekeepers in Darfur
Sudan accepts a partial UN troop deployment, but not 20,000 strong
War crimes charges Darfur Australia Network
2007 May International Criminal Court (ICC) arrest warrants: for State Minister for Humanitarian Affairs
Ahmed Haroun and the Janjaweed militia leader known as Ali Kosheib (a pseudonym for Ali
Mohammed Ali) both suspected of war crimes in Darfur
Fresh sanctions: U.S. issues fresh sanctions against Sudan
2007 July UNAMID: UN Security Council approves a resolution authorising a 26,000 hybrid force for
Darfur (United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur); Sudan agrees to co-operate with
2007 Oct SPLM accused Khartoum of failing to honour the 2005 peace deal and temporarily suspends
participation in Government of National Unity
2007 Dec SPLM resumes participation in Government of National Unity
2008 Jan UN takes over Darfur peace force
Sudan opens fire on UNAMID convoy: Sudan apologises
Bombing in West Darfur: Government planes bomb rebel positions; areas become no-go
zones for aid workers
2008 Feb UNAMID underpowered: Commander of the UN-African Union peacekeepers in Darfur, Balla
Keita, says more troops needed urgently in west Darfur
Clashes break out in Abyei – oil rich town in the South: key sticking point of 2005 peace
2008 Mar Urgently need helicopters to patrol: Russia prepared to provide some helicopters to UNAfrican Union peacekeepers
Rising tensions: clashes break out between Arab militia and SPLM in Abyei on north/south
Sudan/Chad peace accord: halts 5 years of hostilities between Sudan and Chad
Controversial 2008 Census and Sudan’s political future
2008 Apr National census counting: a vital step towards holding democratic elections after 2005
north/south peace deal
Rising death toll: UN humanitarian chief John Holmes says 300,000 people may have died
in the five-year Darfur conflict
2008 May Plane crash: Southern defence minister Dominic Dim Deng killed in a plane crash in the
JEM raids around Khartoum, in Omdurman, Khartoum’s twin city; first time that fighting from
Western Sudan has reached the capital. 200 people died in the fighting
Sudan breaks off diplomatic relations with Chad and accuses Chad of involvement in the
Abyei: intense fighting breaks out between north/south forces over disputed oil rich Abyei
2008 June Arbitration over Abyei: al-Bashir and Salva Kiir agree to international arbitration to resolve
dispute over Abyei Darfur Australia Network
2008 July Calls for arrest of President al-Bashir for crimes against humanity. ICC Prosecutor Luis
Moreno-Ocampo presents evidence showing al-Bashir committed the crimes of genocide,
crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. Appeal first ever request to the ICC for
the arrest of a sitting head of state. Sudan rejects the indictment
2008 Sept Census Results to be announced; Southerners reserve the right not to be bound by the
results: Count will help determine distribution of wealth and power, set constituencies for the
first time since 23 years of strife, due in 2009. Questions of ethnicity and religion were not
inserted into the census questionnaire. Western Darfur region also reject the census owing
to distrust of the government
Millions of southerners displaced by the war have not returned to their homes in the South
2008 Oct JEM refuses to participate in Qatari peace talks
The SLM and SNLM merge forces. SLM and JEM agree to strengthen relations
Fears of an arms race between North and former rebels in South build following allegations
that Ukrainian tanks hijacked off the coast of Somalia were bound for southern Sudan
2008 Nov al-Bashir announces immediate ceasefire in Darfur and announces a campaign to disarm
Rebels play down al-Bashir’s declaration of ceasefire in Darfur, saying they will fight on until
the government agrees to share power and wealth in the region
Government forces continue attacks in the Darfur area to the disappointment of the UN
ICC calls for arrest of three rebel commanders
2008 Dec JEM holds talks with Qataris over peace process.
SLM announces rejection of the Qatari negotiations
Sudanese army claims a Darfur rebel group plans to attack the sensitive oil-rich South
Kordofan state and the Sudanese army send troops into Darfur
2009 Jan Hassan al-Turabi arrested after declaring President al-Bashir should hand himself in to The
Hague to face war crimes charges for the Darfur war
2009 Feb Sudan and JEM begin first round of peace talks in Qatar but without the SLM
Sudanese government and JEM sign a declaration of goodwill, in Qatar, expressing their
willingness to engage in peace process
Arrest Warrants against al-Bashir
2009 March ICC issues arrest warrant against President al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes
against humanity in Darfur
Mass expulsion of 13 aid agencies from Darfur
2009 May Estimated 250 people in central Sudan killed during a week of clashes between nomadic
groups fighting over grazing land and cattle in the semi-arid region of Southern Kordofan Darfur Australia Network
2009 June Khartoum government denies it is supplying arms to ethnic groups in the south to destabilise
Salva Kiir, warns his forces are being re-organised to be ready for any return to war with the
Ex-foreign minister Lam Akol splits from South’s ruling SPLM to form new party, SPLMDemocratic Change
2009 July North and South Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague shrinking
disputed Abyei region and placing the major Heglig oil field in the north
A female journalist is tried and punished for breaching decency laws by wearing trousers.
She campaigns to change the law
UN declares end of Darfur War
2009 Aug UN military commander declares the war in Darfur to be over; activists condemn the
2009 Oct SPLM boycotts parliament over a Bill allowing intelligence services to retain widespread
2009 Dec Deal reached between leaders of North and South, on the terms of a referendum on
independence due in South by 2011
2010 Jan al-Bashir says he will accept referendum result, even if South opts for independence
2010 Feb Judges of ICC are ordered to review their decision to omit genocide from the war crimes
arrest warrant issued for al-Bashir
Sudan and Chad agree to a full normalisation of relation and to deploy a joint force on their
border to end the presence of rebels on each other’s territory and halt their activities; the
signing of this accord raises hopes of an end to the conflict in Darfur
2010 Feb-March JEM signs peace accord with government, prompting President al-Bashir to declare
the Darfur war over; but failure to agree to specifics and continuing clashes with smaller
rebel groups endanger the deal
2010 April Sudan’s first multiparty nationwide election held in 24 years, since 1986
al-Bashir gains new term as president of Sudan; re-instates Salva Kiir as First Vice
President of Sudan and President of Southern Sudan
Chad-Sudan border reopens after seven years
2010 May JEM announces it is freezing its participation in peace talks; in protest against the
involvement of other insurgents in negotiations. It accuses the government of breaking an
2010 June Darfur sees bloodiest month in two years, according to UN
Second arrest warrant
2010 July ICC issues second arrest warrant for President al-Bashir; on charges of genocide Darfur Australia Network
2010 July & Aug al-Bashir visits Chad (July) and Kenya (August) despite ICC arrest warrants; neither
neighbouring county arrests al-Bashir despite being full members of the ICC. Both countries
receive heavy criticism from the international community, while the AU has told its members
to not cooperate with the ICC ruling
2010 Aug Tensions rise in Kalma camp, the largest internally displaced persons (IDP) camp in South
Darfur. Protests by some residents – some against the Doha talks, others in support – leads
to deadly violence. Of the 82,000 IDPS in the camp before the protests, between 50,000 to
60,000 camp inhabitants remain
As a result of the violence, Sudanese authorities cut off aid to the camp for fifteen days
SPLA launches “Child Protection Department” intended to demobilise all children in military
ranks and end the use of child soldiers across Southern Sudan by the end of 2010; as per
an agreement signed with the UN in November 2009
UNAMID says that at least 21 international aid workers have been kidnapped in Darfur since
2010 Sept UN Security Council Calls on all sides to ensure that the 2011 referendum is peaceful
Floods in south Sudan force more than 50,000 people from their homes
[Last updated: September 2010]
Twelve: Sudan and South Sudan: Timeline (from Act for Peace).
PEACE ELUSIVE AS SECURITY WORSENS
Feb – Two rebel groups rise up and attack government military installations, saying Khartoum neglects arid region and arms Arab militia against civilians
Apr – U.N. humanitarian chief Jan Egeland says scorched-earth tactics trigger “one of the world’s worst humanitarian crises”
Government, Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebels agree 45-day ceasefire
May – U.N. human rights report says Sudanese troops and militia may be guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity
Government, rebels agree to African, EU ceasefire monitors
International donors conference seeks $236 million
Jun – Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir orders all groups in Darfur to be disarmed
Oct – Rwandan troops join Nigerian soldiers monitoring shaky ceasefire
Nov – Sudan signs two peace deals with rebels, banning military flights over Darfur and covering security and humanitarian access
Sudan says it has lifted all restrictions on aid workers and revoked a state of emergency in North Darfur state
Dec – Sudan agrees to stop military operations in Darfur and asks AU to request rebels do same
Dec 21 – Save the Children pulls staff out of Darfur after four killed
Mar – Sudan says has arrested military and security officials accused of rape, killing and burning villages
U.S. abstains as U.N. votes to refer war crimes suspects in Darfur to the International Criminal Court. ICC launches formal investigations in June
May – Donors pledge nearly $300 million to fund a bigger AU force
Mar – Thousands protest in Khartoum against any deployment of U.N. troops to Darfur
Apr – Chad breaks off diplomatic relations, accusing Sudan of backing insurgents trying to overthrow Chad’s president
U.N. Security Council imposes sanctions on four Sudanese accused of abuses in Darfur
May – Sudan and an SLA faction sign peace deal. SLA rival faction and JEM reject deal
AU interpreter killed and Oxfam worker stabbed in demonstrations at camps in Darfur over peace accords and lack of protection
Jul – New SLA faction emerges. Chad starts trying to mend diplomatic relations with Khartoum. Relief International aid worker killed
Oct – U.N. Sudan mission head Jan Pronk expelled after saying army has suffered two major defeats at hands of rebels
Nov – U.N. says Sudan accepts the principle of allowing U.N. troops
Norwegian Refugee Council closes its Darfur operation, citing Sudanese government obstruction
Chad’s prime minister calls for a “general mobilisation” to counter what he says are Sudanese military attacks in eastern Chad
Dec – President Bashir endorses a three-step U.N. proposal to strengthen AU force with small number of U.N. troops and police
Two major attacks targeted at aid agency compounds force hundreds of relief workers to relocate temporarily
Jan – Sudanese Air Force bombs two villages in north Darfur, disrupting plans for a meeting of rebel commanders to provide impetus for renewed dialogue
European Union threatens Sudan with sanctions if it refuses to allow U.N. peacekeepers into Darfur
Darfur police and security officials arrest 20 U.N., AU and aid workers at a social gathering. Five are beaten with rifles, and one accuses police of sexual assault
Feb – ICC chief prosecutor names Sudan’s humanitarian affairs minister and a militia commander as first suspects he wants tried for war crimes
Mar – U.N. humanitarian chief John Holmes, on his first trip to Darfur, is barred from visiting a camp
SLM warns its peace agreement with the government is in danger of collapsing following clashes
Sudan signs agreement with U.N. pledging to give humanitarian groups better access in Darfur
U.S. threatens new sanctions on Khartoum but later agrees to hold off to give U.N. time to negotiate
Apr – Khartoum agrees to let 3,000 U.N. peacekeepers into Darfur. Several aid agencies, including Oxfam, Save the Children Spain and Mercy Corps, temporarily suspend work in western Darfur because of violence
May – Sudan and Chad sign reconciliation deal. Washington tightens sanctions
Jul – Five rebel groups, including two SLA factions, unite to form the United Front for Liberation and Development (UFLD) ahead of possible peace talks
U.N. Security Council authorises up to 26,000 troops and police for a “hybrid” U.N.-African Union operation in Darfur and approves the use of force to protect civilians
Sept – AU soldiers killed after armed men launch an assault on the AU’s Haskanita base in Darfur. The base is destroyed
Oct – Armed groups raze government-held Haskanita town. Rebels say attack was carried out by government forces and militia groups
Rebels say government troops and allied militia attack Muhajiriya, a town controlled by the SLA. Government forces deny attack
Armed men kill three World Food Programme drivers in South Darfur
Government-backed militias attack Kalma refugee camp, South Darfur
Government forces attack Hamidiya refugee camp, West Darfur
JEM claims it has attacked Sudan’s Defra oil field in Kordofan, killing 20 government soldiers and taking two foreign hostages. It threatens more assaults on oil installations
Libya hosts peace talks between Khartoum, pro-government Arab militias and rebel forces. But key rebel factions stay away
Jan – U.N.-AU peacekeeping force takes over from overstretched AU mission
Jan and Feb – Sudanese air and ground assaults near Chad border. U.N. report says 115 people killed and 30,000 driven from homes. It accuses army of raping and looting. Chad threatens to expel any more refugees arriving from Darfur
Mar – Sudan and Chad presidents sign non-aggression deal in effort to end cross-border rebel attacks
Apr – U.N. raises Darfur death toll estimate to 300,000 in five years, against previous estimate of 200,000. Khartoum gives figure of 10,000
Jul – ICC chief prosecutor charges Sudan’s president with masterminding genocide campaign, killing 35,000 people and persecuting 2.5 million. Khartoum dismisses charges
Bashir makes rare visit to Darfur
Aug – Bashir says he’ll ask peacekeepers to leave if ICC issues warrant
Oct – Bashir launches national initiative for peace with a forum to discuss the conflict. Rebel groups refuse to attend
Nov – Bashir announces ceasefire
Feb – JEM and Khartoum sign goodwill agreement paving the way for peace talks. The agreement stops short of a ceasefire, and hostilities between the two sides continue
Mar – International Criminal Court issues arrest warrant for Bashir over war crimes in Darfur. Government expels 13 foreign aid groups from Sudan, and closes three local aid agencies in Darfur. The expulsion threatens aid programmes in south and east Sudan, as well as Darfur
Apr – Omar al-Bashir wins Sudan’s first multi-party elections in 24 years. International observers criticise the election as falling short of international standards
July – International Criminal Court issues second arrest warrant for President al-Bashir on charges of genocide.
Jan – The people of southern Sudan vote in favour of full independence from the north
February – Clashes between security forces and rebels in southern Sudan’s Jonglei state leave more than 100 dead
Fighting near Abyei
March – Government of South Sudan says it is suspending talks with the North, accusing it of plotting a coup
April – Airstrike – allegedly by Israel – hits a car near Port Sudan, in a case thought to involve weapons smuggling to militants in Gaza
May – Fighting breaks out in disputed region of Abyei, with most of the civilian population forced to flee
June – Violence escalates in oil-rich South Kordofan state, with reports of mass atrocities against civilians
July 9 – South Sudan to form independent country
Thirteen: Timeline of International Response to the Situation In South Kordofan and Blue Nile States (from Global R2P).
This timeline provides a chronological list of important responses and actions from international
actors to the situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States since violence began in June 2011.
AU –African Union
AUHIP – African Union High Level Implementation
BN – Blue Nile State
EU – European Union
GoS – Government of Sudan
GoSS – Government of South Sudan
ICC – International Criminal Court
ICRC – International Committee of the Red Cross
IDP – Internally Displaced Person
IGAD – Inter-Governmental Authority on
JBVMM – Joint Border Verification and Monitoring
JPSM – Joint Political Security Mechanism
LAS – League of Arab States
MoU – Memorandum of Understanding of NonAggression and Cooperation
OCHA – Office for the Coordination of
OIC – Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
OHCHR – Office of the High Commissioner for
PRST – Presidential Statement
SK – South Kordofan
SPLA – Sudan People‟s Liberation Army
SPLM-N – Sudan People‟s Liberation MovementNorth
SAF – Sudanese Armed Forces
UN – United Nations
UNISFA – United Nations Interim Security Force for
UNSC – United Nations Security Council
UNAMID – United Nations/African Union Hybrid
Operation in Darfur
UNMISS- United Nations Mission in South Sudan
USG – United States Government
WFP – World Food Programme
19 April 2012
Inter-Governmental Authority on Development IGAD Deeply Concerned by the Deterioration
of Relations Between the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan: Calls on both states
to withdraw to their positions prior to recent outbreak of conflict. Calls upon parties to restart
negotiations on outstanding issues of the CPA and post-referendum arrangements. (Press Release)
18 April 2012
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australia adds its voice to international
calls for conflict to end in Sudan: Foreign Minister Bob Carr has called for the immediate and unconditional end to the escalating violence between Sudan and South Sudan. Both sides must
respect international humanitarian law and must make the protection of civilians a priority. The
Australian Government is providing up to 25 Australian Defence Force personnel and 10
Australian Federal Police to the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), and provides ongoing
humanitarian and development assistance to South Sudan. (Media Release)
17 April 2012
UNMISS SRSG Johnson urges Sudan and South Sudan to negotiate: Hilde Johnson stressed the
importance of both parties returning to negotiations. Acknowledged that Sudanese aerial
bombardments have put civilians at risk. Understands that UNMISS does not have the assets to
fulfill their civilian protection obligations against aerial bombardments. Stresses the need for both
parties to request a border mechanism, under the auspices of UNISFA, to verify further
developments along the border. (News Story)
UNMISS UN to remain in Bentiu, despite bombings: Despite suffering three air strikes over the
past week, UN agencies and international organizations continue to operate in Bentiu, Unity
State. The bombardments have left an estimated 13 dead and 25 injured. (News Story)
African Union The African Union reiterates its call to Sudan and South Sudan to act responsibly
and to heed the appeals made by the AU and the International Community for an immediate end
to the current conflict between the two countries: Concerned by the escalation in military
operations and the movement of troops towards and around Abyei. Refers to the draft JPSM
proposal of 4 April 2012: respect the decisions of the 18 December JPSM and the MoU; ensure
both parties respect international humanitarian law with regards to protection of civilians, the
injured and prisoners; respect the oil infrastructure and property of the other. For relieving future
tensions calls on both parties to adopt a security and administrative centre line for the border
which will be based on the border as established on 1January 1956. (Press Release)
16 April 2012
UNMISS UNMISS statement about the bombing in Unity and Warrap States: “The loss of
civilian lives as a result of indiscriminate bombings in Bentiu and Mayom is unacceptable,” said
Hilde F. Johnson, UNMISS Special Representative to the Secretary-General. “It is the
responsibility of the parties to hostilities to respect the physical integrity of civilians and their
right to live without fear of displacement.” (Press Statement)
United Nations Secretary-General Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the SecretaryGeneral on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan: Calls for a cessation in hostilities and for
both sides to respect international humanitarian law and the protection of civilians. Alarmed by
the military build-up in Abyei. (Statement)
UN OHCHR Pillay urges Sudan and South Sudan to pull back from the brink: Pillay stressed the
obligation of both governments to respect international human rights and humanitarian law to
ensure the protection of civilians. Condemns the indiscriminate bombing of civilians by Sudanese
forces and attacks near the offices of international organizations. Alarmed by the unwarranted
occupation of Higlig by South Sudan. (Press Release)
12 April 2012
United Nations Security Council Presidential Statement on the situation in Sudan and South
Sudan: The Security Council demands a complete, immediate, and unconditional: end to all
fighting; withdrawal of the SPLA from Heglig; end to SAF aerial bombardments; end to repeated
incidents of cross-border violence between Sudan and South Sudan; and an end to support by
both sides to proxies in the other country. (UNSC Presidential Statement) United Nations Statement attributable to the United Nations Resident and Humanitarian
Coordinator in Sudan, Mr. Ali Al-Za’tari: Over 35,000 civilians have been displaced following
fighting in the Talodi and Higlig areas over the past two weeks. (Press Statement)
African Union The Peace and Security Council of the African Union (AU), at its 317th meeting
held on12 April2012, was briefed by the Commission on the escalating armed conflict on the
common border between the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan.: Peace and
Security Council urged Sudan and South Sudan to implement the decisions outlined in the 18
September 2011 JPSM and in UNSC Resolution 2024 (2011). Calls the Heglig occupation by
South Sudan “illegal” and “unacceptable” and demands immediate withdrawal. Demands GoS to
end aerial bombardments of South Sudan. Stresses that there can be no military situations to
resolve the conflicts in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. Calls upon both sides to reach a
political solution based on “respect for diversity in unity.” (Press Release)
European Union Statement by the Spokesperson of EU High Representative, Catherine Ashton,
on armed border clashes between Sudan and South Sudan: States that the occupation of Higlig
by South Sudan as well as the bombardment of South Sudan by the SAF is unacceptable. Calls
for: the MoU to be respected, operationalization of the JBVMM and for negotiations to continue
under the auspices of the AUHIP. (Press Statement)
Group of Eight G8 Foreign Ministers Meeting Chair’s Statement: Ministers call for an end to the
bombardment of civilian areas and for both sides to end support to proxy forces. (Press
11 April 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the SecretaryGeneral on the situation between Sudan and South Sudan: Calls for a cessation in hostilities and
for both sides to withdraw from the other‟s territory. Urges both Presidents to meet as soon as
possible. “Assures the peoples of Sudan and South Sudan that the United Nations stands ready to
extend all possible assistance to the leadership of both sides to maintain peace and stability in
Sudan and South Sudan.” (Statement)
UK Foreign Office Statement by Henry Bellingham, Minister for Africa, calls for immediate halt
to fighting between Sudan and South Sudan: Calls for the cycles of violence to end since it
threatens the CPA. Admonishes GoSS‟ decision to occupy Higlig oilfields and continued
airstrikes by SAF over Unity State. (Press Release)
US Government Statement by Victoria Nuland, State Department, on the increased military
attacks between Sudan and South Sudan: Condemns GoSS‟ military involvement in recent
conflict and GoS‟ continued aerial bombardments. Calls on both sides to withdraw immediately.
