Submitting your Opinion Article (s) to the Editor.

Dear Guest Contributors,

Please use this email to submit your opinion article (s) or/and letter (s) to the editor for publication:

Your work is only publishable if it meets the standard of this blog which is, among others, claims advanced/made/advocated for must be substantiated and well reasoned out–present both sides before arriving at your own conclusion (the message you are putting across).

  1. Garang e Ciluel says:

    Will the “Greater Bor” Name Survive?
    I think enough is enough ladies and gentlemen. The name Dinka Bor that has been used to generalized the people of the three counties (Twic East, Duk and Bor) has always been controversial but because people where engaged in bigger problems than the names, it was just left in that controversial state. I have never known any time in the history of this name where people were all comfortable with it. So, why do we kid ourselves when it is not working at all? I am glad that people have started talking honestly about this issue. However, there are some people who still don’t get it. First of all, before we part ways and live harmoniously as brothers and sisters minus the controversial name, we need to understand when the name Bor first emerged and what transpired after. For those who have not read or heard history and thought that we have always been Boor, I will tell you a couple of things. In my understanding, the Twic/Twi, Nyarweng and Hol were never call Bor till recently. I have no idea when Gok and Athooc started calling themselves Boor. Maybe somebody should help us with that. When I was growing up in the 80s, I knew there were Twi/Twic (where I come from), Nyarweng, Hol and Bor/boo. I apologize; I didn’t know the existence of Gok and Athooc until recently but only knew them us Boor/Boo. In the same 80s, an individual from Nyarweng composed a slightly funny song about Boor/Boo, that goes like; “Panda ekë ye nhiaar të cïï rap luok/Luo, aluel Boor/Boo wuobë lo Jonglöng”. The question is, if these people where Boor/Boo, why would they reference Bor/Boo as something different. It does not really matter whether other people call us Dinka Bor or not. We have to agree upon the name. That labelling can change so quickly. It was introduced by a small group of politicians when the four Dinka groups in question did not give their concern and they were/are not party to it. Today, we are doing the same mistake. The word Greater Bor emerged from outside the country and does not reflect the will of the majority in South Sudan. If there was something called Greater Bor, our three counties would have carried the name Bor (i.e, Bor South, Bor Central and Bor North). To me, it would have been the perfect scenario. The fact that we have Twic East and Duk Counties is an indication that the name Bor is rejected by most people in those counties. In the ECS, there is Diocese Bor and Diocese Twic East. Diocese Duk is in the making. Even when everything is clear, we are still ignorant of the reality. Please do not quote me wrong. I am not in any way promoting division among our wonderful communities that have a lot in common to cherish. But shying away from the reality in the name of unity is the most dishonest thing that you can do to these communities. For those who are advocating for Greater Bor, please start your campaign at the grass roots level (i.e at the counties level). This Greater Bor in diaspora is going to fail terribly. A minority cannot push their agenda down the throat of the majority and expect to succeed. In that regard, I would like Deng Lueth Mayom and his co-leaders of the Greater Bor of the USA and other Greater Bor Groups around the world to listen to both sides of the coins. There are two groups that are not comfortable with this generalization and we should not ignore them. The first group is the Bor Asili group that claim the name Bor and feel threatened that their name is being hijack by members of Twic East and Duk County. On the other end are members of Twic East and Duk counties that do not consider themselves as Boor/Boo. In order to quieten these people, we need to prove to them that the majority of our people in the three counties support the idea. Dismissing these voices as minority is a dangerous mistake that may be regrettable in the near future.
    For those who always ask this question “why did your ancestors accept this name in the first place”. Well, if you had read some history books and knew your origin, that question would not have make sense to you. The ancestors of Twi, Nyarweng and Hol were never called Bor. So, that question is meaningless. Maybe you should read this book; “The Upper Nile Province Handbook: a report on peoples and government in the Southern Sudan”. This book was written by C. A. Willis in 1931 during the British rule in the Sudan and was recently edited by Douglas H. Johnson. I recommend the original book (can be found in big libraries especially for those who are living in the west). The edited version can also do. In that book, the governor (British) wrote a report about all the peoples of the Uppernile. He talked about Twic Dinka, Nyarweng Dinka, Hol Dinka and Bor Dinka. He specifically wrote negatively about Twic Dinka people because their chiefs were not cooperative and people from that area were always hostile to them. So, why did the British government used those names to describe us if there were no Twic Dinka, Nyarweng Dinka, and Hol Dinka or did somebody forget that we were all generalized as Greater Bor Dinka? This question is specifically directed to those who think that Twi/Twic is a recent name and there is no such thing as Twic Dinka. Before Dinka became a name, we were Jiëëng (still Jiëëng). At that time, somebody from the current Twic East County would identify him/herself as Jiëëng, followed by Twi and then their wut/clan. There was no Bor in their identity. Likewise, a Nyarweng, would identify him/herself as Jiëëng, Nyarweng, something else and no Bor and same to Hol. When the foreigners came and introduced the word Dinka, they attached Dinka to the original name of each group (Twic Dinka, Nyarweng Dinka, Hol Dinka and Bor Dinka (see the book above)). So, there was Dinka Twi/Twic, Dinka Nyarweng and Dinka Hol before the current Dinka Bor generalization. Therefore, Twi/Twic is not “all of a sudden” as Agereb Leek described it in his opinion article.
    I think we are already done with thls issue and people should just move on. Currently, we have Twic East County, Duk County and Bor County and they are all represented in both Juba and Madingbor. So, where does the word Greater Bor comes from again? Name alone will not unite us. If unity was synonymous with the name, then the name Sudan would have united us. People are united by common values that they share among themselves and the name is not a big deal. We can give ourselves different names but still stay as united people since we share common values. However, there is a big mistrust among our people of the Twic East, Duken and Bor County and we should focus more on how to eliminate the cause of mistrust rather than making an artificial umbrella that will not help unite us. We have to be honest with each other. Dishonesty is the enemy of development. The bottom line is, if we want to be called Greater Bor Community, let us all put our blessings on it (i.e a majority must agree with the idea before we use it).


