Archive for February 9, 2018

The Principles of Tribocracy (Part 8)

Posted: February 9, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Opinion Articles, Opinion Writers, PaanLuel Wël, Philosophy

Debunking the Myth of the 64 Tribes of South Sudan

The purpose of this article is to debunk the prevalent myth of the so-called 64 tribes of South Sudan, by arguing that there is no coherent and sound basis for how the original architects of the “64 tribes” could have logically arrived at number “64” with respect to the definition of the word tribe. Instead, the article proposes 10 nationalities, with 131 tribes, of the Republic of South Sudan. Nonetheless, the conclusion of the article is that neither the nationalities nor the tribes per se truly reflects and presents the political reality of the country – hence, the imperativeness of tribocracy.

By PaanLuel Wël, Bor, South Sudan

RSS coat of ARMS

South Sudan’s coat of arms, in which the eagle symbolizes vision, strength, resilience and majesty, and the shield and spear the people’s resolve to protect the sovereignty of their republic and work hard to feed it.

February 9, 2018 (SSB) — South Sudan, like much of Sub-Saharan Africa, is a tribal nation. Government is formed and run along tribal lines; war and rebellion are declared and fought along tribal lines; corruption and nepotism are initiated and perpetuated along tribal lines; employment and scholarship opportunities are offered and obtained along tribal lines; job and army promotions are done along tribal lines. Marriages and social events are conducted along tribal lines. More often than not, everything is done and run along tribal lines in South Sudan. Therefore, tribalism is the modus operandi and the basic organizing unit of the South Sudanese society is the tribe. If so, then which are the tribes of South Sudan? By conventional wisdom, there are 64 tribes in the Republic of South Sudan. In this article, this conventional wisdom will be referred to as the 64-tribe paradigm.

According to Gurtong Trust – Peace and Media Project, these 64 tribes are: the Dinka, the Nuer, the Zande, the Bari, the Kakwa, the Kuku, the Mundari, the Nyangwara, the Pojullu, the Acholi, the Shilluk (Chollo), the Anyuak (Anyuaa), the Balanda-Boor, the Balanda-Bviri, the Bongo, the Jurchol (Luo), the Maban, the Jur Man-Ang’eer, the Pari, the Shatt (Thuri), the Adio (Makaraka), the Lotuka (Otuho), the Dongotona, the Ifoto, the Imatong, the Lango, the Logir, the Lokoya, the Lopit, the Avukaya, the Baka, the Jur (Beli & Modo), the Keliku, the Lugbwara, the Lulubo, the Madi, the Moro, the Moro Kodo, the Mundu, the Uduk, the Didinga, the Larim (Boya), the Murle, the Tenet, the Suri (Kachipo), the Aja, the Bai, the Banda, the Binga, the Feroghe, the Gollo, the Indri, the Kara, the Mangayat, the Ndogo, the Ngulngule, the Sere, the Woro, the Yulu, the Toposa, the Jiye (Jie), the Nyangatom, and the Tid.

While many South Sudanese intellectuals and foreign observers have consistently lauded the dazzling beauty of “unity in diversity” presented by the 64 tribes, few have bothered themselves to inquire into the genesis of these 64 tribes. More so, there has been little debate on the methodology and framework used to probe into and arrive at the 64 tribes. How, for example, was it possible that some ethnic groups such as the Bari speakers, with similar language, common descent, culture and history, have been divided up into various tribes while others such as the Dinka and Nuer speakers, with similar language, common descent, culture and history, have been lumped together as one tribe respectively?

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What Does Dr. Riek Machar Confinement In South Africa Means To The High-Level Peace Revitalization Forum?

By Longar Mathiec Wol, Juba, South Sudan

South Sudan in Turmoil

South Sudan in Turmoil, courtesy of the Gov’t, IO, G-10, other opposition groups and UNMISS

February 9, 2018 (SSB) — When the war broke out in December 2013, and the two camps emerged one supporting the government and other one supporting Dr. Riek Machar turn Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in Opposition (SPLM-IO). That painful division caused indiscriminately ethnics target and killing suspected to be on both sides. It is a war that caused South Sudan pain, the hope that we were independence state seems to have been chattered and look like a dream; people got back to the struggle they recently emerged out of and they dark days returned.

People with spinelessness starting dubitating themselves why they voted for independence state. To tell you, you made no mistake you are a hero or heroine because you made the independence of South Sudan possible; the one that we had been fighting for almost 50 years. 9th July 2011 was the day millions of South Sudanese were longing to see, the day they have never dreamt of has come during your lifetime. You should be proud of being part of that historical moment in the history of our country.

Whatever happened, our leaders took us back to that closed dark chapter of war and suffering. When August 2015 peace was signed, it cooldown the conflict of 2013. The two camps signed the peace agreement; H.E general Salva Kiir Mayardit and the opposition led by H.E former first vice president Dr. Riek Machar respectively signed the agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. That hope was almost washed away when the other war broke out at president palace 2016. Another challenging moment in the history of our country emerges again. Dr. Riek Machar left the country with some of his troops till he appeared in DRC in one month and a half later.

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By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Aggrey Jaden

February 9, 2018 (SSB) — After the fall of General Abboud’s regime in October 1964, a caretaker government was formed under the leadership of Sirr al-Khatim who was sworn in as Prime Minister. At this time, William Deng wrote to Sirr al-Khatim stating that a conference be held on the Southern affair. The Sudan government agreed with the suggestion and se the t delegation to Kampala to talk to SANU members in exile. However, the division among SANU and Southern leaders ran deep. First, William Deng advocated for federation.

Second, Aggrey Jaden who was elected President of SANU favored the talk with the government since his group called for the political independence of the Southern Region. Third, Joseph Oduho who was recently replaced as president of SANU and appointed as SANU Secretary for Constitutional Affairs rejected talks with the government; he believed nothing fruitful would develop from the discussions. Fourth, the Southern Front called for self-determination of the Southern region with the authority of the South to determine its relations with the North. After extensive discussions, delegations from both the Southern region and Sudan government came to an agreement to hold talks.

On March 16, 1965, the Round Table Conference began with delegates from Southern region and Sudan government convening in Khartoum. Observers from the countries of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria and the United Arab Republic (U.A.R.), attended the Round Table Conference. In the past, these countries played a neutral role and provided limited support to SANU since Sudan was a member of the Organization of African Union (O.A.U). Uganda was the only country that offered significant sanctuary to a large population of Southern refugee many of them students.

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Peace Revitalization Updates

Edmund Yakani

MR. EDMUND YAKANI BERIZILIOUS is the Executive Director of the Community Empowerment for Progress Organization (CEPO), a Juba-based South Sudanese civil society organization.

February 9, 2018 (SSB) — The revitalization of the article 11 of ARCSS (National Legislature) faced some disagreements between the government and the opposition groups to the government. In plenary the deliberations were not promising, so the civil society camp with the proposal of formation of mini-committee for addressing the issue of revitalizing article 11 by the formation of mini-committee compose of 3 representatives of various stakeholders.  The mini-committee was formed.

The mini-committee has not succeeded in finding the compromised approach for revitalizing the agreement on the resolution of Conflict in South Sudan. The government and opposition groups during the mini-committee consultations have not reached any compromised position on revitalizing the National transitional legislative assembly.

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