Also voices concerns over continued presence of Sudanese and South Sudanese security forces in
Abyei and calls for their withdrawal too. (Press Release)
African Union The African Union Deeply Alarmed by the Escalating Conflict between Sudan
and South Sudan: Voices concern over the escalating violence as well as the occupation of parts
of the Heglig oil fields by the armed forces of the government of South Sudan. Calls on both
parties to respect the MoU. Affirms that, in accordance with the CPA, the border between Sudan
and South Sudan will be the boundary of 1956, taking into account the agreed disputed areas.
Calls on both parties to utilize the JPSM and operationlize the JBVMM. (Press Release)
France Ministère des Affaires Étrangères et Européennes Tensions between Sudan and South
Sudan: Concerned by Sudanese air force bombings in South Sudan and the South Sudanese
armed forces capture of Higlig. Calls on both parties to withdraw, to respect the MoU and return
to negotiations under the auspices of the AUHIP. (Press Release)
05 April 2012 UN OHCHR Pillay condemns inflammatory statements by official, warns against dangerous
escalation of Southern Kordofan conflict: Concerned that comments by Ahmed Haroun,
regarding a „take no prisoners‟ policy being enacted in South Kordofan, could amount to a serious
crime and incite further violence. Calls for an independent investigation into human rights
violations in South Kordofan as well as access for humanitarian agencies. (Press Release)
03 April 2012
US Government Statement by NSC Spokesman Tommy Vietor on Sudan: The President has
authorized the delivery of $26 million of aid to support the work of the UNHCR in assisting
refugees displaced by the conflict in SK/BN States. Calls on GoS to allow humanitarian agencies
to be given access to conflict affected areas. Calls on both Presidents to convene a meeting to
continue negotiations on outstanding issues.(Press Release)
European Union Statement by EU High Representative, Catherine Ashton, concerning recent
statements by Sudanese officials regarding a “take no prisoners” policy: Regarding recent
remarks made by Ahmed Haroun, Ashton states that such a deliberate policy would constitute a
war crime. Calls upon GoS to ensure that SAF abide by international humanitarian laws at all
time. (Press Statement)
International Committee of the Red Cross Operational Update of Activities from July 2011 to
February 2012. Concerns over the tens of thousands of IDPs who are fleeing the conflict in
SK/BN States. ICRC has „expressed a willingness‟ to GoS to expand its activities in affected
areas. Other actions taken by the ICRC in SK/BN States: worked to provide water access to
civilians and improve health-care facilities; vaccinated livestock to support nomadic pastoralist
communities; acted as a neutral intermediary assisting the release of 29 Chinese workers held by
the SPLM-N. (Operational Update)
02 April 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the SecretaryGeneral on Sudan and South Sudan: Concerned over continued fighting on the border and calls
for an immediate cessation to hostilities and for both parties to implement agreements reached on
security, border demarcation and Abyei. Calls on both Presidents to meet as soon as possible to
conclude negotiations on outstanding issues. (Statement)
US Government Readout of President Obama’s Call with President Kiir: President Obama
encouraged President Kiir to continue negotiations with GoS and to build on the citizenship
agreements. Expressed concerns over the border violence and urged GoSS to refrain from
unilateral action or supporting the conflicts along the border and in South Kordofan.
African Union AUC Deputy Chairperson Discusses Means of Preventing Genocide with Francis
Deng, UN Special Adviser for the Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities. (Press Release)
30 March 2012
Republic of South Africa Department of International Relations and Cooperation South
African Government’s response to the recent Military Confrontation between the Republic of
Sudan and South Sudan: President Zuma calls on both sides to refrain from violence as it has the
potential to heighten the risk posed to civilians and worsen the humanitarian situation. He called
on both States to utilize the JPSM and to continue negotiations under the auspices of the AUHIP.
(Press Statement)29 March 2012
African Union Third Meeting of the Sudan – South Sudan consultative Forum Addis Ababa:
Participants deplored the humanitarian situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. Called
on GoS to accept and implement the AU/UN/LAS Tri-Partite Proposal. The forum noted the lack
of trust between both sides during negotiations and how this is harming both the rights and
welfare of their citizens. Called on both parties to convene the planned Presidential Summit in
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation OIC Secretary-General Statement at the twenty-third
Arab Summit: Expresses concern over the tense situation between Sudan and South Sudan. Calls
on both sides to resolve outstanding issues through negotiations and peaceful means.(Press
United Nations Statement by UNAMID Joint Special Representative on recent events in
Kabkabiya. (Press Statement)
28 March 2012
European Union Press Statement by the Spokesperson of EU High Representative, Catherine
Ashton, on the clashes in the border region between Sudan and South Sudan: Concerned by
recent escalation as well as ongoing border skirmishes and aerial bombardments. Calls on both
parties to exercise restraint and respect 10 February MoU. Urges parties to use Joint Political
Security Mechanism meeting in Addis to diffuse tensions and to attend Juba Summit. (Press
27 March 2012
United Nations Security Council Press Statement on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan:
The Council calls upon both parties to: exercise restraint and enter serious dialogue; utilize the
Joint Political Security Mechanism (JPSM) to diffuse tensions and operationalize the Joint Border
Verification and Monitoring Mission (JBVMM); repeats concerns in 6 March PRST on crossborder violence, support for proxies and troop buildup near border; reiterates requests for
humanitarian access and delivery; and for negotiations to continue under the auspices of AUHIP.
(UNSC Press Statement)
African Union Statement by the Jean Ping on the Situation at the Border of Sudan and South
Sudan: Calls on both parties to respect MoU, withdraw their forces 10km from the border, and
establish the JBVMM and to halt support for proxy groups. Should use JPSM to diffuse tensions
and both JPSM and JBVMM should investigate the clashes. (Press Statement)
US Government Statement by the White House Press Secretary on Clashes along the Border of
Sudan and South Sudan: Alarmed by fighting in South Kordofan and border area. Critical for
parties to continue with meetings on: JPSM and the Abyei Joint Operations Committee (March)
and Juba Summit. “We also urge Darfur armed movements and the Sudan People‟s Liberation
Movement–North to exercise restraint and cooperate fully with restoration of peace.” (Press
26 March 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Statement on Sudan and South Sudan Negotiations and
border clashes: Concerned by violence and urges parties to respect previous agreements. Urges
parties to use existing peace/security mechanisms to resolve differences and encourages both
heads of state to attend Juba Summit. Calls for humanitarian access into South Kordofan.
(Statement)23 March 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Abyei.
22 March 2012
US State Department Statement On Violence in Southern Kordofan and Negotiations Between
Sudan and South Sudan: USG raises concerns over intensifying violence between SAF and
SPLM-N and the impact this is having on relations between GoS and GoSS. USG calls upon GoS
and SPLM-N to agree to a ceasefire and for GoS to allow humanitarian access to civilians. Also
calls on GoSS to end military support for SPLM-N. “We strongly condemn all violations of
international human rights law and international humanitarian law in SKBN.” (Press Statement)
UK Foreign Office Statement by Henry Bellingham, Minister for Africa, on violence on border
of Sudan and South Sudan. (Press Release)
20 March 2012
European Union Press Statement following the meeting with Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of
South Sudan: Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Union, releases press statement
calling on GoS to urgently allow the delivery of humanitarian aid to South Kordofan and Blue
Nile states to alleviate the humanitarian situation. (Press Statement)
14 March 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Statement on Sudan and South Sudan Negotiations:
Regarding agreements on citizenship and demarcations of borders. (Statement)
United States Government U.S. Senate Resolution on Sudan: Calls on GoS and SPLM-N to
adhere to a ceasefire, allow humanitarian access and enter political dialogue. (U.S. Senate
7 March 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Report of the Secretary-General on South Sudan.
6 March 2012
United Nations Security Council Presidential Statement on the situation in Sudan and South
Sudan: Expresses support for tri-partite proposal and AU led mediation while calling for ceasefire
and humanitarian access in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Voices concerns over cross-border
violence between Sudan and South Sudan and calls on both governments to stop actions which
undermine sovereignty and security of the other. (UNSC Presidential Statement) (Video)
5 March 2012
United Nations Security Council Presidential Statement on the situation in Sudan and South
Sudan: Expresses support for tri-partite proposal and AU led mediation while calling for ceasefire
and humanitarian access in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Voices concerns over cross-border
violence between Sudan and South Sudan and calls on both governments to stop actions which
undermine sovereignty and security of the other. (UNSC Presidential Statement)
African Union Press Release on negotiations between GoS and GoSS. (Press Release)2 March 2012
UK Foreign Office Press Release by Foreign Secretary Hague expressing concern over border
violence between Sudan and South Sudan. (Press Release)
1 March 2012
International Criminal Court The ICC issues a warrant of arrest for the Sudanese Minister
Abdel Raheem Muhammad Hussein. (Press Release) (Warrant)
24 February 2012
UN OCHA Press Statement on South Kordofan: Mark Cutts, United Nations Humanitarian
Coordinator in Sudan, welcomes the decision by GoS to allow UN staff back into South
Kordofan. Calls upon all parties to stop fighting and for the Tri-Partite Proposal to be
operationalized. (Press Statement)
19 February 2012
African Union Press Release on Sudan and South Sudan border negotiations.(Press Release)
17 February 2012
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2035(2012): Darfur and UNAMID. (UNSC
United Nations OCHA Press Statement by Valerie Amos on Sudan: Calls upon GoS and SPLMN to allow immediate access for the delivery of humanitarian access.(Press Statement)
African Union Press Release on Sudan and South Sudan nationality negotiations.(Press Release)
14 February 2012
United Nations Security Council Press Statement by Council President Kodjo Menan (Togo):
Members voiced concerns over the dire humanitarian situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile
and calls on GoS and SPLM-N to give access to UN humanitarian assessment teams as well as
for the delivery of aid. Encourages greater engagement from both sides with the UN, AU and
LAS. (Press Statement)
African Union Statement by the Peace and Security Council: Welcoming the signing of the
Memorandum of Understanding on Non-Aggression and Cooperation. (Communiqué)
African Union Report by the Chairperson of the Commission on the status of negotiations
between Sudan and South Sudan on outstanding issues. (Report)
13 February 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Statement on Sudan and South Sudan Negotiations:
Regarding the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on Non-Aggression and
11 February 2012
African Union Press Release: Welcoming the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on
Non-Aggression and Cooperation. (Press Release)10 February 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Statement on Sudan and South Sudan Negotiations: Calls
upon both parties to make comprises to achieve peace. (Statement)
African Union Press Release: Welcoming the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on
Non-Aggression and Cooperation. (Press Release)
UK Foreign Office Press statement on situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile: Concerns over
aerial bombardment by SAF in both states. Condemns SPLM-N taking Chinese workers hostage.
Calls for immediate humanitarian access and a ceasefire. (Press Statement)
9 February 2012
African Union, United Nations and League of Arab States Tri-Partite Proposal for Access to
Provide and Deliver Humanitarian Assistance to War-Affected Civilians in South Kordofan and
Blue Nile States: Reminds all parties to the conflict their obligations under international
humanitarian law to facilitate humanitarian access to aid civilians affected by violence. 1) GoS
and SPLM-N should identify points of contact in order to establish modalities for the delivery of
humanitarian assistance. 2) Establishment of a Joint Humanitarian Oversight Committee to
oversee the delivery of humanitarian assistance. 3) The AU, LAS and UN to carry out joint
humanitarian assessment missions.4) The AU, LAS and UN will assist in the delivery of
humanitarian assistance. The WFP offer logistical services on behalf of the three organizations. 5)
All movements of humanitarian staff will be coordinated with the GoS‟ Humanitarian Aid
Commission. 6) Government authorities will verify all humanitarian cargo.7) AU, LAS and UN
monitors will observe deliveries to ensure they are reaching civilians. 8) AU, LAS and UN
monitors will assess whether there needs to be any changes to humanitarian needs. 9) Reports on
the monitoring will be shared regularly. 10) GoS and SPLM-N are responsible for safety and
security of all humanitarian staff and observers and their assets. (Joint Proposal)
2 February 2012
US Government White House Press Secretary on situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile:
Expresses concerns over the aerial bombardments in both states. Calls for humanitarian access to
alleviate situation on the ground. (Press Release)
25 January 2012
US State Department Special Briefing by Ambassador Lyman on issues of ongoing concern in
Sudan and South Sudan: Concerns over situation in South Kordofan and the need for immediate
humanitarian access. (Briefing)
20 January 2012
United Nations Secretary-General Statement on Sudan and South Sudan violence near border:
Concerns over tensions on the border and the need for negotiations to continue under auspices of
the AUHIP. (Statement)
24 December 2011 United Nations Security Council Resolution 2024(2011): Abyei and UNISFA. (UNSC
22 December 2011
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2032(2011): Abyei and UNISFA. (UNSC
6 December 2011
Sudan Troika Statement on negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan. (Statement)
1 December 2012
International Criminal Court ICC Prosecutor Presents New Case in Darfur. (Press Release)
14 November 2011
United Nations Secretary-General Statement on tensions between Sudan and South Sudan.
10 November 2011
US Government Statement on the bombings in South Sudan: Expresses concerns over the
bombing of Yida refugee camp by SAF forces. 20,000 IDPs have sought refuge in Yida from
South Kordofan. Calls for an immediate ceasefire and for GoS and SPLM-N to enter meaningful
negotiations (Press Statement)
2 September 2011
UK Foreign Office Statement by Minister for Africa, Henry Bellingham, on violence in South
Kordofan: Calls on both GoS and SPLM-N to agree to a ceasefire. (Statement)
30 August 2011
United Nations OCHA Press Statement by Valerie Amos on Sudan: Calls upon GoS and SPLMN to allow immediate access for the delivery of humanitarian access.(Press Statement)
26 August 2011
European Union Press Release voicing concern over lack of humanitarian access to South
Kordofan: Concerns over the lack of humanitarian access to affected areas despite Bashir‟s
announcement of a two week ceasefire. (Press Release)
15 August 2011 UN OHCHR Press Statement by UN Human Rights Office on situation in South Kordofan:
Concerns that crimes against humanity may have been committed in South Kordofan. (Press
29 July 2011
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2003(2011): Darfur and UNAMID. (UNSC
11 July 2011
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1997(2011): Calls on Secretary-General to consult
with AU and other partners and present options for new security arrangements in South Kordofan
and Blue Nile, in line with June 28 Framework Agreement, to the UNSC. (UNSC Resolution)
8 July 2011
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1996(2011): The UNSC bears in mind the 28 June
Framework Agreement between GoS and SPLM-N on Political and Security Arrangements in
South Kordofan and Blue Nile. (UNSC Resolution)
5 July 2011
United Nations Secretary-General Statement on situation in South Kordofan: Calls for an
immediate ceasefire, ensure protection of civilians and allow for the delivery of humanitarian
22 June 2011
US Government Statement by President Obama on the situation in Abyei and South Kordofan:
Expresses concerns over humanitarian situation in South Kordofan and calls for a ceasefire in the
state. (Press Statement)
10 June 2011
US Government Statement on the situation in South Kordofan: Expresses concerns over
escalating violence in the region. (Press Statement)
Fourteen: South Sudan Political Chronology (from the Worldstatesmen.org)
|Map of South Sudan||Hear National Anthem
“South Sudan Oyee!”