  2. Matot Akech Matot says:

    Ramciel is the best place for the capital city of South Sudan!

    By, Matot Akech Matot.

    South Sudan has just celebrated the first anniversary of our being a new country. After many years of terrible pain and suffering, we triumphed over our enemies. We fought bravely for so many years and were rewarded with success at last. South Sudan Oyee

    One of the many tragic outcomes of the years of war was the untimely death of our beloved Dr. John Garang who died in a helicopter accident. This was and still is a terrible blow to our young nation, but we kept going forward. We knew that John Garang would want us to keep heading towards the life of success that he and many others sacrificed their lives to achieve.

    Some of you will say, when they read my letter – “What is wrong with Matot? Where are the words against his opposition? Why is he not shouting and crying about some of the foolish, unintelligent letters going around about Ramciel and Juba? Why is he calm and making good sense? “.

    I have decided not to spend a lot of time talking about the recent, foolish letter from Dr Luka Biong Deng, published in the Nation Newspaper this month. In his letter, Mr Luka says that Juba should stay as the capital city of South Sudan. And why? What is his reasoning? Because Juba is there. Because Juba has been the capital for some time now. And then he says, because Dr John Garang is buried there. Yes, our leader is buried there but on its own, this is not a good reason for having Juba as the capital. There are not real points in these words. John Garang said we will “take the town to the people” and not the other way around. So he is saying let us build new towns, and Ramciel was one place suggested.

    In fact, all of Luka Deng’s points are easy-to-beat arguments. John Garang himself did not want Juba to be our capital. With his intelligence, John Garang knew that Juba would not be the best capital city that we can have. Just because something is there already is not a convincing argument. We do not have to accept it.

    I have another much better idea. All my arguments add up to my saying Ramciel is the best place for a capital and Juba is not good as a capital of our glorious new country.

    Juba does not and will never suit the numbers of people, the size, the numbers of buildings, the necessary infrastructure, the numbers of workers, international tourists and Investors that South Sudan needs to become a strong independent country.

    It is not good enough to say that Juba should be the capital because it was already there. The small city existed and we used it as a place to sit and think and plan for the good future of our country. Since our Independence, Juba has seen all of the first days and struggles of this new nation. A lot of new business and overseas people are now coming to South Sudan, wanting to bring investment in business and where do they stay? Juba, a city that is too small, where the indigenous peoples of this place do not want anyone to come and where it is impossible develop Juba into a great city of the world.

    Juba actually is land belonging to the Bari tribe and their people do not want the capital city to keep growing over their ancestral lands. This has been a cause of violence. The indigenous people do not want their land taken for a capital city. Were the Bari people asked at all by anyone about building a capital city right on their lands? Did someone ask their permission to do this? I do not think so. Juba was there, had some services and so it grew.

    Now Juba is not coping well with being the capital city. The roads are narrow and cars rush through them, often knocking down the people on foot and killing them. As well, there is not a satisfactory water supply and waste disposal pipes and treatment plants. Houses are just put anywhere and this looks very untidy and not permanent. Roads are too narrow. Juba is very close to the borders of Kenya and Uganda.

    In Juba, there is not enough land to cover the 31 or so square kilometres (about 12 square miles) needed for the construction of new government buildings in the present capital city. Since the time Juba has been the “stand-in” for our capital city, Juba has grown and grown without planning. Juba was never meant to be a capital city for the whole country. Since that time, Juba has grown buildings and roads which are not suited to large numbers of people who have come there.