(a.k.a. “God Bless South Sudan”)
|Text of Local Anthem
Adopted 9 Jul 2011
(9 Jul 2011; transitional)
|Capital: Juba||Currency: South Sudan Pound; Sudanese Pound (SDG)||National Holiday: 9 Jul (2011)
|Population: 8,260,490 (2008)|
|GDP: $98.7 billion (2010)||Exports: $N/A (2010)
Imports: $N/A (2010)
|Ethnic groups: Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Lotuko, Kuku, Zande,
Mundari, Kakwa, Pojulu, Shilluk, Moru, Acholi, Madi,
Lulubo, Lokoya, Toposa, Lango, Didinga, Murle, Anuak,
Makaraka, Mundu, Jur, Kaliko, Somali and others
|Total Active Armed Forces: 40,150 (2010)
UN Force in Southern Sudan: 10,418 (May 2011)
Merchant marine: N/A (2011)
|Religions: Animist and traditional beliefs, Christian (Roman
Catholic and Anglican), Sunni Muslim, other
|International Organizations/Treaties: AfDB (applicant), APM, AU, C (applicant), COMESA, IBRD (applicant), ICAO, ICRC (observer), IFAD, IFRCS (observer), IGAD, IMF (applicant), Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, UN, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFP, WHO|
9 Jul 2011 - Salva Kiir Mayardit (b. 1951) SPLM
- 9 Jul 2005 – 9 Jul 2011 Region Flag
|Map of Southern Sudan||Capital: Juba||Hear Regional Anthem
(former SPLM anthem)
(6 Dec 2005 – 9 Jul 2011)
|SPLA Force: 40,150 (2010)||Currency: Sudanese Pound
|Region Holiday: 16 May (1983)
Founding of the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Army
|Population: 8,260,490 (2008)|
Chairmen of the Southern Region High Executive Council
6 Apr 1972 - Feb 1978 Abel Alier (1st time) (b. 1933) SF
Feb 1978 - 12 Jul 1979 Joseph Lagu (b. 1931) SANU
12 Jul 1979 - 30 May 1980 Peter Gatkuoth
30 May 1980 - 5 Oct 1981 Abel Alier (2nd time) (s.a.) SF/SSU
5 Oct 1981 - 23 Jun 1982 Gismalla Abdalla Rassas (interim) SSLM
23 Jun 1982 - 5 Jun 1983 Joseph James Tombura (b. 1929? - d. ....) SANU
5 Jun 1983 - 25 May 1985 Post abolished
25 May 1985 - May 1986 James Loro SSU
May 1986 - May 1987 Post abolished
Chairmen of the Council for the South
31 Jan 1987 - Jan 1988 Matthew Abor Ayang
Jan 1988 - Jun 1989 Angelo Beda
Jun 1989 - 7 Aug 1997 Post abolished
Chairmen of the Southern Sudan Coordination Council
7 Aug 1997 - 31 Jan 2000 Riek Mashar Teny (b. 1952) SPLM-U
2000 - 2001 Angelo Beda (acting)
2001 - 9 Dec 2002 Galwak Deng SNC
9 Dec 2002 - 2005 Riek Gai Kok SNC
Presidents of the Government of Southern Sudan
9 Jul 2005 - 30 Jul 2005 John Garang de Maboir (b. 1945 - d. 2005) SPLM
1 Aug 2005 - 9 Jul 2011 Salva Kiir Mayardit (s.a.) SPLM
(acting to 11 Aug 2005)
President of the Southern Sudan Liberation Front (SSLF)
(from Aug 1971, Southern Sudan Liberation Movement [SSLM])
Oct 1969 - 28 Mar 1972 Joseph Lagu (s.a.) SSLF/SSLM
Chairman of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)
5 Jun 1983 - 9 Jan 2005 John Garang de Maboir (s.a.) SPLM
President of the Southern Sudan Provisional Government
15 Aug 1967 - 27 Mar 1969 Aggrey Jaden (b. 1924 - d. 1985) ALF
President of the Nile Provisional Government (NPG)
Mar 1969 - 23 Jul 1970 Gordon Mayen Muortat (Mortat) (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
President of the Anyidi Revolutionary Government (in opposition to NPG)
15 Jul 1969 - Apr 1970 Emilio Tafeng (b. c.1910) Mil/AN
Party abbreviations: SNC = Sudanese National Congress Party (mainly Arab/Muslim, Islamist);
SANU = Sudan African National Union; SPLM = Sudan People's Liberation Movement (pro-southern autonomy, political arm of Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army SPLA, est.1983); SSIM = Southern Sudan Independence Movement (SPLM break-away, est.Aug 1991 by Riak Machar); SSLM = Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (Southern Sudan regionalist, to Aug 1971 SSLF; est.20-30,000 ); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ALF = Azanian Liberation Front; AN = Anya-Naya (militant southern Sudan separatist, 1970 absorbed by SSLF); SF = Southern Front; SPLM-U = Sudan People's Liberation Movement-United (break away faction of SPLM); SSLF = Southern Sudan Liberation Front (renamed Aug 1971, SSLM)
Territorial Disputes: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 Jan 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times.
- 15 Jan 1897 – 10 Jun 1910
|Map of Lado District||Capital: Rejaf (Redjaf)
- May 1892 First Congolese expedition in the Bahr al-Ghazal.
- 12 May 1894 British-Belgian Congolese Treaty. In order to prevent a French
- take over of the Bahr al-Ghazal and to open a "second front"
- against the Mahdists, the British leased for the lifetime of
- Leopold II the Bahr al-Ghazal (region between the Nile,
- Lake Albert, 10° Northern Latitude and 25° Western Longitude)
- to Congo. The Congo agrees to only occupy the zone between the
- Nile, Lake Albert, 5°30' NL and 30° WL (later Lado district).
- 15 Jan 1897 Congolese troops start occupying the territory. Limited to the
- south (Lado district/enclave) the occupation later extends
- to other parts of Bahr al-Ghazal.
- 19 Jan 1899 Britain proclaims the Bahr al-Ghazal a part of the Anglo-Egyptian
- Sudan. Belgian Congolese presence and expansion continues.
- 9 May 1906 British-Belgian Congolese Treaty, the lease of the Bahr al-Ghazal
- is canceled, only the Lado enclave remains leased to the
- Belgian Congo for King Leopold's lifetime.
- 3 Aug 1907 Last Congolese troops leave Bahral-Ghazal (except Lado).
- 10 Jun 1910 Lado district restored to Sudan; part of Bahr al-Ghazal province.
Commandants Supérieur of the District of Uele and Lado
15 Jan 1897 - 1898 Louis Napoléon Chaltin (1st time) (b. 1857 - d. 1933)
1898 - Jan 1899 Léon Hanolet (1st time) (b. 1859 – d. 1908)
Jan 1899 - 1900 Josué Henry de la Lindi (b. 1869 - d. 1957)
1 May 1900 - 1902 Louis Napoléon Chaltin (2nd time) (s.a.)
Mar 1902 - Jan 1903 Léon Hanolet (2nd time) (s.a.)
Feb 1903 – 8 May 1904 Georges-François Wtterwulghe (b. 1871 – d. 1904)
May 1904 - 1905 Florian Wacquez (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
1905 - May 1907 Ferdinand baron de Rennette de (b. 1869 - d. 19..)
Villers-Perwin (acting to Aug 1906)
Commandants of the Lado Enclave
Aug 1900 - 190. Gustave Renier (b. 1867 - d. 1914)
190. - Aug 1903 Albéric Bruneel
Aug 1903 - Mar 1905 Henri Serexhe
Mar 1905 - Jan 1908 Guillaume-Léopold Olaerts (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
Jan 1908 - Apr 1909 Léon Preudhomme (b. 1871 - d. 19..)
Apr 1909 - 1910 Bertrand
1910 - Jun 1910 de Meulenaere
.... - .... Nyikang
.... - .... Col wad Nyikang
.... - .... Dak wad Nyikang
.... - c.1600 Nyidoro wad Dak
c.1600 - c.1635 Odak Ocwolo wad Dak
c.1635 - c.1650 Duwat wad Ocwolo
c.1650 - c.1660 Bwoc wad Duwat
c.1660 - c.1661 Akac
c.1661 - c.1667 Abudok nya Bwoc (f)
c.1667 - c.1690 Tokot wad Bwoc
c.1690 - c.1710 Tugo wad Tokot
c.1710 - c.1715 Okon wad Tugo
c.1715 - c.1745 Nyadwai wad Tugo
c.1740 - c.1745 Ngu Abab (in rebellion)
c.1745 - c.1750 Muko wad Nyadwai
c.1750 - c.1760 Wak wad Nyadwai
c.1760 - c.1770 Tyelgut wad Nyadwai
c.1770 - c.1780 Kudit wad Okon
c.1780 - c.1820 Yor Nyakwac wad Kudit
c.1820 - c.1825 Aney wad Nyakwac
c.1825 - c.1835 Akwot wad Nyakwac
c.1835 - c.1840 Awin wad Nyakwac
c.1840 - c.1845 Akoc wad Akwot
c.1845 - Feb 1859 Nyidok wad Nyakwac (d. 1859)
c.1859 Acin wad Akwot
c.1859 - c.1870 Kwadker wad Akwot
c.1870 - 1875 Ajang wad Nyidok (d. 1875)
1875 Dedunyal wad Ajang
1875 - 1876 Vacant
1876 - 1881 Kuikon wad Kwadker
1881 - 1892 Yor wad Akoc
1892 - 1903 Kur Galdwan wad Nyidok
1903 - 1917 Fadyet wad Kwadker (d. 1917)
1917 - Sep 1943 Fafiti wad Yor (d. 1943)
15 Mar 1944 - Nov 1945 Aney wad Kur (b. c.1900 - d. 1945)
Jan 1946 - 8 May 1951 Dak wad Fadyet (d. 1951)
Feb 1952 - 1974 Kur wad Fafiti (b. 1928 - d. 1974)
1974 - 19.. Tipo wad Aney
1984? - Jun 1992 Ayang wad Aney (d. 1992)
4 Aug 1993 - Kwongo wad Dak
© Ben Cahoon
Fifteen: Timeline: South Sudan referendum (from Christian Science Monitor)
Key events on the path to Sunday’s historic Sudan referendum, in which the semiautonomous region of South Sudan votes whether to become an independent nation.
By Staff / January 6, 2011
The landmark referendum is a key part of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended decades of war between the Arab-dominated northern government and the rebel forces from the Christian and animist southern region.
Below is a timeline of key events leading up to the vote.
The Sudanese government and southern rebels (the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement) agree to include a power-sharing plan in a peace deal to end two-decade conflict.
The Sudanese government and southern rebels sign the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which includes a permanent cease-fire, plans for wealth and power sharing, and an autonomous government in the south.
A Constitution is signed, giving southern Sudan a significant amount of autonomy. Former southern rebel leader John Garang is named first vice president of Sudan. He is killed the following month in a plane crash.
A power-sharing government is formed in Khartoum, Sudan’s capital.
South Sudan forms an autonomous government.
South Sudan temporarily leaves unity government, citing a failure to follow the 2005 peace deal.
Arab militia and southern Sudanese forces clash in Abyei region, which lies between north and south.
Counting begins in national census, one of the requirements for democratic elections and the referendum agreed to in the peace deal.
More fighting breaks out in border region, this time in town of Abyei. Abyei is rich with oil, a point of contention in the upcoming referendum.
South Sudan’s leader and vice president of unity government warns he is preparing forces for the possibility of another war with the north.
Leaders of north and south reach a deal on the terms of the referendum on southern independence, planned for 2011.
Bashir says he will accept results of a referendum, even if it leads to southern independence.
Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir wins Sudan’s first contested presidential election since 1986.
The timetable for the referendum is set. The vote is scheduled for Jan. 9, 2011.
Voter registration for the referendum begins.
Jan. 9, 2011
The referendum vote on South Sudan’s independence will take place.
Sudan Timeline (from UBC.CA)
Pre-1821 tribal communities without any formal government.
1821-85 “Turkiyya” – Egyptian rule establishes formal structures; focus in the north for trade.
1839 South “opened” for slave trade; beginning of repressive rule by the North and the
1881-85 Mohamed Ahmed fights for freedom from Egyptian oppressors.
1897 Fashoda Incident-Britain and France almost engage in conflict over southern Sudan; resolved peacefully.
1889 British occupation.
1899 British establish “Condominium Agreement” with Egypt
– End slave trade
– Separate administration of North and South: Arabism and Islam encouraged in the north; African indigenous
development and Christian missionaries encouraged in the South; interaction discouraged.
1920 Southern Policy-official separate administration undertaken to protect the South from the north.
1922 Passports and Permits Ordonnance restricts travel between North and South.
1925 Trade policy restricts commerce between North and South.
1928 Language policy recognizes English and several traditional languages in the south.
1943 Northern Sudan Advisory Council formed to prepare for self-government.
1947 Reversal of the Southern policy as North vies for independence.
1948 Formation of a joint N/S legislative assembly (only 13 chosen representatives from the south).
1952 Northern Umma party negotiates self-determination with the British; no consultation with the South.
1953 Anglo-Egyptian Agreement providing for withdrawal from the Sudan
Civil War (Part I) – Anyanya fighters
Aug 1955 Equatoria Corps (south) mutiny against the transfer of southern soldiers to the north under northern command; form the
core of the Anyanya separatist movement and marks the beginning of the war.
1 Jan. 1956 Khalil of north declares an independent republic.
Nov. 1958 Military coup overthrows Khalil government and installs Abboud to power
-aggressive policies of Arabization and islamization with authoritarian rule
1960s Increasing resistance in the south to repressive policies and increasing violence.
1962 founding of the SANU by exiled southern guerillas and their political wing with the Southern Front.
1964 -popular uprising in the north restores civilian rule
-Round Table Conference recommendations for autonomy ignored
1967 NUP and PDP unite to form the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) 500,000 dead in civil
1971 Sudanese Communist Party failed coup against Nimeiri
-establishment of new “Socialist Democratic Constitution”
-formation of the Southern Sudan Liberation movement (SSLM)
Addis Ababa Peace
1972 Addis Ababa Agreement between the SSLM and GOS providing for 3 provinces in the south, political autonomy,
military power-sharing and recognition of English in education and administration.
1974 secular constitution recognizes the principles of Addis Ababa
1974-76 series of attempted coups and formation of National Front in opposition to the secularization of governmental policies
1977 Nimeiri adopts National Reconciliation under National Front pressure: Southern autonomy, growing opposition in South.
1978 Chevron decision to build the plant in the north leads to considerable protests, and riots in the south
1981 suspension of Southern assembly
Civil War (Part II)
1983 Nimeiri unilaterally abrogates Addis-Ababa: re-division of the south, disbands Regional Administration, sends southern
troops to the north, adopts religious-based criminal code (September Laws).
-formation of Sudanese liberation Movement (SPLM) under John Garang and associated military wing (SPLA) calling
for a new secular, democratic and pluralistic Sudan
-1983-91 SPLM/A fights Anyanya II separatist movements in the south
-beginning of blockade of the Nuba Mountains by GOS (still in effect)
1984 Jonglei canal construction abandoned due to SPLA attacks
1985 Nimeiri regime toppled by intifadah following drought, repression, pressure from the south
-formation of the National Islamic Front (NIF) to replace Nimeiri
1986 “elections” (only half of South gets to cote) brings National Alliance, a less fundamentalist Islamic group, to power.
-Koka Dam Agreement between National Alliance and SPLM/A establishing peace in theory, though rejected by NIF
-Dhaein Massacre in which 3000 Southern Sudanese are killed by GOS forces
-raids on the Dinka of the Nuba Mountains and in Bahr El Ghazal begin 1988 continued uprisings and violence amidst weak coalition government, suspension from theIMF, debt of $12 billion, heavy
rains and floods,
-creation of coalition between the DUP and SPLAM with the November Accords in response to increasing
authoritarianism: agree to freeze Sharia, impose a cease-fire and hold a constitutional conference
-massive famine in which 250,000 die
June 30 General Omar Hassan Ahmed al Bashir overthrows the government in a military coup in the name of “Revolution for
National Salvation” in conjunction with the NIF
-2 million flee in the south; 0.5 million IDPs; 0.5 million refugees (primarily in Pakistan, Iran).
1989-91 consolidation of the new regime and relative peace, though human rights abuses and repression continue
1991 massive population displacement with SPLM split (SPLM-Main under Garang and SPLM- Nasir under Machar and
Akol) and forced return of refugees from Ethiopia
May-June 1992 failure of Abuja Peace Conference when SPLA regroups with agreement to pursue self-determination.
1993 intermittent cease-fires; GOS gains area up to Ugandan border series of unsuccessful peace talks led by the international
Group against Drought and for Development (IGADD) sets a Declaration of Principles providing for either regional
autonomy or secular central system; SPLA accepts; GOS refuses
1994 Asmara Declaration temporarily realigns parties with a common declaration by the SPLA, DUP and UMMA to
recognize the South’s right to self-determination
June 1995 National Democratic Alliance (NDA) formed at Asmara unites GOS, forming an alliance against the SPLM
1997 Khartoum Peace Accord between GOS and Albright meets with SPLA/M
-GOS signs mine ban treaty
1998 2.4 million at risk of famine with blocking of food aid from the Upper Nile and significant displacement from violence
and floods (>70,000)
-SPLA and GOS sign limited ceasefire
-cruise missile attacks by US on Khartoum in connection with terrorist bases and Bin Laden
Oct-Dec 1998 food aid gradually resumes with a ceasefire in the south
-2 million dead in 15yrs; 70,000 in 1998 alone
1999 Sudan begins to export oil.
Jan 1999 SPLA/GOS ceasefire renewed
-continued local violence (108 killed in clashes in south)
Feb 1999 more than 10,000 refugees flee to Chad from west Darfur area within several days amidst renewed conflict
March 1999 4 ICRC Sudanese killed in SPLA attacks
April 1999 GOS postpones planned talks in Kenya citing death of ICRC workers
Sept 2000 Governor of Khartoum issues decree barring women from working in public places.
Dec 2000 Bashir re-elected for another five years in elections boycotted by main opposition parties.
Feb 2001 Islamist leader Hassen al-Turbai arrested a day after his party, the Popular National Congress, signed a memorandum of
understanding with the southern rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)
March 2001 Hunger and famine in Sudan affects 3 million people.
April 2001 SPLA rebels threaten to attack international oil workers brought in to help exploit vast new oil reserves.
April-May 2001 Police continue arrests of members of Turabi’s popular National Congress party (PNC).
25 May 2001 Police use tear gas to disperse thousands of demonstrators at the funeral of Ali Ahmed El-Bashir from opposition
Islamist Popular National Congress party, who died from wounds sustained while being arrested.
June 2001 Failure of Nairobi peace talks attended by President al-Bashir and rebel leader John Garang.
August 2001 The Nile river floods leaving thousands homeless in Sudan.
Sept 2001 UN lifts sanctions against Sudan.
Oct 2001 Following the New York terror attacks, USA puts new sanctions on Sudan due to accusations of Sudan’s involvement
with International terrorism.
Dec 2001 More than 14,550 slaves – mainly blacks from the south – are said to be freed following pressure from Human Rights
Jan 2002 SPLA joins forces with rival militia group, Sudan People’s Defence Force, to campaign against the government in
-Government and SPLA sign a landmark ceasefire agreement providing for six-month renewable ceasefire in central
Nuba Mountains, which is a key rebel stronghold.
20 July 2002 Government and SPLA sign Machakos Protocol on ending the 19-year civil war.
-Government accepts the south’s right to seek self-determination after a six year interim period.
-Rebels in the south accept the application of Shariah Law in the north.
27 July 2002 President al-Bashir and SPLA leader John Garang meet for the first time due to the mediation of the Ugandan President.
Oct 2002 Government and SPLA agree to ceasefire for duration of negotiations; however, hostilities continue.
March 2003 Fighting in the Darfur region of western Sudan between government forces and rebels from the Sudan Liberation Army
(SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM).