    Dr. John Garang commissioned a study and the area of Ramciel was suggested as a good place for a new capital city. John Garang wanted Ramciel as a capital, but he died before this was accomplished. It is in The Lakes State of greater Yirol people, Even the name “Ramciel” is suitable, because it means where the Rhino meet and it can be now refer as a centre of ten state of South Sudan “town between”. A shared area, a place for different people to come together and meet. Ramciel is the areas of Awen (Thian) Malek payam of Langmatot Boma. It is more in the centre of the country; at its heart. For the people of all South Sudan it gives a central focal point. It is an area where not many people have lived before. It is not putting buildings on top of family areas and graves.

    Ramciel is inhabited by the Awen clan from Ciec, members of Yirol. Ramciel is their land. These are the indigenous people of this place and they must decide. They have said yes to building Ramciel. Now they have to decide which of 2 possible areas they will move to, take their cattle to and stay in.

    The Ramciel area is used by three Greater Yirol communities: Ciec, Aliab and Atut. They understand that the Government of South Sudan has a right to develop land so as to benefit all our citizens. Ramciel has good hills where the city could be developed. There is plenty of space in the hills for a large city.

    There are several international examples of a country building a new separate City for their capital. I can talk about Brazilian and Canberra, in Australia, as two examples. There are a tremendous lot of positive reasons for South Sudan building a new capital. The indigenous people of that area will not behave in a violent manner if Ramciel was made into the capital.

    The opportunity to build a truly well planned capital should not be ignored. South Sudan needs to build our democracy and part of that building is making a beautiful capital city where our leaders will meet and make important decisions concerning our future. We want a capital city to be proud of. Roads and buildings would be properly planned, with water and waste systems, hospitals and schools included. We would showcase our abilities in designing a capital which would reflect our beloved, great country.

    On April 5, 2012, the survey for the proposed new capital of South Sudan, Ramciel, was reported in the Sudan Tribune and in other papers. The survey will be completed within the next six months, reports the official in charge of the project.

    This gives us, as proud citizens of the new country of South Sudan, a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to design a city built for a purpose: to be the centre of the life for our country. In an age where effects on the natural environment are serious issues, South Sudan can employ the best possible environmentally aware architects and road planners. In this way, South Sudan can show the rest of the world that we are good global citizens. We have suffered and lost so much, but now we are starting to say “Look at us. We are building our nation in the best possible way.

    Comments can be sent to


  3. Samuel Totten says:

    Petition Calling on the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s Committee on Conscience to Formally and Publicly Urge the International Community to Take Specific Action Vis-à-vis the Ongoing Crises in Sudan

    July 19, 2013

    Mr. Michael Abramowitz
    Genocide Prevention Center
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    100 Raoul Wallenberg Place
    Washington, D.C.


    Mr. William S. Parsons
    Chief of Staff
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    100 Raoul Wallenberg Place
    Washington, D.C.

    Dear Mr. Abramowitz and Mr. Parsons:
    We, a select group of scholars of genocide from across the globe, call on the United States Memorial Museum’s Committee on Conscience (CoC) to formally and publicly call on the international community (both the United Nations, and individual nations) to immediately take three actions in response to the ongoing crises in the Sudan: (1) establish and conduct an investigation into the human rights violations that have been perpetrated in the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile from June 2011 through today; (2) implement a humanitarian corridor in order to provide food and medical aid to the civilians of the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile; and (3) issue a genocide alert vis-à-vis the crises in the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile. In doing so the CoC would be fulfilling its mandate “to alert the national conscience, influence policy makers, and stimulate worldwide action to confront and work to halt acts of genocide or related crimes against humanity” (emphasis added).

    It is important to note that in a recent (July 13, 2013) communiqué issued by the leadership of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement-North (the official name of the rebel group in South Kordofan), it declared, in part, its “renewed commitment to UNSC Resolution 2046”; “readiness for an immediate humanitarian cessation of hostilities with the Sudan government as well as resolving the political crisis in Sudan”; and, “reiterated its call and support for an independent international investigation committee to investigate the human rights violations in Nuba Mountains, Blue Nile, Northern Kordofan and Darfur especially in the last months.” The communiqué was signed by Yasir Arman, Secretary General of the SPLM-N.

    Few, if any organizations have the moral authority invested in the USHMM and CoC by both the U.S. Government and people of the United States, and thus we firmly believe that it only makes sense that the USHMM’S CoC is the entity that must call for and carry out, respectively, the aforementioned actions. Furthermore, the CoC is the only entity that has the legitimate power to declare a genocide emergency.