-rebel forces are angry over neglect and suppression in the region. pril 2003 Refugees begin arriving in Chad to escape the conflict. Large numbers of civilians are internally displaced (IDPs) in
Sept 2003 Refugee numbers reach 65,000 in Chad.
Oct 2003 PNC leader Turabi released after nearly 3 years in jail, the ban on his party is also lifted
7 Nov 2003 UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) warns Darfur is facing its worst crisis since 1988.
Early Dec 2003 New attacks by government supported, Arab Janjaweed militias. Attacks include the burning of villages, and the rape
and murder of civilians.
-10,000 new refugees in Chad
-Sudanese government begins interfering with humanitarian efforts; restricting access by delaying or refusing travel
9 Dec 2003 Kofi Annan sounds alarm over HR violations, with more than a million people in need of aid, and over 600,000
displaced peoples; UN declares Darfur worst humanitarian crisis.
23 Dec 2003 UNHCR unveils plans to build safe camps in Chad where refugee numbers have reached 100,000.
23 Jan 2004 18,000 refugees enter Chad in one week as Janjaweed attacks intensify.
Feb 2004 IDPs in Darfur report humanitarian aid is being routinely stolen by militias.
19 March 2004 UN Humanitarian Coordinator for Sudan Mukesh Kapila says the situation in Darfur is comparable to the Rwandan
genocide in 1994.
2 April 2004 UN official reports to the Security Council that pro-government Arab “Janjaweed” militias are carrying out systematic
killings of African villagers in Darfur.
-Army officers and opposition politicians, arrested over alleged coup plot.
May 2004 Fighting in Darfur spills into neighbouring Chad, where Chadian soldiers clash with Sudanese Arab militias.
-Government and SPLA rebel leaders sign deal to end more than 20 years of civil war in southern Sudan. Deal includes
power-sharing protocols and division of oil and non-oil wealth.
-Number of IDPs in Darfur region grows to over 1 million, numbers in Chad reach over 120,000, with 68,000 refugees
transferred to safe camps farther inside Chad.
-Sudanese Government announcing that aid workers for Darfur will receive entry visas quickly and will no longer need
travel permits for the area; but UNSC is told restraints continue.
25 May 2004 Security Council call on Khartoum to neutralize and disarm the Janjaweed.
26 May 2004 the number of people needing aid has risen to 2 million.
Mid-June 2004 The rainy season arrives making aid delivery very difficult.
3 July 2004 The UN and Sudan sign a communiqué in which they pledge to alleviate the conflict in Darfur. Khartoum to lift all
restrictions on humanitarian access, bring to justice those responsible for HR abuses, disarm Janjaweed, protect IDPs and
resume peace talks with the rebels.
-UN to help AU deploy ceasefire monitors and provide humanitarian relief.
-Also agree to a Joint Implementation Mechanism (JIM) to monitor agreement.
19 July2004 UN agencies say Sudanese government is trying to pressure Darfur IDPs to return to their home villages. The IDP
number has increased by 100,000 in the last month.
21 July 2004 UN received $145 million of requested $349 million needed for Darfur.
23 July 2004 The leaders of the SLA and JEM agree to substantive peace talks with the Sudanese Government to try to resolve the
30 July 2004 Security Council adopts resolution that would allow for action against Sudan if the government does not show progress
on pledges made in the communiqué.
4 Aug 2004 IDP numbers reach 1.2 million.
24 Aug 2004 UN officials take part in AU-organized peace talks in Abuja, Nigeria, between Sudanese Government and the SLA and
25 Aug 2004 UN humanitarian agencies declare funding inadequate for the crisis in the Darfur region, $288 million of the $722
2 Sept 2004 Security Council that Khartoum has not disarmed the Janjaweed nor stopped their attacks.
9 Sept 2004 The number of Sudanese refugees in Chad is now rising beyond 200,000.
15 Sept 2004 UN agencies probe reports of fresh wave of displacements: 4,000 in North Darfur and 5,000 people in South Darfur.
18 Sept 2004 Security Council adopts resolution that says it will consider more measures, including sanctions if Khartoum does not
comply with earlier resolutions.
-Resolution also requests that Kofi Annan setup a genocide enquiry.
22 Sept 2004 Number of IDPs swelled to 1.45 million and rising.
23 Sept 2004 Sudanese Foreign Minister, Mustafa Osman Ismail, tells General Assembly’s annual high-level debate that it will respect
HR work in Darfur, but blames rebel groups for problems.
Sept 2004 UN says Sudan has not met targets for disarming pro-government Darfur militias and must accept outside help to protect
-US Secretary of State declares Darfur killings a genocide.
CHRONOLOGY-Key events during Sudan’s 21-year civil war (from Sudan Tribune).
LONDON, Dec 31 (Reuters) – Following is a chronology of some of the main events since Sudan’s civil war began 21 years ago:
1983 – The government, dominated by northern Arabs, adopts aspects of Islamic sharia law and later martial law. Relations with mostly animist and Christian south deteriorate.
1983-84 – Rebels organise Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and its political arm, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM).
April/May 1986 – Sadiq al-Mahdi becomes prime minister and starts three years of chaotic coalition government.
June 30, 1989 – Lieutenant-General Omar Hassan al-Bashir takes power in bloodless coup.
Jan 1, 1992 – Bashir announces return to civilian rule.
1992 – Government offensive seizes southern territory, including the SPLA headquarters at Torit.
May 1994 – Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a regional conflict-solving body, urges self-determination for the south. Khartoum quits IGAD talks.
March 1996 – Elections keep Bashir in power.
April 1997 – Khartoum signs deal with South Sudan Independence Movement and other rebel groups, isolating SPLA.
Aug 1997 – Government, facing military losses and regional isolation, says it will return to the IGAD process.
Oct 29, 1997 – Peace talks open in Nairobi.
Nov 4, 1997 – United States imposes sweeping economic sanctions on Sudan, accusing it of sponsoring terrorism.
Dec 1999 – Bashir removes Islamist ideologue Hassan al-Turabi, formerly his chief ally, from positions of power.
Feb 2000 – Talks resume but end after five days when rebels accuse Sudan of indiscriminate attacks on civilians.
Feb 2001 – Turabi arrested for signing deal with rebels.
Sept 28, 2001 – United Nations lifts five-year-old sanctions against Sudan. Unilateral U.S. sanctions remain in force.
July 20 – Five weeks of talks in Machakos, Kenya, yield government-SPLM deal on key issues of religion and self-determination. They sign the “Machakos protocol”.
July 27 – Bashir meets rebel chief John Garang for first time, but negotiations collapse in September after rebels seize strategic garrison town of Torit.
Oct 15 – Government and SPLM sign ceasefire for duration of latest round of peace talks, the first such truce.
Jan 27 – Sudanese rebels say government captures southern town of Ler in renewed fighting, contravening ceasefire terms.
Sept 25 – Government and SPLA sign security deal, clearing a major stumbling block in peace talks.
Oct 13 – Government releases Islamist leader Turabi.
Jan 7 – Government and rebels sign accord on how to share the country’s wealth when war ends.
May 26 – Government and SPLA sign three protocols resolving outstanding issues, clearing way for full peace deal.
Nov 19 – Government, SPLA sign pledge in front of all 15 U.N. Security Council members meeting in Kenya to end war by Dec 31.
Dec 31 – Government and SPLM sign final two chapters of peace accord, paving the way for ceremony in January at which government and rebel leaders will sign a comprehensive peace agreement, signing for the first time all eight peace protocols agreed earlier by junior colleagues.
Sudan OIL & CONFLICT TIMELINE (from Sudan-Update)
|Sudan OIL & CONFLICT TIMELINE (from Sudan-Update)|
|1955Beginning of first civil war between north and south.1956Independence – end of British-Egyptian condominium rule.1958
General Abboud’s military coup in November overthrows first civilian government.
Early oil exploration begun by Agip in the Red Sea
October 1964: Abboud regime toppled by popular uprising
Port Sudan refinery comes on-stream, operated by Shell and BP (Sudan) Ltd., a company set up in 1962 between Royal Dutch/Shell and BP. Capacity of 20,000 b/d later expanded to 25,000 b/d in early 1970s. (Shell still owns Port Sudan refinery)
Jaafar Nimeiri becomes president after “May Revolution”; briefly anti-Western.
January 70: Nimeiri nationalises all banks, sequesters many large companies.
March 70: Nimeiri crushes potential Ansar/Umma insurrection – bombs White Nile Aba island base; Imam al-Hadi al-Mahdi killed fleeing towards Ethiopia.
November 70: Nimeiri sacks communists from his government
July 71: Failed communist coup d’etat; Nimeiri kicks out Soviet advisors, opens door to China.
Relations resume with US and West
July 72: Addis Ababa Agreement, with autonomy for the South, ends 17 years of civil war
Large-scale Sudanese emigration to the increasingly wealthy Arab oil states.
March 73: US ambassador C.A Noel assassinated in Khartoum.
August 73: Attempted uprising by Muslim Brotherhood and Umma Party
Chevron begins operations in Red Sea, and near Bentiu, Malakal and Muglad in S / SW. Concession is originally granted to Chevron, with Shell subsequently taking a 25% interest.
Over the next 20 years, Chevron and Shell spend an estimated US$1bn, shoot “extensive seismic”, and drill “52 wells, including 34 suspended oil wells capable of re-completion for production.”
Sudan is called potential “breadbasket of the Arab world”; large-scale mechanised agriculture expands into southern Kordofan; huge influx of international capital. Loans to Sudan begin accumulating – leading to present day unpayable arrears.
September 75: Attempted anti-Nimeiri coup by “National Front” – an Umma/DUP/Muslim Brotherhood coalition.
Chevron makes Suakin Red Sea gas discovery.
July 76: Failed coup attempt by Ansar (of Sadiq al-Mahdi‘s Umma party) and Muslim Brotherhood
Sadiq al-Mahdi holds “reconciliation” with President Nimeiri (see photo) – but doesn’t consult his followers.
1977: “OPEN DOOR” FREE-MARKET POLICIES ADOPTED
1978: First Chevron oil discoveries near Bentiu and Heglig. “More than Saudi Arabia – 15m b/d,” claims Lebanese newspaper
Joint Sudanese-Egyptian financing project is launched to construct the Jonglei Canal through Sudd marshes of the South, employing the French CCI company’s redundant giant excavator.
Economic crisis – international primary commodity prices plummet and imported oil prices soar. IMF intervenes and negotiates “structural adjustment”. First devaluation.
February 79: US Secretary of Defense promises to sell jet fighters, tanks and other arms to Sudan. October – US Senate approves $1.7m in additional military assistance to Sudan (after several previous larger weapons deals).
JONGLEI CANAL construction begins, despite local protests.
Nimeiri embarks on “redivision” of the south from one autonomous unit to three states; a map attached to the Regional Government bill puts the area where oil has been found into northern Sudan. His creation of new “Unity” state around Bentiu to prise it from the south causes political upheaval among southerners, as does presidential decree that oil refinery is to be built at Kosti, in the north, instead of Bentiu.
Chevron discovers commercial oil deposits in the “Unity (South)” field north of Bentiu. With neighbouring Heglig field in S. Kordofan, recoverable reserves are estimated at 236m barrels.
August 81: White Nile Petroleum Corporation is formed by Chevron and Sudan government. There are no southerners on the board.
January 82: Petrol shortages spark serious disturbances. For the first time, Nimeiri’s army command voices disapproval of the situation in the country and the corruption of his cronies.
September 82: Kosti refinery project “frozen” in favour of pipeline plan.
Nimeiri completes “redivision” of South; sacks vice-presidents Abel Alier and Joseph Lagu.
April 1983: Civil war re-ignites after mutinies by army commanders Arok Thon Arok, Kerubino Kuanyin, John Garang and others lead to formation of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA).
September 1983: Nimeiri introduces “sharia” laws – used by his regime to terrorise and humiliate, with indefinite detention, public floggings, amputations – and death penalty for “heretics”.
White Nile Petroleum Company (owned by government, Chevron, Shell and Apicorp) created to build 1,420-km export line from Unity and Heglig via Kosti to Red Sea terminal between Port Sudan and Suakin; projected cost US$1bn.
Nimeiri uses southern ethnic Nuer “Anya Nya Two” militia against SPLA in the oilfields.
March 1984: SPLA attacks oil fields in the south; Chevron suspends operations. Three expatriate Chevron workers are kidnapped from Rub Kona base, near Bentiu, and killed.
July 84: Government signs deal with Trans-African Pipeline Co. of US to build 1,760-km pipeline across Sudan to Central African Republic. (It was never built.)
JONGLEI CANAL WORK IS HALTED BY SPLA
Adnan Khashoggi is offered all-in oil deal by Nimeiri, making implicit threat to Chevron to resume operations.
Fighting in southern Sudan escalates to highest levels yet. Khartoum and other towns fill with people displaced by war in south and famine in west. War spending is double that for education and health.
Anti-Nimeiri alliance of trades unions, professional associations and student bodies co-ordinates opposition, establishes extensive clandestine network of banned political parties, women and youth associations, as well as cells within the army and police.
April 1985: Massive demonstrations precede a general strike that paralyses the country; Nimeiri is overthrown by army after popular uprising. SPLA rejects peace overtures of transitional military junta headed by his former Defence Minister.
April-May – Parliamentary Elections – Sadiq al-Mahdi becomes Prime Minister of a series of coalitions. No voting in half the 86 southern constituencies on grounds of “insecurity”.
November 86 : Government shelves all contracts for $375m oil pipeline proposal by White Nile Petroleum consortium (Chevron, Royal Dutch/Shell, Arab Petroleum Investments Corporation, International Finance Corporation and Sudan government), despite complaints from partners.
“Anya-Nya Two” militia breaks up after SPLA’s 1986 military successes; senior commanders defect with virtually entire units to SPLA.
Chevron resumes its activities, planning a six-year exploration and drilling program. China buys part of Chevron concession.
Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi and his Minister of Defence, Gen (rtd) Mubarak Osman Rahma, (Nimeiri’s last ambassador to Beijing), sign large arms deal with China. Sadiq does not stay in power long enough to take delivery of the weapons.
January-March 89: SPLA “New Kush” Division enters Nuba Mountains led by Yusif Kuwa.advance close to Kadugli, Nuba Mountains, South Kordofan, overrunning police posts. Despite SPLA-government ceasefire, SPLA units infiltrate Tulushi in the western hills.
April 89: Government transfers remnants of the anti-SPLA militia “Anya Nya Two” to Kadugli, where they gain a reputation for ruthlessness. Over 200 Nuba in Kadugli are detained, including many members of the Sudan National Party. Several are summarily executed.
30 June 1989: Lt-Gen al-Bashir and Hassan al-Turabi’s National Islamic Front (NIF) stage military coup
NIF overthrows Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi’s elected government, aborting peace process and upcoming constitutional conference with SPLA. War escalates in the South; large shipments of arms from China (ordered by Sadiq) are paid for by Iran.
November 89: In Upper Nile, “Anya-Nya Two” forces allied with Army against SPLA disrupt guerrilla supply lines between Bahr al-Ghazal and Ethiopia.
1990: Chevron finally quits and relinquishes all its concessions, after spending more than $1billion.
January 90: Khartoum reaches deal with Libya for free supply of 600,000 tons of oil (agreement extended twice until May 1991 but supply proves erratic).
April 90: Extrajudicial execution of 28 military officers and unspecified numbers of NCOs and soldiers follows anti-NIF coup attempt.
June 90: Garang announces upcoming SPLA talks with Bashir.
August 90: Gulf War breaks out. Khartoum backs Iraq and is boycotted by Gulf Co-operation Council. Riyadh suspends supplies.
September 90: Iran‘s president Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani declares his support for Sudan and describes the war in the South as a “holy war”. More than 60 lawyers and judges, including at least eight from the High Court and the Deputy Chief Justice, are dismissed. Fifteen Nuba NCOs in the Sudanese army are executed for “plotting and collaborating with the SPLA”, after 45 officers are arrested.
SPLA peace negotiations with regime sponsored by Kenya.
March 91: Visit to China by Sudan’s military chief of logistics: an arms contract worth US$300m is reportedly signed, to be financed by the NIF with funds from Iran. Two helicopters, one hundred 1,000-pound high altitude bombs and assorted ammunition are later shipped to Port Sudan. China sends team to instruct Sudanese pilots and aircrews in high altitude bombing. Bombardments of civilian targets in the South increase.
May 91: Overthrow of Mengistu Haile Mariam of Ethiopia. Weakened by the subsequent loss of logistical support from Ethiopia, the SPLA, which at this point holds 90% of the rural areas and several towns, loses considerable ground to government forces over the next three years.
August 1991: SPLA Commanders Riek Machar and Lam Akol lead unsuccessful “creeping coup” attempt against John Garang; form breakaway “Nasir” faction (later “SPLA-United / Southern Sudan Independence Movement”) with allies mainly from Upper Nile’s Nuer and Shilluk.
Army seals off the Nuba Mountains (South Kordofan) and begins scorched earth operations.
December 91: Iran’s Hashemi Rafsanjani heads delegation of 157 officials, 80 from military/intelligence; signs protocols on economic, political and military and intelligence matters. Washington expresses “interest and concern”. Iran denies enlisting help in providing new bases for Hezbollah but is willing to train Sudan army personnel: hundreds are being trained in security methods by revolutionary guards. Tehran supplies Sudan with oil and a $17m loan, and agrees to write off a $150m loan given to Nimeiri by the late Shah.
Government begins forcible mass relocation of Nuba civilians to “peace villages” – displaced persons’ camps.
January 92: Sudan signs Red Sea exploration agreement with Canadian International Petroleum Corporation (now Lundin) to undertake geophysical studies in a 38,400sq.km onshore and offshore concession between Tokar, 180km S of Port Sudan, and Halaib. Minister for Energy and Mines Uthman Abd al-Wahhab says prospecting can start immediately. Initial six-year agreement renewable for 25 years.
February 92: Dispute with Egypt over rights to Halaib area beside Red Sea: Cairo proposes to license a maritime area extending south to latitude 22oN, implying a territorial claim. Visiting Cairo, Sudanese RCC Deputy Chairman and Deputy Prime Minister Brig-Gen Zubeir Muhammad Salih raises the issue; Egyptian Oil and Mineral Resources Minister Hamdi Ali Abd al-Wahhab Banbi says region belongs to Egypt.
UN General Assembly condemns Sudan’s NIF regime for gross violations of human rights.
Oil production begins to gather pace after government troops seize large areas in the south from faction-fighting rebels.
February 92: Sudan government seeks support for oil from investors including Canada’s IPC (Lundin Group)
5 June 92: SPLA negotiations with regime sponsored by Nigeria in Abuja close down in failure. The NIF, believing it is winning the war, is intransigent. It rules out SPLA options of unity under a secular democratic system, or self-determination for South Sudan and marginal areas through a referendum.
30 June 92: On the third anniversary of its military coup, the NIF says it expects to announce the resumption of crude oil production in southern Kordofan. A Sudanese company will be responsible for refining the petroleum, expected to be produced at 120,000 b/d.
7 June 92: Minister of Energy and Mining Dr Osman Abd al-Wahhab inspects Abu Jabra oilfield at Muglad in SW Sudan. ‘Five wells have been drilled, two of them are productive with a capacity of 1500 and 500 b/d respectively,’ reports SUNA.
7-8 June 92: SPLA commando forces enter Juba, largest town in the south. They occupy the HQ of the Southern Military Command for three hours, then withdraw to hold six army garrisons on the outskirts of the town. SPLA claims that hundreds of Southern Sudanese soldiers and officers joined them. 9 June 92: Government radio says attack on Juba has been repulsed, and that life in Juba is ‘normal’. 11 June 92: Lt-Gen al-Bashir and senior officials fly into Juba for briefing.
June-July 92: Chevron ends 17-year involvement in Sudan
Sale by TransOcean Chevron Co. of upstream holdings – 42m acres – to Sudanese company Concorp, for a token $25m.
June-July 92: After SPLA invasion of Juba fails, government forces embark on retaliatory massacre. More than 200 are killed in the streets or executed. Another 232 citizens are arrested and taken to the “White House” (Security HQ) and ‘disappear’. Catholic bishops say that the army has “turned on civilians”, killing and burning homes of suspected SPLA sympathisers. A quarter of a million homeless people are herded into a stadium, hospitals and church buildings after their camps are razed. Five foreign missionaries are forced to leave; civilian bodies are found floating in the Nile. Present in Juba is Fatih Erwa, later head of Sudan Mission to the UN in New York.
mid-1992: The NIF government signs a contract to pay US$300,000 a year to the Pagolis and Donnelly Group to improve its public image.
28 July 92: Arakis Energy of Canada says London-based Triad International (Pvt) Ltd. is willing to put up $25m to buy Chevron’s Sudan project.
August-September 92: Concorp International – president and owner Mohammed Abdallah Jar al-Nabi – acquires Chevron’s Sudan interests.
Concorp begins commercial oil production and refining begin at Abu Jabra, a small topping refinery near Muglad, South Kordofan, with capacity of 2,000 b/d.. Critics say income from initial sales supports NIF’s civilian militia.
September 92: Egypt “annexes” the Red Sea enclave of Halaib
October 92: Chevron sells prospecting rights to Concorp.
October 92: Concorp owner, Sudanese businessman M.A Jar al-Nabi, senior NIF financier, sells Chevron concessions to Arakis Energy Corp. and State Petroleum Corp, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Arakis, headed by Pakistani national Lutfur Khan. State and Arakis say concessions hold potential 3.5-5 billion barrels of oil. Finance and Economic Planning Minister Hamdi says Iraq will provide technical assistance.
7 December 92: Oil field and refinery in Abu Jabra, south Kordofan, officially opened by Lt-Gen al-Bashir – followed by a thanksgiving at the new Khayrat mosque, where Bashir assures worshippers that the Sudanese people have “now broken free from their bonds and will longer be bothered by condemnations from outside organisations.”
7 December 92: Arakis signs memorandum of understanding with Sudan government; Concorp International Ltd Khartoum completes purchase of TransOcean Chevron Co’s shares of Chevron Oil Co. of Sudan for undisclosed price.
Egypt and Sudan at loggerheads over territorial rights to Halaib, prompted by Sudan granting oil exploration concession. Each accuses the other of harbouring opposition elements.
1993: Sudan fails to pay arrears to World Bank and Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, who suspend loans.
SPLA’s John Garang proposes referendum on Southern self-determination.
1993: US State Department adds Sudan to its list of states sponsoring terrorism.
Talks between government representative Ali al-Haj Muhammad and SPLA-United’s Dr Lam Akol in Fashoda, during coronation of the new Shilluk king: Akol is accused of complicity with the NIF.
12 January 93: Arakis engineering and production team in Khartoum to identify cost of bringing Sudan oil into production at rate of 40,000 b/d in 1995. Arakis says its 75% owned concession contains estimated 1.4-bn bbl of oil of which 280m are proven recoverable, and that concession has potential to develop additional 3.5bn bbl.
Iraqi MiG-23 aircraft that fled to Iran in the Gulf War have allegedly been refitted by Iran for use by the Sudanese air force against the SPLA in South Sudan. Lt-Gen Abdel Rahman Said, former army deputy chief of staff and now leading the Sudanese opposition Armed Forces Legitimate Command, says Baghdad was a party to the deal, and that the MiGs – ‘the only type of Iraqi plane that Sudan can maintain’ would go back to Iraq after an unspecified period. He claims Iran has delivered “between 60 and 90 tanks” to Khartoum, as well as long-range howitzers, ammunition and lorries.
25 January 93: Lutfur Rahman Khan of Arakis says State chose it as a partner because of its ability to raise investment capital. Analysts say State and Arakis are exaggerating the recoverable reserves of the Sudanese fields.
February 93: ‘Tiny’ Rowland, chairman of the Lonrho group and long-time backroom operator in African politics, reveals that for the last nine years he has been a member of the SPLM/SPLA. He goes on to say: “The war in Sudan is unwinnable and must come to an end.” Shuttle diplomacy: Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni visits Khartoum; Rowland makes a trip to Sudan at the same time. Ali al-Haj goes to Entebbe, Uganda, to meet Garang. Museveni wants to reunite the SPLA. The leader of the Nasir faction, Lam Akol, announces that meetings with such a goal could take place in mid-March in Nairobi. But “Entebbe declaration” does not remove any of the current obstacles to the peace talks.
March 93: Fuel shortages and lack of funds to import petrol and diesel and to operate power stations and bakeries. Envoys to Iran asking for help include Dr Ahmed Awad al-Jaz, Minister of State for Presidential Affairs. Iran, although positive, wants a European country as third-party guarantor; negotiations reach deadlock and Sudan receives nothing.
27 April 93: Peace talks resume in Abuja, Nigeria; Garang and Machar both absent.
June 93: Arakis Energy Corp (AKSEF) begins trading stock on Nasdaq exchange.
June 93: Government sub-divides Chevron’s concessions into smaller exploration blocks; Arakis Energy acquires the portion of Chevron’s concession north of the town of Bentiu. Arakis says it has no connections with the Triad company (owned by former arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi, who was used as a bargaining chip over oil deals with Chevron by Nimeiri in 1985).
29 August 93: State Petroleum enters into exploration and production sharing agreement with Sudan government. State subsequently spends $125m to explore and develop project, and discovers Toma South and El Toor fields in Unity exploration area.
September 1993: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda and Kenya establish a committee to resolve the civil war in Sudan, as members of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD).
Terry Alexander becomes president of Arakis
January 94: Row with Britain: Archbishop of Canterbury, his wife and two officials fly to South Sudan for three days and meet rival SPLA faction leaders.
At New Year Independence anniversary celebrations Lt-Gen al-Bashir says the expulsion of Ambassador Peter Streams – in the row over Dr Carey’s visit – will teach the British a lesson. Britain expels Sudan’s ambassador to London, Ali Osman Muhammad Yasin, who also works for the Attorney-General and is Sudan’s ambassador to the UN.
mid-January 94: Representatives of Chinese companies accompany China’s Vice-Premier and minister of foreign affairs to Khartoum. Agreements signed on banking, oil exploration and mining, light and heavy industry, agriculture, fisheries and pharmaceuticals..
end January 94: Unprecedented build-up of government forces in Southern Sudan: soldiers and supplies moved by rail and barge to Wau and Juba. Clashes with SPLA-Mainstream are reported on the road parallel to the Aweil-Wau railway; in southern Bahr al-Ghazal; between Yei and Morobo, and between Juba and Kit. The government claims to have taken Nasir, Waat and Ayod from SPLA-United.
January 94: In France, ministers Salah al-Din Karrar (Energy and Mining), Ali al-Haj (Federal Affairs, ex- Investment and Planning) and Abdullah Hassan Ahmed (Finance) said to have talked to Iranex (French gum arabic co.), BTP (construction), Total and Airbus. Senior intelligence officers from the Nimeiri days who frequently visit Paris include US-trained Hashim ba’Saeed and Fatih Erwa.
end January 1994: Repeated aerial bombing forces over 1,000 Equatorian refugees daily into Uganda.
end January 94: Fighting on three fronts in Nuba Mountains, South Kordofan. Mass killing, burning and rape reported from Bangili and Tagoma, east of Dilling. In Delami, crops are burned in the fields and wells are poisoned by the NIF’s Popular Defence Force. Displaced women and young children are taken by security forces to the Rahmaniyya “Peace Camp”, reportedly a “breeding camp” to “Arabise” future generations. Older boys are taken to special camps for religious indoctrination and military training.
February 94: Machine-gun attack on minority Ansar al-Sunna al-Muhammadiya mosque in Omdurman – 19 dead. Two men are later shot dead and two wounded and arrested after a shooting incident outside the house of Saudi tycoon Usama bin Laden in Khartoum. The regime links the incidents.
February 94: New opposition Sudan Federal Democratic Alliance launched in London by ex-Darfur Governor Ahmed Ibrahim Diraige with Nuba spokesman Suleiman Rahhal.
10 February 94: Seven security officers and Iranian advisor found dead in al-Hufra, eastern Sudan. Khartoum retaliates by confiscating 360 trucks from the Rashayda people of the area. Subsequent water shortage – some were used to carry water – is blamed for the deaths of seven children.
12 February 94: Sudan accuses Britain’s Parliament of supporting “rebellion” after MPs’ meetings with the Sudanese opposition are held at Westminster.
12 February 1994: In Nairobi, Riek Machar calls for UN intervention in Sudan and an oil and arms embargo on Khartoum.
March 94: After Washington’s directive ordering US banks not to endorse Sudanese letters of credit, Sudan orders its banks to stop dealings with the US.
Lam Akol dismissed from SPLA-United; challenges Riek Machar and claims to command forces in mid-west Upper Nile under the name SPLA-U. SPLA-United commanders Faustino and Kerubino advance into Wunrok, northern Bahr al-Ghazal. Thousands die in faction fighting.
March 94: 14 years after gaining exploration rights over 120,000 sq.km in Bahr al-Ghazal province, French oil company Total suspends all activities and withdraws because of escalation of civil war.
March 94: Lundin family buys 8.2 percent of Arakis stock through their holding in Swedish company Sands Petroleum AB.
11 May 94: Arakis acquires State Petroleum, gains control of the Sudan concessions in Unity and Heglig.
(All of the issued and outstanding common stock in exchange for 6,000,000 Arakis shares + finder’s fee of 150,000 shares with aggregate deemed value of $13m, according to Arakis 1996 report)
May 94: Malaysian telecommunications company signs memorandum to take shares in Sudatel, the privatised Sudan Telecommunications Company.
June 94: Liquidation of the General Petroleum Corporation. Energy Minister Salah ad-Din Karrar admits that Sud£238m were stolen by a businessman who was given the money to buy dollars from the black market on the corporation’s behalf. Recent petrol shortage was due to one client of the GPC diverting a sum of US$7m to his personal account and failing to deliver the goods. The deficit in the GPC budget is Sud£9bn.
August 94: Hassan al-Turabi makes clandestine visit to Paris, invites French involvement in oil exploration
September 94: Peace negotiations: “Despite reservations”, John Garang’s Mainstream SPLM/A endorses the Inter-Government Authority on Development (IGAD) Declaration of Principles for talks in Nairobi with the Sudan government, stressing self-determination and separating religion from state.
September 94: Reconciliation conference in Akobo, Upper Nile, between the Lou and Jikany clans of the Nuer, organised by local SPLA splinter groups, local chiefs and Presbyterian church. For two years disputes between the clans had intensified, with over 1000 dead. Soldiers in the area supported their own clans, becoming involved in fighting rather than intervening to stop it.
30 September 94: Riak Machar’s breakaway SPLA-United “Nasir” faction announces change of name to Southern Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM). Lam Akol, dismissed from the movement earlier this year, had announced separately that he was the chairman of the United faction, and claimed to have deposed Machar.
Arrears with the African Development Bank: Dr Muhammad Kheir al-Zubair, Minister of State for Finance, says the near future will see more co-operation with international and regional financial institutions.
September-October 94: Eritrea accuses Sudan of training more than 400 ‘terrorists’ with a view to undermining its security. Sudan accuses Eritrea of training 300 Sudanese opposition guerrillas for cross-border raids; Eritrea severs diplomatic relations with Sudan.
October 94: Foreign Ministry delegation visits Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. Visiting Iranian delegation sees the Construction Jihad of Iran active in agriculture, hospital building and road building in Sudan.
November 94: Foreign Minister Hussein Suleiman Abu Salih visits China; his delegation looks at textile and oil industries.
1995: Government begins strategy of “peace from within”, wooing smaller rebel groups and individual dissident SPLA commanders.
6-17 July 95: Arakis’ Terry Alexander announces deal to sell 40% of Arakis to Saudi investors for $345m and a line of credit of $400m. Under the deal, Arab Group International will buy 23m newly-issued shares in Arakis at $15 per share in four tranches from July 27 to 15 September. The AGI representatives will also get three board seats, with Prince Sultan Bin Saud Abdullah al Saud becoming chairman of Arakis. Abbas Salihwill be vice chairman, Alexander will remain president and Lutfur Khan will remain president of State Petroleum.
mid-1995: Maj-Gen Salah Karrar, Minister of Energy, negotiates with Russia, China, Iraq and Iran over oil development.
August 95: Arakis claims to have completed the pipeline design and says construction equipment and materials are being shipped to Sudan. However, Finance Minister Abdallah Hassan Ahmed tells al-Sharq al-Awsat that the agreement between the government and Arakis is due for renewal.
7 August 95: Worries that Arakis’ financial agreement with Arab Group International (AGI) are in jeopardy cause the share price to fall 40% in two weeks from a high of $25.6 in late July to $16.5.
After announcing a financing deal, Arakis shares reach a record market value of approximately $1 billion. But the deal vapourises and the company’s shares plummet, forcing out chief executive “Terry” Alexander and forcing a major restructuring of Arakis’s finances.
15 August 95: Arakis’ shares rise to over $22 amid renewed optimism.
17 August 95: Khartoum government announces Qatari interest in developing two minor former Chevron concessions.
21-22 August 95: Arakis shares drop sharply again to a new low of $10-$12. The rapid fall is prompted by Arakis’ admission that AGI would put up only $40m in cash of the anticipated $345m in equity finance, with the remainder paid in letters of credit, which might include physical assets.
24 August 95 – Arakis delists from Vancouver Stock Exchange and is suspended from trading on Nasdaq for a month.
26 September 95: Bashir in China: his delegation signs agreements on mining, oil, textiles, sugar industry and rehabilitation of Sudan railways. Preferential loan of 150m yuan (US$20m) is negotiated with Finance Minister Abdullah Hassan Ahmed, and a grant of 1m yuan obtained for “projects for poor families”.
December 95: Terry Alexander leaves Arakis and is replaced by John McLeod, described as former Amoco Canada engineer who was in charge of Sudanese project from 1991. Arakis shares rise three cents to $3.62 after the news of Alexander’s departure is announced. They had peaked in July at $26.62.
January 96 China votes against Sudan in the UN Security Council (it abstains on 26 April).
April 1996: Government’s Supreme Council for Peace puts forward its Political Charter, a non-binding general framework for a political solution to the civil conflict.
April 96: President Clinton signs the Anti-Terrorism Act, barring Americans from engaging in financial transactions with governments on the US list of terrorism sponsors, including Sudan.
26 April 1996: United Nations imposes diplomatic sanctions on Khartoum for its involvement in terrorism. In the vote, China abstains.
Arakis begins production from nine wells on the Heglig field. An average of 2,000 b/d is processed and consumed domestically.
Officials from China’s CNOEDC meet Arakis Energy executives, including President John McLeod in Vancouver.
Arakis needs around US$750,000 for the pipeline project. It announces a big new discovery, and pays to take a score of mainly US – but also British – financiers on a junket to Sudan.
June 96: Arakis / State Petroleum starts limited production of 10-20,000 b/d from Heglig, transporting crude by truck and river barge to topping plant refinery near El Obeid.
29 July 96: Government troops attack SPLA positions at Delal Ajak, west of the Nile. Lam Akol’s SPLA-United warns Arakis Energy and its British financier, Venture Guarantee Ltd to pull out immediately; says it will not allow Khartoum to ‘steal’ oil. The government aim is to secure the passage on the White Nile of barges to move crude oil from the Adar-1 field from Melut to Kosti further north. From Kosti, the oil would be sent by train to a refinery at al-Obeid.
31 July 96: Arakis chief executive John McLeod says company is taking the threats seriously.
August 96: US Treasury issues regulations to block deals that would help government-backed terrorism. The “Oxy loophole” (certain business transaction exemptions theoretically enabled Occidental Petroleum to pursue an interest in Sudan).
1 August 96: Arakis statement says its 25-year agreement with the government of Sudan is still valid and that it has spent more than US$100m developing Sudan concessions.
“Recruited through an agency known as Executive Outcomes, mercenaries will be employed directly by Arakis and will operate independently from the Sudanese authorities,” alleges Sudan Democratic Gazette
Two renegade SPLA commanders, Riek Machar and Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, agree with regime to set up a buffer zone between SPLA forces and the government forces directly protecting the oil fields. Kuanyin moves his forces out of Gogrial town and heads towards Twic county in late August, but is ambushed by the SPLA. Splintered SPLA no longer has large numbers of forces in the Nuer territory of the Bentiu area.
October 96: In Upper Nile’s Adar Yale field, private Qatari-Sudanese consortium Gulf Petroleum Company drills and reopens existing wells.
October 1996: Opposition claims Arakis International is planning to employ “white mercenaries” from South Africa as a security force. Arakis’ John McLeod says the Sudan military provides protection, and the firm employs its own security and safety coordinators who work as go-betweens between company and army. He says he has never talked to Executive Outcomes.
30 October 96: Arakis / State Petroleum estimates its fields have probable and proven reserves of 600m barrels.
November 96: John Garang warns that SPLA forces will attack Adar Yale oil field.
November 96: Khartoum government excludes Occidental from consortium, angered by Clinton government providing aid to 3 neighbouring countries that help the SPLA/NDA forces. (US provided $20m in surplus military equipment to Ethiopia, Eritrea and Uganda.)
4 November 96: Arakis subsidiary State Petroleum secures framework agreement with Sudan government on developing concession near Bentiu.
Negotiations start on a “modified production sharing agreement”, as it searches for other investors for $1 billion project for field development and pipeline to Port Sudan.
4 November 96: US sources say Khartoum “looking favourably on a proposal by potential investors” for a security operation mounted by Executive Outcomes. UK sources say Bashir has approved initiative and that any private force would report to and be paid by Khartoum government, said to be interested in private training for Riek Machar’s men following signing of Peace Charter. EO deny any involvement.
4 November 96: Branch Energy said to be interested in Arakis project.
December 1996: Unable to finance exploration, development and pipeline alone, Arakis enters into a consortium, the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC). It consists of Arakis (25% share and field operator), China National Petroleum Corporation (40%), Petronas of Malaysia (30%) and the Sudanese national oil firm Sudapet (5%).
John McLeod says the Chinese partners “incorporated additional benefits to the Sudan government, which essentially got them their participation.” Partners will have to make capital expenditures on the project until they equal Arakis’ expenditure to date.
28 December 96: Three Arakis board members quit in row over compensation and are replaced.
1997: Sudan government adopts “Islamic” constitution.
Arakis’ Lutfur Khan appoints former Sudanese finance minister Abdel Rahim Hamdi to a committee advising the board of directors of Arakis. (Committee no longer functioning by February 1998). Arakis sells its last remaining US asset, a Kentucky natural gas property.
January 97: Arakis announces third major oil find, El Nar2 (after El Toor and South Toma in 1996) .
January 97: Washington Post claims US government secretly granted exemption to Occidental Petroleum interest in Sudan project, says Sudan has estimated 3.5bn bbl. Abolitionist Leadership Council calls on Congress to block Occidental involvement and says “Khartoum is building a security force… to protect [the oil project] from its rightful owners.”
February 97: Riak Machar, ex-SPLA head of the South Sudan Independence Movement, officially switches sides and joins Khartoum government against SPLA.
February 97: Khartoum says Eritrean and Ethiopian troops are fighting alongide the rebel forces.
Sudan faces a 900 million dollar deficit. Oil imports rise to nearly US$400m/yr, representing more than 25% of the country’s total imports, while total exports reach US$600m/yr.
National Democratic Alliance and SPLA forces open eastern front, seizing patches of territory between the Red Sea and the Blue Nile, threatening the Roseires hydroelectric dam near Damazin.
February 1997: Sweden’s IPC / Lundin Oil signs production-sharing agreement for exploration of Block 5A, just south of Arakis’ Unity fields. Lundin later brings in Petronas of Malaysia, OMV-AG of Austria and the Sudan government’s Sudapet.
27 February 97: Arakis officially enters into Greater Nile pipeline consortium agreement.
February 97: Lundin family buying Arakis stock
March 1997: Bashir inaugurates production from Adar Yale field – 5,000 bl/d, under consortium led by Qatar’s Gulf Petroleum Corporation.
China National Petroleum Corporation begins exploration and development on the Sharaf, Tabaldi and Abu Jabra fields (Block 6).
March 97: Sands Petroleum AB (Lundin) files with SEC to say it holds 8.4% of Arakis
21 April 1997: Khartoum Peace Agreement signed between government and six splinter rebel groups – but mainstream SPLA is absent.
9 May 97:- Arakis adds Lukas Lundin of Sands Petroleum AB to its board.
By mid 1997 there had been more “significant discoveries” at Toma South, El Toor and El Nar. The formation of the pipeline consortium resulted in a fourfold expansion of the exploration and development program from the 1996 level, with four drilling rigs in the concession either drilling or being rigged up to drill, and three seismic crews actively acquiring data.
July 97:- Arakis appoints new pipeline manager David Hunter, who used to work for Occidental.
17 July 97: Austria’s OMV (Mineral and Oil Administration) joins a four-member consortium for oil exploration in Block 5A led by IPC (Lundin), the second consortium to begin oil exploration in Sudan this year.
30 July 97: James Taylor, then executive vice-president for international exploration of Occidental Petroleum, joins Arakis board.
July 97: 1,500 km pipeline budgeted at US $1bn US to build; concession is estimated at 1bn barrels of oil
16 September 97: Ernie Pratt resigns from Arakis after operating responsibility in Sudan is transferred to Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Co.
18 September 97: Lutfur Rahman Khan says government of Sudan is stable and fully able militarily and politically to hold the oil fields…
26 September 97: Kenneth C. Rutherford resigns as finance and chief financial officer to undertake private venture and is replaced by Tom G. Milne, formerly of Nova Corp. Calgary.
October 1997: Arakis awards contracts for manufacture of 28″ line-pipe to China Petroleum Technology and Development Corporation (1110km) and Mannesmann Handel AG of Germany (500km)
November 97: Canadian Ambassador Gabriel Lessard writes to Arakis asking them to reconsider their presence in Sudan
4 November 97: President Clinton signs executive order under the International Emergency Powers Act calling for all Sudanese assets in the US to be blocked, and imposes a ban on bank loans and all US trade with the country. Sudan cuts banking links with US banking establishments in retaliation. US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright says sanctions were imposed because of Khartoum’s “continued sponsorship of international terror, efforts to destabilise neighbouring countries and abysmal record on human rights.” Sudan’s ministry of external trade says Sudanese-US trade amounts to only five per cent of Sudan’s total exchanges. Future international transfers through American banks will be averted by transacting with other international banks “in foreign currencies other than the US dollar.”
Hydroelectric dams on the Nile’s second and fourth cataracts are proposed. China and Sudan sign initial financial agreement on controversial Kajbar Dam, opposed by Nubians.
December 97: Opposition NDA issues official warning to users of the Khartoum-Gedaref-Kassala-Port Sudan highway that it is now a military target.
1998: Arakis plan to build $750m, 28″, 1,610km pipeline still on track.
13 January 1998.: Arakis awards Argentina’s TECHINT International the contract for construction work on the Port Sudan marine terminal, pumps and SCADA, Supply contracts for the pumps and drivers are awarded toWeir Pumps Ltd of Glasgow, Scotland, and for generators to Allan Power Engineering Ltd, England. China Petroleum Engineering Construction Corporation will build the pipeline and field facilities.
February 98: Two pro-government forces – under Gen Paulino Matiep Nhial and USDF leader Riek Machar – fight each other in the Bentiu area, “close to drilling operations of the China National Oil Company.”
February 1998: Wau, capital of Bahr al-Ghazal, surrounded by Kerubino’s forces.
Gabriel Lessard, Canada‘s ambassador to Sudan, warns that Arakis workers are in peril; Arakis admits “reduced comfort level“.
February 98: First Vice-President Lt-Gen al-Zubeir Mohammad Saleh and ex-SPLA Cdr Arok Thon Arok die in plane crash near Ethiopian border.
February 98: Arakis appoints Raymond P. Cej as its new president and CEO. Previously chairman and CEO of Kyrgoil Corp. of Calgary, and former senior operating officer with Shell Canada, he replaces Lutfur Rahman Khan, who was acting president and will remain as chairman.
February 98: Arakis pays insurance company $3.5m to cap its exposure in US securities lawsuits and pays a $250,000 penalty to Vancouver Stock Exchange over Arab Group International (AGI) financing farrago.
2 March 98: State Petroleum writes to Sudan government assuring them the structure and management of State and Arakis will not change substantially. Sudan government issues 60-day notice of possible termination of Exploration and Production Sharing Agreement, citing March 2 letter. The notice is subsequently withdrawn.
May 98: Arakis predicts commercial production of 150,000 b/d to start mid-1999 and completion by same date of 1,500-km pipeline with daily capacity of 250,000b/d
May 98: Arakis says reserves on its Unity, Heglig and Kaikang concessions proven and probable are 428.9m bbl; says proven reserves of 271.3m bbl are sufficient to meet production target of 150,000 b/d subject to additional drilling.
May 98: François Misser in Germany’s Die Tageszeitung writes that the GNOP consortium wants to hire 3,000 armed fighters from Iran, and an additional 600 from Malaysia. The men would allegedly be under the supervision of a South African company. “Soldier Of Fortune” magazine guesses that this could be Executive Outcomes, reported to have worked with Arakis before, although Arakis denies this.
4 May 98: Oil pipeline construction begins at eight separate locations along the route
May 98: A 50,000-b/d refinery at al-Jayli begins construction with assistance from China’s CNPC.
June 1998: SPLA captures Mabaan, Blue Nile province (on the road to Melut) and the town of Ulu, about 150 km SW of the strategic eastern town of Damazin and close to the installation at Adar Yale field.
Violence forces aid workers to evacuate parts of Western Upper Nile
Gulf Petroleum Company increases Adar-Yale production to 10,000 b/d. Sudan producing between 18,000 and 20,000 barrels of oil a day.
June 98 – Arakis says its two properties in Sudan may hold about three billion bbl of oil, according to estimates made by Chevron and Shell when they were exploring the property.
June 17: Arakis adds Ian H. Lundin and Fred C. Coles to board of directors
July 1998-December 1998 Fighting in Leer and Mankien districts of Western Upper Nile (Block 5A) keeps WFP aid workers away for five months.
24 July 98: Take-over offer for Arakis by Canadian firm Talisman Energy (formerly BP-Canada). Agreement to the deal comes from Lundin Oil AB (newly-formed in merger between Sands Petroleum AB and IPC), which holds 10.8% of Arakis, and State Street Research (which holds 8%).
17-18 August 98: Talisman agrees to purchase Arakis Energy Corp for stock valued at US$175.7m – $200m, committing the company to $760m of capital spending on Sudan project over next 2 years.
20 August 98: US missile attack on Khartoum’s al-Shifa chemical plant – doubts raised about the completion of the Arakis purchase.
21 August 98: Talisman’s Jim Buckee, former BP planning manager, “surprised and concerned” by Shifa attack, and seeking more information.
31 August 98: Talisman announces it is advancing $22 million to Arakis to meet funding obligations.
September 98: SPLA offensive produces no significant gains in the south and is successfully repulsed by government forces.
Attitudes in Khartoum harden. Confident of the efficacy of military action against his enemies, Turabi threatens to put Sadiq al-Mahdi on trial.
October 1998: Sharif al-Tuhami, Irrigation Minister, resigns his position. Allegations had appeared in the Arabic press that he helped his son Abdul-Rahman obtain a contract for his construction company Maban in the pipeline project.
7 October 98: Arakis shareholders, Court of Queen’s Bench of Alberta, Sudan government and members of the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company consortium approve sale to Talisman. Talisman completes purchase of Arakis for Ca$277m, plus advance of Ca$46.5m to meet capital requirements
December 98: Talisman estimates proved plus probable reserves in Sudan concession at 150m bbl. It says the company is not prohibited by US sanctions from participating in the project and will fund all Sudan activities from non-US sources.
(Talisman chart shows total yield for five fields 447m bbl, with Talisman share 113m bbl. But company also says it is assuming total of 929m bbl, with its share 232m bbl. Goes on to say mean estimate of undiscovered oil in place is 10 bn bbl, with recovery factor of at least 30%…)
December 98: Talisman says project is 250-500km north of the trouble zones and is well protected.
Pipeline building in South Kordofan, skirting west of Nuba Mountains: SPLA’s Ismail Khamis says government used the armed forces to pin down his forces while laying pipe around Lake Keilak.
Pipeline to Port Sudan is 25% complete by mid-January, and more than 110 oil wells have been drilled.
13 January 99: Talisman planning to cut investment in North Sea and Canada to find $200m needed for Sudan project in 1999, says chief executive Jim Buckee. Total Talisman share of Sudan project costs about $430m, which Buckee says can be met with undrawn credit lines of $700m and a “commercial paper program” of about $350m.
February 1999: “Terry” Alexander, former head of Arakis Energy, fined $804,000 US, including $335,000 costs, and banned from trading for 20 years.
Alexander admits secret involvement in deals that profited from Arakis’s skyrocketing stock price in 1995 after a reported $750 million financing agreement for the Sudan pipeline, which later collapsed. Alexander unrepentant, saying he was in over his head.
Securities Commission says Alexander controlled Arakis shares held in various offshore companies and trusts and that substantial trading profits were made by “some offshore companies”, and that shares were issued without being fully paid for by these companies.
February/March 99: SPLA ambushes Red Cross vehicle near oil fields, seizing 3 local government and security officials (whom it calls “spies”) and a Red Crescent officer. All four die; government uses SPLA’s refusal to turn over the bodies to delay peace negotiations and block UN relief assessment in SPLA-held Nuba mountains.
1 March 99: Lundin Oil 1998 results include write-off of SEK156.2m of original investment in Arakis Energy.
3 March 99: Jim Buckee of Talisman says first oil exports from Sudan are “less than eight months away.” He says acquisition of Arakis required Talisman to spend $140m (excluding capitalised interest) in the last quarter of 1998, in addition to the financing provided to Arakis between the acquisition bid and close of the purchase. Release also says total exploration and development spending in Sudan was $305 million in 1998 including $156m incurred by Arakis prior to the acquisition (Talisman release)
March 99: SPLA 13th battalion under Commander Malik Agar, based at Ulu, defeats a government brigade which had been besieging the town of 50,000 since 6 January. The victory brings the Adar Yale oilfield, in Khor Adar, Upper Nile, east of Melut and Malakal, into range of the SPLA’s artillery.
April 1999: Completion announced of 1,610 km pipeline linking Heglig oilfield with terminal at Basha’ir Red Sea terminal
Pipeline runs via oil refinery being built at al Jayli, 70 km N of Khartoum, due to become operational at the end of December 1999, which will have an annual capacity of 2.5m tonnes of crude oil.
April 99: Energy and Mining Minister Dr Awad Ahmed Al-Jaz visits China and West Germany. He discusses with the Chinese ways of completing Khartoum oil refinery, and setting up an electrical power station at the refinery.
30 April 99: The government is building factories to produce tanks and missiles, “to defend ourselves against conspirators,” Turabi tells a rally in Ed Damer, and is quoted by Akhbar al-Yom as saying he will use earnings on oil exports as finance.
May 99: Ministers say Sudan will be self-sufficient in oil production by mid-1999 and be able “to export crude oil for the first time ever in the second semester of 1999. Initially we hope to export 150,000 barrels of crude oil per day which would be increased to 250,000 b/d in the year 2000” – Awad al-Jaz
May 99: ”Many villages on the eastern edge of Heglig were attacked and burned to the ground by the Sudanese army, causing the displacement of 1,000 to 2,000 civilians,” says UN Rapporteur.
May 99: Attempt to put government militias in charge of oil installation south of Bentiu leads to open warfare among allies. Forces of Riak Machar are pushed back by Nuer warlord Paulino Matiep’s government militiamen, who now guard the area. Machar losing ground .
May 99: Armed forces spokesman Lt-Gen M.O Yassin tells Radio Omdurman that the SPLA has attacked oil installations in the south and east. One attack in April was at Leer in Unity State (Block 5A, the Lundin/IPC-OMV-Petronas consortium), but Talisman say the $1.4-bn Greater Nile Oil Project was not a target and the attack was not near the consortium’s project area.
end May 99: Former SPLA Cdr Tito Biel, based near Bentiu and a government ally since 1997, defects from Riak Machar’s group. Clashes continue.
July 99: 1,200 government forces sweep through Ruweng County, in Western Upper Nile, killing scores of civilians, abducting hundreds and burning over 6,000 homes. In a 10-day offensive on the edge of the Heglig oilfields, Antonov bombers, helicopter gunships, tanks and artillery attacked civilians across a 100-km swathe of territory, in violation of a ceasefire signed during last year’s famine.
14 July 99: Sudan Government bans all relief flights to people living around the oil fields.
August 99: Talisman Energy says that surging crude oil and natural gas prices helped it pump out a tenfold increase in profit in the second quarter.
September 1999: First shipment of 600,000 barrels leaves Port Sudan. Bargaining ensues over next round of oil deals
September 99: Kerubino Kuanyin is killed as Peter Gadiet and large numbers of Nuer oil zone militia members defect from government side and seek rapprochement with SPLA.
September 99: Film footage of devastation at Gumriak, Ruweng county, is shown on Swedish TV. It prompts outcry against Lundin.
20 September 99: Explosion near Atbara, northern Sudan, holes the oil pipeline. Opposition NDA claims responsibility and warns of further attacks if Talisman does not talk to them.
October 99: Czechs express concern that proposed second military tank consignment to Yemen may end up in Sudan.
21 October 99: Peter Gadiet’s forces, aligned with SPLA, reported bombarding Bentiu.
November 99: Japanese oil traders agree deal for crude oil purchase
November 99: Talisman hires Hill & Knowlton PR company, previously employed by BCCI.
November 99: A trial run on the new 50,000-b/d refinery at Jayli, Khartoum, is postponed until March 2000.
November 99: NIF-Umma accord signed in Djibouti.
December 99: After former prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi breaks with the opposition NDA to resume dialogue with the regime, the NDA forms a unified command for its seven remaining armies and escalates the war in the north-east. Competing peace initiatives promoted by East African states and by Libya and Egypt fail to halt the fighting.
Chronology of South-North Sudan Peace Process (from IRIN).
|1955 –||Disorder breaks out in south Sudan on the eve of independence.|
|1956 –||Sudan becomes independent.|
|1958 –||General Ibrahim Abbud leads military coup against the civilian government elected earlier in the year.|
|1962 –||Anya Nya movement assumes control of southern revolt.|
|1964 –||The “October Revolution” overthrows Abbud and a national government is established.|
|1969 –||Ja’far Numayri leads the “May Revolution” military coup.|
|1972 –||Under the Addis Ababa peace agreement between the government and the Anya Nya the south becomes a self-governing region.|
|1978 –||Oil discovered in Bentiu in southern Sudan.|
|1983 –||Numayri divides the south into three regions. Civil war breaks out again in the south involving government forces and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), lead by John Garang.Islamic law imposed.|
|1985 –||Numayri is deposed in a bloodless military coup by a group of military officers and a Transitional Military Council is set up to rule the country.|
|1986 –||Coalition government formed after general elections, with Sadiq al-Mahdi as prime minister.|
|1988 –||Coalition partner the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) reaches ceasefire agreement with the SPLM/A, but it is not implemented.|
|1989 –||Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) established. Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi accepts DUP-SPLM/A agreement. Sadiq al-Mahdi is deposed in a bloodless military coup led by Brig. (later Lt-Gen) Umar Hasan al-Bashir.|
|1992 –||Nigerian peace conferences (Abuja I and II) held, but little progress made.|
|1993 –||Revolution Command Council dissolved after Umar Hasan al-Bashir is appointed president.|
|1994 –||IGADD start peace process and establish a Declaration of Principles (DoP).|
|1995 –||Egyptian President Husni Mubarak accuses Sudan of being involved in an attempt to assassinate him in Addis Ababa.|
|1995 –||Asmara Declaration of National Democratic Alliance (NDA) acknowledging right of south Sudan to self-determination and calling for separation of state and religion and armed struggle to overthrow the ruling National Islamic Front (NIF) regime.|
|1997 –||Sudanese government accepts IGAD DoP and to discuss self-determination for south Sudan. Khartoum Peace Agreement signed between the government and the South Sudan Independence Movement of Riek Machar.|
|1998 –||Ethio-Eritrea War breaks out reducing conflict with Sudan. USA launches cruise missile attack on a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum, alleging that it was making materials for chemical weapons.|
|1999 –||President Bashir dissolves the National Assembly and declares a state of emergency following a power struggle with parliamentary speaker, Hasan al-Turabi.|
|1999 –||Sudan begins to export oil.|
|2000 October –||IGAD Lake Bogoria Talks.|
|2001 February –||Islamist leader Hasan al-Turabi arrested a day after his party, the Popular National Congress, signed a memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLM/A).|
|2001 July –||Joint Libyan Egyptian Initiative establishes a Declaration of Principles calling for an all-party transitional government, but does not deal with the issue of self-determination for the south. Sudanese government accepts DoP without reservation and SPLM/A accepts with conditions.|
|2001 September –||UN Security Council lifts largely symbolic sanctions against Sudan which involved a ban on diplomatic travel. They were imposed in 1996 over accusations that Sudan harboured suspects in an attempt on the life of Egyptian President Husni Mubarak, but US continues its sanctions.|
|2001 October –||US President George W. Bush names Senator John Danforth as special envoy to try help end Sudanese conflict.|
|2001 November –||US extends unilateral sanctions against Sudan for another year, citing its record on terrorism and rights violations.|
|2002 January –||The government and the SPLM/A sign a landmark ceasefire agreement providing for a six-month renewable ceasefire in the Nuba Mountains region of south-central Sudan.|
|2002 July –||After weeks of talks in Kenya, the government and the SPLM/A sign a protocol covering self-determination and state and religion and on ending the 19-year civil war. Under the agreement southern Sudan will be able to hold an independence referendum after a six-year power-sharing transition period.|
|2002 July –||President Umar Hasan al-Bashir and SPLM/A leader John Garang meet face to face for the first time, through the mediation of Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni.|
|2002 September –||Government breaks off talks, saying the SPLM/A seizure of the southern town of Torit had spoiled the atmosphere of talks, and that the SPLM/A had reopened the issue of the separation of state and religion by demanding that the capital of Sudan be shari’ah free.|
|2002 October –||The government and the SPLM/A sign a memorandum of understanding, agreeing to resume talks, and to implement a cessation of hostilities for the duration of talks. Talks resume.|
|2002 November –||Cessation of hostilities agreement extended until the end of March 2003. MOU signed on ‘Aspects of Structures of Government’. Talks adjourned until January 2003.|
|2003 January –||Talks resume in Nairobi suburb of Karen. Plans also made for a separate symposium to be held dealing with the issue of the disputed border territories of southern Blue Nile, Abyei, and the Nuba Mountains.|
|2003 January –||UN negotiates separate bilateral agreements with the SPLM/A and the Sudanese government to allow the delivery of humanitarian aid into the disputed region of Southern Blue Nile for the first time.|
|2003 March –||Cessation of hostilities agreement extended until end of June 2003.|
|2003 March –||Semi-autonomous talks take place on the three disputed border regions of Abyei, Nuba Mountains, and Southern Blue Nile.|
|2003 April –||SPLM/A and government agree to the opening of corridor along the Nile River to facilitate humanitarian access.|
|2003 May –||Talks resume with the signing of partnership agreement in administrative arrangements for the transition period, which outlined specific measures necessary for building up the humanitarian, security and development needs of southern Sudan during the first six months of the transitional period.|
Many states have recognised South Sudan upon independence, or announced planning to do so. Sudan was the first to do so on 8 July 2011, 1 day prior to independence. Four other states followed suit on 8 July. Over 25 countries had recognised the country on 9 July, including all permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
Both before and after South Sudan admission to the UN, many states have issued official explicit statements about its diplomatic recognition and some have established diplomatic relations with it. In less than half a year the number of recognitions reached over 115 and the number of relations established over 40:
United Nations member states
|Country||Recognition of South Sudan[note 1]||Relations established[note 2]||Notes|
|Sudan||8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011
|[when?]||South Sudan – Sudan relations
African Union (AU) member
Arab League member
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (OIC) member
First state to recognise South Sudan.
|Egypt||8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011
|9 July 2011||Egypt – South Sudan relations
Arab League member
|Germany||8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011
|9 July 2011||United Nations Security Council (UNSC) president at the time of declaration of independence|
|Kenya||8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011
Commonwealth of Nations member
East African Community (EAC) member
|Albania||9 July 2011||OIC member|
|Equatorial Guinea||9 July 2011 |
|Mozambique||9 July 2011||15 July 2011||AU member
Commonwealth of Nations member
OIC member 
|People’s Republic of China||9 July 2011||9 July 2011||UNSC permanent member |
|United Kingdom||9 July 2011||9 July 2011|| Commonwealth of Nations member
UNSC permanent member 
|Turkey||9 July 2011||[when?]||OIC member|
|Italy||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|Poland||9 July 2011|
|United States||9 July 2011||9 July 2011||South Sudan–United States relations
UNSC permanent member 
|Canada||9 July 2011||[when?]||Commonwealth of Nations member |
|Australia||9 July 2011||24 September 2011||Commonwealth of Nations member |
|Japan||9 July 2011||9 July 2011|||
|Ireland||9 July 2011|
|France||9 July 2011||9 July 2011||UNSC permanent member |
|Cuba||9 July 2011|
|Sweden||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|Norway||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|Uganda||9 July 2011||[when?]||South Sudan – Uganda relations
Commonwealth of Nations member
|Armenia||9 July 2011|
|Russia||9 July 2011||22 August 2011|| UNSC permanent member
OIC observer 
|Brazil||9 July 2011|| UNSC non-permanent member
Arab League observer
|Romania||9 July 2011|
|Spain||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|Austria||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|Switzerland||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|Netherlands||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|Belgium||9 July 2011||[when?]|
|South Africa||9 July 2011||22 September 2011||AU member
Commonwealth of Nations member
UNSC non-permanent member 
|Tanzania||9 July 2011||AU member
Commonwealth of Nations member
|Ethiopia||9 July 2011||AU member|
|Zimbabwe||9 July 2011||AU member|
|Central African Republic||9 July 2011||AU member
|Togo||9 July 2011||AU member
|Mali||9 July 2011||AU member
|Algeria||9 July 2011||AU member
Arab League member
|Libya||9 July 2011||[when?]||AU member
Arab League member
|Rwanda||9 July 2011||AU member
Commonwealth of Nations member
|Latvia||9 July 2011|
|Greece||9 July 2011|
|Jordan||9 July 2011|| Arab League member
|India||9 July 2011||[when?]||India – South Sudan relations
Commonwealth of Nations member
UNSC non-permanent member
Arab League observer
|Luxembourg||9 July 2011||14 December 2011|||
|Chile||9 July 2011|
|Cambodia||9 July 2011||22 July 2011|||
|South Korea||9 July 2011||9 July 2011|||
|Qatar||9 July 2011|| Arab League member
|Maldives||9 July 2011|| Commonwealth of Nations member
|Portugal||9 July 2011||UNSC non-permanent member|
|Slovakia||9 July 2011|
|Ghana||9 July 2011||AU member
Commonwealth of Nations member
|Nigeria||9 July 2011|| UNSC non-permanent member
Commonwealth of Nations member
|Malta||9 July 2011||Commonwealth of Nations member|
|Denmark||9 July 2011|
|Botswana||9 July 2011||AU Member
Commonwealth of Nations member
|Angola||10 July 2011||AU Member|
|Israel||10 July 2011||28 July 2011||South Sudan – Israel relations |
|Somalia||10 July 2011||AU member
Arab League member
|Cape Verde||10 July 2011||AU member|
|Bahrain||10 July 2011|| Arab League member
|Vietnam||10 July 2011|
|Kuwait||10 July 2011|| Arab League member
|Burkina Faso||10 July 2011||AU member
|Estonia||11 July 2011|
|United Arab Emirates||11 July 2011|| Arab League member
|Czech Republic||11 July 2011|
|Eritrea||11 July 2011||[when?]||AU member
Arab League observer
|Saudi Arabia||11 July 2011|| Arab League member
|Costa Rica||11 July 2011|
|Indonesia||12 July 2011||OIC member|
|Timor-Leste||12 July 2011||13 October 2011|||
|Namibia||12 July 2011||12 July 2011 ||AU member
Commonwealth of Nations member
|Senegal||12 July 2011||AU member
|Slovenia||12 July 2011||23 September 2011|||
|Ukraine||12 July 2011|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||13 July 2011||AU member|
|Liberia||13 July 2011||AU member|
|Mauritania||13 July 2011||AU member
Arab League member
|Djibouti||13 July 2011||AU member
Arab League member
|Uruguay||13 July 2011|
|Guinea||14 July 2011||AU member
|Guyana||14 July 2011|| Commonwealth of Nations member
|Singapore||14 July 2011||Commonwealth of Nations member|
|Montenegro||14 July 2011||21 November 2011 |||
|Kyrgyzstan||14 July 2011||OIC member|
|Peru||14 July 2011|
|Mexico||14 July 2011||26 September 2011|||
|Gabon||15 July 2011|| UNSC non-permanent member
|North Korea||15 July 2011||18 November 2011 |||
|Kazakhstan||15 July 2011||OIC member|
|Hungary||15 July 2011||24 September 2011 |
|Colombia||16 July 2011||UNSC non-permanent member|
|Iran||16 July 2011||OIC member|
|Cyprus||18 July 2011||Commonwealth of Nations member|
|Lebanon||18 July 2011|| UNSC non-permanent member
Arab League member
|Bulgaria||19 July 2011||19 July 2011|
|Bangladesh||20 July 2011|| Commonwealth of Nations member
|Suriname||20 July 2011 |
|Finland||22 July 2011||[when?]|
|Pakistan||22 July 2011|| Commonwealth of Nations member
|Croatia||27 July 2011|
|Philippines||1 August 2011|
|Argentina||2 August 2011|
|Panama||18 August 2011|
|Serbia||18 August 2011|
|Belarus||18 August 2011|
|Yemen||6 September 2011 ||9 October 2011 |
|Macedonia||14 September 2011 |
|Lithuania||14 September 2011 ||14 September 2011|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||20 September 2011 |
|Jamaica||6 October 2011 ||Commonwealth of Nations member|
|Mongolia||20 December 2011||20 December 2011|||
Non-members of the UN
|Country||Recognition of South Sudan||Relations established||Notes|
|Holy See (Vatican City)||8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||9 July 2011|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||9 July 2011||9 July 2011||African Union (AU) member |
|Somaliland||10 July 2011|
|Transnistria||12 July 2011|
|Palestinian Authority||14 July 2011|| Arab League member
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (OIC) member
|Title||Chronology for Nuba in Sudan|
|Publisher||Minorities at Risk Project|
|Cite as||Minorities at Risk Project, Chronology for Nuba in Sudan, 2004, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/469f38e11c.html %5Baccessed 20 April 2012]|
|Chronology for Nuba in Sudan|
|601 – 700||The coming of Islam into the pre-existing Sudan|
|1820 – 1881||Turco-Egyptian rule|
|1896 – 1898||Anglo-Egyptian Condominium|
|1899 – 1955||British rule institutionalizing the North-South schism.|
|1955||Mutinies in Equatoria signaling the first civil war|
|Jan 1, 1956||Independence of Sudan|
|1958 – 1964||Military government led by Ibrahim Abboud|
|1964 – 1969||Civilian government|
|1969 – 1985||Military government led by Jaafar al-Numeiri|
|1972||The end of civil war (1955-72) by the Addis Ababa Agreement|
|1983||The resumption of civil war|
|1985||Transitional Military Council (TMC)|
|Feb 11, 1985||SPLA commander in the Nuba Mountains, Yousif Kuwa, appealed to the people of the Nuba Mountains to join the SPLA in its fight for a unified Sudan. He also described the discrimination and oppression of the people in the region by the government. (British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC))|
|1986 – 1989||Civilian government under Sadiq al-Mahdi|
|Feb 1986||There were reports of fighting between the Beni Amir and Nuba ethnic groups in Port Sudan. The fighting followed a political rally organized by the Sudanese National Party of Fr. Philip Abbas Ghaboush. Ghaboush is a Nuba leader. Sixteen people were killed and eleven wounded. (Xinhua, 2/4/1986)|
|Sep 1987||The SPLA was reportedly gaining ground in the Nuba Mountains, moving further north than during previous battles. (Christian Science Monitor (CSM),9/22/1987)|
|1989||Military government led by Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir|
|Oct 1989||The Sudanese government reported that 54 people had been killed in communal conflict between Nuba and Arabs. Independent reports claimed some 300 Nuba had been killed in the clashes. (Inter Press Service (IPS), 1/3/1990). A new opposition alliance, comprised of northern opposition groups, was formed. In February 1990, the SPLA agreed in principle to join the alliance provided it maintained its integrity within the organization.|
|Mar 1990||By late March, fighting between the government and the SPLA had intensified around the government-held garrisons in south-western Sudan. With both the government and the SPLA using starvation as a weapon, more than 500,000 people were reported to have starved to death.|
|Apr 1990||A Cabinet reshuffle strengthened Islamic fundamentalist influence in the government.|
|Nov 1990||Sudan’s pro-Iraq stance during the Gulf crisis led to its internationally isolation. The ruling Revolutionary Command Council (RCC, chaired by Bashir), strongly influenced by the Islamic fundamentalist National Islamic Front (NIF), was reported to have detained, tortured, and executed hundreds of political opponents.|
|Jan 1991||Eight million Sudanese faced starvation aw a result of a famine which was more devastating than that of 1984-85.|
|Feb 1991||The RCC passed a decree that divided Sudan into nine states. They in turn were subdivided into 66 provinces and 281 local government areas. This regional reorganization was proclaimed by the government as a power devolution towards resolving the North-South conflict. The SPLA rejected it as “unrealistic.”|
|Mar 1991||Sudan’s army newspaper reported that SPLA rebels killed eight Nuba civilians by burning them to death in Kordofan as they protested against rebel atrocities. The report was not independently confirmed. (Xinhua, 3/6/1991)|
|Jun 1991||More than 100,000 Sudanese refugees, including Nuba, entered Ethiopia in recent years. Some have begun returning to Sudan following attacks on their camps by Ethiopian rebels in May. The Sudanese government and Ethiopian rebels claim the camps are used as SPLA training grounds. The Sudanese government also bombed the refugees on their return home. (CSM, 6/21/1991)|
|Aug 1991||The SPLA was split into two groups, the Torit (with Dinka tribal dominance, led by Col. John Garang de Mabior) and the Nasir/United faction (with Nuer dominance, led by Riek Machar), owing to incompatible views on Sudan’s future. While John Garang’s faction has been committed to building a united, secular Sudan, Machar’s faction advocates an independent black state.|
|Oct 1991||The planned peace talks between the government and the SPLA had been postponed owing to a split in the SPLA leadership.|
|Nov 1991||Clashes began between rival factions of the SPLA.|
|Dec 1991||The divided SPLA groups ratified a 12-point peace plan. But by late December, over 5,000 civilians in south-east Sudan were reported to have been killed in fighting between the two factions. In 1991 alone, at least 1 million people had moved across borders and over 7 million been internally displaced. An Africa Watch report accused both the government and the SPLA of committing atrocities against the Nuba. An August split within the SPLA has begun to worry the Nuba who have in recent years come to support the SPLA over the government. Nuba are concerned that unless all of Sudan is liberated, the Nuba will be left at the mercy of the northern government. Arrests and disappearances of the Nuba by government forces are common, and over the past few years, the government has waged a systematic campaign to remove Nuba from judicial, administrative and security posts. (IPS, 12/11/1991)|
|Jan 1992||Three people were killed in January and sixteen in December when the government carried out forced evictions in Khartoum. The government has been targeting Nuba and western Sudanese with evictions. (IPS, 1/18/1992) The Governor of South Kordofan, Lt. General al-Hussein, formally declared a holy war in the Nuba Mountains. In June, the U.S. Embassy in Khartoum reported that al-Hussein planned to relocate some 25,000 Nubans out of the mountain region. Between June and August, at least 30,000 were sent to the villages in Northern Kordofan. (Burr, 12/1998)|
|1992||Between November 1991 and February 1992, the Nasir faction killed 5,000 civilians, displaced 200,000 civilians, stole their cattle, and burned their villages in the Bor-Kongor area.|
|Feb 1 – Mar 31, 1992||The government launched its largest offensive against the SPLA in order to seize strategic garrison towns and cut off sources of relief supplies to civilians in SPLA-held areas. The government attacked on four fronts in the South where the SPLA controlled some 90 percent of the territory until early 1992. After seizing the towns of Rumbek and Yirol, government forces practiced scorched-earth policies and burnt villages, leaving over 100,000 people displaced.|
|Sep 1992||The government has forcibly cleared tens of thousands of indigenous people from the Nuba Mountains and resettled them in so-called “peace villages” under the control of the army and government-created militia, Popular Defence Force (PDF). The government said the moves are to help the Nuba by removing them from war zones, but rights groups suggest the process is ethnic cleansing and accuse the government of economic motives in the forced resettlement. The Nuba Mountains are the northern-most battle zone in the SPLA-government war. (CSM, 9/16/1992)|
|Nov 1992||At least 4.5 million people (about 75 percent of the South’s population) had fled from their homes in search of food and security in other parts of Sudan or Ethiopia and Uganda|
|Feb 1993||Amnesty International, the British Anti-Slavery Society, the International Labor Organization (ILO), Africa Watch, and other human rights monitoring organizations reported the Sudanese government’s grave human rights violations and Arab enslavement of indigenous people in the Nuba Mountains. An estimated 75,000 women and children are currently enslaved. Hundreds of civilians have been executed, and massacres, rapes, and disappearances are common. (IPS, 2/22/1993). Pope John Paul II visited Khartoum and called for religious tolerance.|
|Mar 1993||Joseph Oduho, the SPLA’s elder statesman, who was the figure most likely to reconcile the opposing factions, died. The SPLA announced a unilateral cease-fire to pave the way for fresh peace talks. Garang repeated his call for the establishment of “safe havens” for some 800,000 southerners facing starvation and 1 million Nuba subjected to a campaign of ethnic cleansing. (The Guardian, 3/19/1993)|
|Apr 1 – May 31, 1993||The government and the Torit faction began peace talks in Abuja on April 8, but adjourned on May 18 without a final statement materializing because of disagreement about the distribution of powers to the states. Film footage of ethnic cleansing against the Nuba has been smuggled out of Sudan. It showed evidence of razed villages and included interviews with villagers and local church officials. (Toronto Star, 5/19/1993)|
|Sep 1993||The SPLA has been affected by major internal conflicts. Tribes of Equatoria and the Nuba Mountains are pressing the organization to become less tribal and less repressive towards SPLA members who express alternative opinions. (BBC, 9/8/1993)|
|Nov 1 – 28, 1993||On November 2, President Bashir affirmed his commitment to the implementation of Islamic law. In early November, the government bombed Thiet in western Equatoria. The cease-fire which was agreed between the SPLA factions in Washington, D.C., was broken owing to fighting between the factions in eastern Equatoria and other places. The meeting of reconciliation for two SPLA groups, scheduled for November 15 in Nairobi, was postponed. More than 500,000 Southerners have died in the past two years, largely as a result of SPLA in-fighting and related famine and disease. More than 1.5 million have been killed and 2 million displaced in the past ten years of civil war. (CSM, 11/30/1993)|
|Feb 1994||The government launched its largest offensive yet against the rebels to attempt to win the war outright or to force more SPLA concessions at the negotiating table. About 1000 people per day have been fleeing to northern Uganda since January in anticipation of the coming offensive. In the past two years, the government has retaken all principle towns in the South and restricted the rebels to guerrilla warfare. The renewed fighting was condemned by UN Secretary-General Boutrous Boutrous-Ghali. The SPLA made an appeal to the UN to appoint mediators to end the conflict and to send troops if necessary. The government has long been opposed to outside interference. Two UN agencies also appealed for assistance for four million who have been affected by the drought and war. SPLA leader Garang accused the government of Zaire of opening its borders to Sudanese army troops. Zaire denied the accusations.|
|May 1994||Garang declared a “new Sudan” which comprises Southern Sudan, the Nuba Mountains, and Ingessina. The government said the declaration proved that the rebels are not serious about peace. (IPS, 5/3/1994)|
|Jul 1994||The Sudanese government declared a unilateral cease-fire, but rebels said fighting continued in the South. Peace talks have been under way since March 1994. The majority of southern Sudanese have entered the “hunger gap”-the period between the exhaustion of food stores from the previous harvest and the availability of food from the present year’s harvest. Fighting has complicated relief efforts to get food through to the South.|
|Aug 1, 1994||The Sudanese government announced that it would never accept terms set by the southern rebels for self-determination and separation of religion and the state.|
|Nov 1994||The government in Khartoum announced that compulsory military training for secondary school pupils would begin shortly.|
|Jan 1995||A delegation from Christian Solidarity International visited Sudan in January, but were not allowed to visit the Nuba Mountain region. They spoke to people from the region, however, and were told that there was a lack of medical supplies and staff and water supplies, and that government offenses led to the burning of at least 11 villages. The organization reported that there was mass displacement of the Nuba people through terror, war and the manipulation of aid; 1.5 million Sudanese had been killed and 5 million displaced since the start of the war in 1983; infrastructure was destroyed in war zones; humanitarian aid failed to reach hundreds of thousands in the Nuba Mountains and other SPLA-held zones. (Africa News Service (ANS), March 1995)|
|Feb 1995||The breakaway rebel group SSIM (Southern Sudan Independence Movement) announced a reconciliation with the SPLA from which it split in 1991.|
|Jul 1995||The African Rights Group reported that the government’s campaign in the Nuba Mountains amounted to genocide. The government was attempting to “remold the social and political identity” of the Nuba by removing them to government-administered peace camps. There were reports of massive human rights violations including rape and murder and reports of church and mosque burnings. (Arab Press Service, 7/22/1995)|
|Aug 1995||A cease-fire between the SPLA and government declared in March broke down.|
|Oct 1 – Nov 30, 1995||The SPLA went on the offensive killing, wounding or dislodging 3000 Sudanese government troops from the southern town of Parajok. The offensive followed a series of cease-fires negotiated with the assistance of Jimmy Carter since April 1995. The rebel offensive was fast gaining ground in the South during these months, overrunning 8 strategic government garrisons along the Sudan-Uganda border. Bashir accused Uganda of providing troops for the SPLA and of launching cross-border attacks in support of the SPLA.|
|Nov 1995||The UN issued a report on the human rights abuses in Sudan. The government was accused of murder, torture, turning a blind eye to the re-emergence of slavery in the country. Rebels were also admonished for abuses. The report estimated 1.2 million dead since the outbreak of civil war in 1983. In the Nuba Mountains, government attacks killed large numbers while others were summarily executed, tortured or disappeared. (ANS, 11/1995) The government and rebels held several rounds of peace talks in Nairobi under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD). They had failed to make any progress by the beginning of 1996.|
|Feb 1996||U.N. rapporteur on human rights Gaspar Biro issued a report on conditions in Sudan. He stated “in the Nuba Mountains, a large number of civilians, including women and children, Muslims and Christians alike, have been killed in [aerial] attacks or summarily executed.” (Burr, December 1998) By 1996, there were only 250-300,000 Nuba left in SPLA-administered regions while at least 500,000 have been forcibly resettled by the government. At minimum, 100,000, and as many as 200,000, Nuba have disappeared from the mountain region since 1983. (Burr, December 1996)|
|Mar 30, 1996||John Garang announced the capture of two frontier town: Pochalla in Upper Nile Province and Khor Yabus in Blue Nile Province beginning a new SPLA offensive. By April, the SPLA controlled the whole length of the Ethiopia-Sudanese frontier, with the exception of a government garrison at Marwut, from Kenya to Kurmuk.|
|Apr 10, 1996||The government and two rebel factions that had broken from the SPLA in 1991 signed a peace agreement in Khartoum. Riak Machar signed for the Southern Sudan Independence Movement and Kerubine Kwanyin Bol signed for the SPLA-Bahr al-Ghazal faction. The agreement stated that after peace and stability and a reasonable level of development had been established in the south, a referendum should be held to enable people to determine their political aspirations. The main rebel SPLA faction led by Garang denounced the agreement as a sham and vowed to continue fighting. Foreign diplomats in the region also suggested that the agreement was worthless without the involvement of the SPLA which has been on the offensive in the South since October.|
|May 29, 1996||Lt. General Joseph Lagu, leader of the original southern rebel movement Anya Nya, and Samuel Aru Bol, leader of the banned Union of Sudan African Parties, both urged all southerners to back the April peace agreement. The southern rebel movements are split largely along ethnic lines with the main SPLA faction composed mainly of Dinka, SSIM of Nuers and SPLA-United of Shilluk. Kwanyin Bol, militia commander of SSIM, reportedly has pushed SPLA from his home region of Bahr el Ghazal and Riak Machar, leader of SSIM, controls the upper Nile and Kwanyin Bol Bahr el Ghazal region. Equatorians have been militant supporters of independence for the south and have suffered at the hands of the SPLA|
|Jul 1996||The USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) Appropriation Bill for 1997 exempted SPLA-controlled areas of Sudan from a ban on U.S. development aid to Sudan enacted in 1989. The SPLA-controlled areas will receive direct aid in 1997. (ANS. 7/30/1996)|
|Aug 1996||The leader of the Nuba Mountain Central Committee, Mohamed Harun Kafi, and the political leader of the New Sudan Forces, Yunis Dumi Kali, both Nubans, defected from the SPLA and signed a charter of principles with representatives of the Sudanese government in Nairobi. They said they defected from the SPLA because the movement had lost its national outlook as it had degenerated into a tribal organization. Kafi and Kali did not say how much control they have over the Nuba fighters in the battle fields, and the man who led the Nuba to the bush, Yousif Kuwa, is still with John Garang’s SPLA.(Deutsche Press Agenteur (DPA), 8/11/1996)|
|Aug 11, 1996||The Sudanese government has given its approval to the United Nations to allow it to fly in relief supplied to thousands of people affected by flooding in southeastern Sudan. The umbrella organization Operation Lifeline Sudan has been requesting since June to be allowed to fly aid to some 15,000 people who were stranded by flooding. The area, Pochalla, has been under the control of the SPLA since March. The World Food Program resumed food deliveries to some 700,000 people facing starvation in the south in late July. It was the WFP’s first large-scale operation in 10 months.|
|Aug 13, 1996||The government thwarted a coup attempt and executed 11 officers. The government has been faced with recent demonstrations and protests in the major cities of the north despite the arrest of opposition political leaders. In the Nuba Mountains, the SPLA has managed to maintain its position despite repeated government offenses. (ANS, 10/7/1996)|
|Oct 25, 1996||The SPLA dismissed rumors that it was holding peace talks with the government. The SPLA said it was committed to IGADD (Inter-governmental Authority on Development) peace initiatives which have been deadlocked since the National Islamic Front walked away from talks in September 1994 after its proposals were rejected by the SPLA.|
|Oct 30, 1996||Politicians who had opposed President al-Bashir’s government since 1989 have decided to join his government. The Rev. Philip Abbas Gaboush of the Sudan National Party, Joshua Dei Wal of the Federal Party, and Ahmed Balal and Marghani Sulieman of the Democratic Union Party said they would support al-Bashir in his efforts to end the conflict in Sudan.|
|Dec 12, 1996||Former Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi reportedly planed to join the armed opposition to al-Bashir’s government. He had been living under house arrest since September 1995, but went to Eritrea to announce his intentions. Eritrea severed diplomatic ties with Sudan in 1994 accusing Sudan of supporting the Eritrean Islamic Jihad which aims to overthrow the Eritrean government. Sudan in turn accuses Eritrea of supporting the SPLA.|
|Dec 16, 1996||Former SPLA members accused the organization of discrimination. Some Nuba broke from the SPLA when Garang made an alliance with northern opposition groups who recognized the SPLA’s demand for self-determination for the south. These Nuba are concerned that the alliance between the SPLA and northern opposition groups in the National Democratic Alliance show that the SPLA is concerned only with the south and will leave them to their fate if the south becomes autonomous while other Nuba support the alliance. (IPS)|
|Jan 14, 1997||The SPLA said a joint rebel force had captured key Sudanese government army garrisons at al-Kalil, Diamonsour, and Shali al-Fil in the southern Blue Nile region. On 12 January 1997, SPLA forces captured Kurmuk and other army garrisons. It said the governor of Kurmuk was one of several prisoners taken by the SPLA.|
|Jan 17, 1997||The United Nations and Christian Solidarity International (CSI) said Sudanese forces were destroying villages in the southeast. CSI said Sudan had launched a scorched earth policy in the Blue Nile region which had left some 50,000 people on the verge of starvation. The area has long been closed to the U.N. and other international relief agencies.|
|Jan 23, 1997||An exile opposition group, the National Democratic Alliance, has called on Egypt to help overthrow the Sudanese government. Egypt has not said it will help the rebels despite its long dispute with Khartoum over the presence in Sudan of Egyptian Islamists fighting the Cairo government.|
|Feb 4, 1997||Fighting in eastern Zaire and northern Uganda has forced thousands of Sudanese refugees to flee camps in the two countries and head back to southern Sudan. There were reported to be about 200,000 refugees in Uganda and 80,000 in Zaire.|
|Mar 28, 1997||The SPLA said it seized three garrisons in the northeast and was threatening Port Sudan. The garrisons were named as Korora, Tiairba, and Shabri. Garang said the SPLA was mounting a major offensive in the northeast and that his forces were active on five fronts in northeast, south, east and central Sudan.|
|Apr 2, 1997||A government minister said aid workers would become military targets if they continued to work in rebel-controlled areas in the south. The government ordered the creation of a security committee to investigate the role of relief agencies in military operations. Agencies will have to submit reports on their work and comply with any guidelines issued by the committee. The Minister of Information and Culture also stated that government forces had launched an offensive in order to regain areas of eastern Sudan that were recently captured by rebels.|
|Apr 21, 1997||An agreement to end Sudan’s civil war was signed in Khartoum. Among those signing the agreement were Riak Machar of SSIM, Kerubino Kwanyin Bol of SPLA-Bahr el Ghazal, and Theophillo Ochan of EDF (Equatoria Defense Force). The agreement comes out of the Political Charter signed by several rebel groups and the government in April 1996. It provides for a four-year transitional government in Juba followed by a referendum on separation or unity for the south. Southerners will also no longer be subject to shari’a laws and they would exercise their legislative rights based on customary law. President al-Bashir said he would also declare an amnesty and allow for the repatriation of thousands of Sudanese refugees. The agreement was not signed by John Garang’s SPLA which has been making advances in the country since January. (BBC, 4/23/1997)|
|May 21, 1997||The SPLA reported major gains in the south. In the southwestern region, only the capital Wao remains under government control. The capture of Yei in March opened up SPLA supply routes and appears to have been the key to recent SPLA gains. The SPLA also said government troops were deserting to their side.|
|Jun 16, 1997||Parliamentarians from western Sudan are now demanding self-determination for their area following the agreement under which the south is to decide in 2001 whether it becomes a separate state. The politicians charged that resources of the west were allocated to the south in the April agreement. Areas, including the oil rich areas of southern Kordofan and Abyei, that, before 1956, used to be part of southern Sudan are to be reincorporated into the south. Western leaders also want the federal government to compensate them for the negative effects of 14 years of civil war. Riak Machar said the Westerners’ demands were unjustified and said that the five groups that signed the accord would see the fulfillment of their demands as a violation of the April accord. Demands for self-determination by people in the east have been rejected numerous times by the government which maintains the east has no reason to seek special treatment. The south is the breadbasket of the country and people in other areas fear if it gains independence, their regions will suffer.|
|Jul 10, 1997||Twenty thousand Dinka have been displaced in the wake of fighting. They have moved from Bahr el-Ghazal region to Kordofan.|
|Sep 26, 1997||John Garang, SPLA leader, has appealed for international food aid to southern Sudan. He also said his forces controlled all of southern Sudan. The World Food Program (WFP) delivered some food aid in early September, but is being hampered by the government’s refusal to give aircraft permission to fly into SPLA controlled towns. SPLA-United faction leader Lam Akol rallied to the government after 11 years in the bush. SPLA-United was one of the groups signing the April peace agreement with the government.|
|Oct 15, 1997||The WFP sent food aid to Juba where 370,000 people in both government and rebel held areas are in need of relief. The town has been cut off from supplies since the SPLA cut off all land routes to it. The government is said to be persecuting Christians and other southerners in the town.|
|Oct 26, 1997||The International Women’s Committee in Support of Nuba Women and Children claims genocidal human rights abuses by the government in the Nuba Mountains region. Using reports from Africa Rights and other NGOs and Church organizations, the group alleges that local militias use murder, rape, abduction, slavery, orchestrated famines, forced conversion to Islam, and forced displacement into “peace camps” as political weapons. Nuba leaders blamed both the government and SPLA for abuses against them. In 1983, the Nuba population was estimated at 3 million. Since then, half the population has fled and most young men are fighting with the SPLA.|
|Nov 27, 1997||At least 35 people have been killed in communal violence between the Dinka and Nuer in Gedaref province. Riak Machar’s United Democratic Salvation Front runs southern Sudan under the April peace agreement. There is some rivalry between the Dinka and Nuer within the UDSF. Dinka chiefs accuse Dr. David de Chard, the Nuer Youth Organization leader, of initiating the incident because Nuer assume all Dinka are SPLA supporters and because SPLA-government peace talks in October-November failed. Prof. de Chard denied involvement in the conflict.|
|Feb 18, 1998||Those rebel groups which signed a peace accord with the government in April 1997 were asked to lay down their arms.|
|Feb 26, 1998||After the government partially lifted a flight ban, food aid arrived in Bahr el-Ghazal where 100,000 people have settled after being displaced by recent fighting in the area. Earlier in the month, the United Nations appealed for $109 million in aid for 4 million civilians facing starvation and disease in southern Sudan.|
|Mar 13, 1998||Government aircraft flew four sorties over Yei in western Equatoria region dropping 13 bombs. Five fell on Yei’s hospital complex killing 11 and rendering the hospital useless. Yei was taken by SPLA rebels in March 1997. The SPLA downed 4 government planes during 1997.|
|Mar 30, 1998||Sudan’s parliament approved a draft constitution, its first since 1984. It asserts that Sudan is a unitary state in which Islam is the majority, but allows for other religions. It also states that shari’a, custom, and national consensus are the basis for legislation in the state.|
|Apr 2, 1998||About 300 student conscripts were killed by government security forces as they tried to escape from the military training camp at Helefun near Khartoum. At least 150 were shot and 55 drowned in their escape attempt. The government introduced conscription of school-age students more than 2 years ago.|
|May 2, 1998||The SPLA has said it repulsed a summer government offensive on three fronts. It also announced that on 29 April, the SPLA released 800 POWs. Over 300 decided to join various rebel groups fighting the government; others returned to their homes; others want political asylum in other countries.|
|May 4, 1998||The government has extended its policy of ethnic cleansing first tried in the Nuba Mountains to Darfur Province. People of the province have been put into camps with children reportedly separated from their parents and forced to convert to Islam and girls sexually abused. (ANS)|
|May 11, 1998||The National Democratic Alliance dismissed the proposed Constitutional Bill of Sudan on the grounds that it does not meet the expectations of all interested parties.|
|May 25, 1998||The Nuba people held a ceremony in the Nuba Mountains Kordofan region to mark the 15th anniversary of the SPLA rebellion.|
|Jun 1998||Famine in Sudan is more widespread than previously thought. According to Medecins sans Frontieres, hundreds of thousands of children in Bahr el-Ghazal region are severely malnourished and close to one million people are near starvation. It is currently targeting 2.2 million people for food assistance. The food shortage is caused by a combination of poor harvests due to lack of rain and heavy SPLA-government fighting in the region. Many in Bahr el-Ghazal are displaced from surrounding villages. In early May, government militias accompanied by nomadic horsemen invaded the region killing as many men as possible and abducting women and children. Villages have been razed and abandoned. Other areas of famine include western Nuer of the Upper Nile and eastern Equatoria. The following drought-affected regions are under SPLA control Rumbek Country, eastern Bahr el Ghazal; northern Bahr el Ghazal; Mundri, Western Equatoria. Those under government control include: Bentiu, Unity State; Malakal, Upper Nile State, and Juba Town, Bahr el Jebel State. In general, the government controls Bahr el Jebel State, Unity State and Upper Nile State while the SPLA controls Eastern Bahr el Ghazal and Western Equatoria.|
|Jul 1998||The government of Sudan recently lifted its ban on access to the Nuba Mountains to allow UN relief workers to assess the situation. Relief officials estimate that more than 700,000 people are at risk of starvation in Sudan. (ANS, 5/20/1998) The World Food Program reported in May that 350,000 people were at risk of starvation in Sudan, while today they report that 2.6 million are in need of emergency food aid. Relief agencies still lack access to rebel-held areas in the Nuba Mountains where 300,000 live under SPLA control. (IPS, 7/1/1998)|
|Sep 1998||The U.S. Committee on Refugees said more than 350,000 Sudanese are living as refugees in six nearby countries and that there are up to 4 million internally displaced in Sudan. Attacks on the Nuba region in February, May and June displaced 30-50,000 people. (ANS, 9/17/1998)|
|Oct 1998||The opposition National Democratic Alliance held a conference in Asmara, Eritrea, September 28-October 3. They discussed the military successes of NDA forces in the east, southeast, south and Nuba Mountains. (BBC, 10/7/1998)|
|Dec 1998||The U.S. Committee for Refugees released a report on the conflict in Sudan. It stated that at least 1.9 million people had died as a result of the war over the past 15 years, including 70,000 in the first half of 1998. The report described the policies of the government against the Nuba people as genocidal and stated that between 100-200,000 have died or been killed in the past five years because of government policies.. (IPS, 12/10/1998)|
|Feb 1999||One hundred Sudanese rebel commanders and politicians from seven armed groups and political parties held a conference in Kampala. (DPA, 2/10/1999)|