    In a letter written by Mike Abramowitz (not dated, but sent sometime in May 2013) addressed to Samuel Totten, John Hubbell Weiss and Eric Cohen vis-à-vis their request that the CoC take action regarding the crises in the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile, the following was stated:

    “Over the last several months, you have communicated with me and Michael Chertoff [Chair of the Committee on Conscience] about your concerns over the humanitarian situation in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states in Sudan. You have requested minutes of the Museum’s Committee on Conscience meetings and asked the Committee to issue a “genocide alert” for the Nuba Mountains. Michael and I have discussed your various communications and requests and I’d like to take an opportunity to more formally respond on our behalf.

    “As a point of clarification, the Museum has moved away from a formal “alert” system in recent years because it suggests a level of precision that we have found difficult to achieve and sustain over time on a particular situation. We have also found issuing lots of statements to be ineffective, but we do issue statements from time to time on issues of concern. Sudan and South Sudan are among those places we have been concerned about most in recent years, given past cases of genocide and mass atrocity and ongoing dangers for civilian populations. Our staff meets regularly with members of civil society, experts, and government officials to register our concerns about these issues, and we are part of a working group on Sudan organized by the U.S. Institute of Peace.”

    We, the signatories to this letter, find it most regrettable that the USHMM “has moved away from a formal ‘alert system in recent years.” Not only does that, we believe, limit the power and thrust of the CoC’s influence in “alerting the national conscience” to major humanitarian crises but also in “ stimulating worldwide action to confront and work to halt acts of genocide or related crimes against humanity.”

    We also respectfully disagree with rationale given for the USHMM’S decision to move away from a formal “alert” system: “because it suggests a level of precision that we have found difficult to achieve and sustain over time on a particular situation.” While we readily agree that it is extremely difficult to accurately and definitively assess whether a fluid situation/crisis is genocide or not (unless, of course, it’s something as starkly obvious as the Holocaust (1941-1945) or Rwanda (April 1994-July 2004)), it is not difficult to “suggest with a level precision” that a situation constitutes crimes against humanity. And the latter of course is the time to declare a genocide emergency – during the early stages of what might prove to be genocide — for to wait until the situation is a full-blown genocide is to have failed miserably in issuing an alert. Why? Because by then it is likely that tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of innocent people (women, infants, children and the elderly, among others) will have been slain. In light of that, we firmly believe that the USHMM and CoC must focus as much attention of “related crimes against humanity” as it does genocide, otherwise the CoC will end up straying mightily from its mandate.

    Finally, as you well know, the USHMM currently sponsors the “Pledge to Prevent Genocide Now” campaign in which individuals are encouraged to sign their names in support of the following statement: “I pledge to learn more, educate others, and take action to help prevent genocide today.” It is time for the USHMM’s CoC to step up and honor the USHMM’s very own campaign.
    In conclusion, we petition you in the hope that the USHMM and CoC will do the right thing in this instance, and honor our three requests.

    We await your reply in which you state whether you will honor our requests and when and how; or, if you choose not to, why that is the case. Time is of essence as each and every day that passes innocent people are being killed, severely injured/maimed and/or perishing from a lack of adequate food.


    Dr. Samuel Totten
    Professor Emeritus
    University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
    Author of Genocide by Attrition: Nuba Mountains, Sudan (Transaction Publishers, 2012)

    Dr. Debórah Dwork
    Rose Professor of Holocaust History
    Director, Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies
    Clark University
    Worcester, Massachusetts
    Co-author, Flight from the Reich: Refugee Jews, 1933-1946 (W.W. Norton & Co, 2009)

    Dr. John L. Hagan
    MacArthur Professor & Co-Director, Center on Law & Globalization
    Northwestern University & American Bar Foundation
    Evanston, IL
    Co-author of Darfur and the Crime of Genocide (with Wenona Rymond-Richmond) (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
    Dr. Helen Fein
    Research Associate
    Belfer Center for Science in International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government
    Harvard University
    Cambridge, MA
    Author of Human Rights and Wrongs (Paradigm Publishers, 2007)

    Dr. Mark Levene
    Reader in Comparative History
    Parkes Centre for Jewish/non-Jewish Relations
    University of Southampton
    Southampton, UK
    Author of The Crisis of Genocide (Oxford University Press, 2013)

    Dr. Israel W. Charny
    Executive Director, Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide Studies
    Jerusalem, Israel
    Editor of Encyclopedia of Genocide (ABC Clio Press, 1999)

    Dr. Rouben Adalian
    Armenian National Institute
    Washington, D.C.
    Author of “The Armenian Genocide” in Centuries of Genocide (New York: Routledge, 2013)

    Dr. John K. Roth
    Edward J. Sexton Professor Emeritus of Philosophy
    Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, California
    Author of Rape: Weapon of War and Genocide

    Dr. Taner Akcam
    Professor of History
    Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies
    Clark University
    Worcester, Massachusetts
    Author of The Young Turks’ Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire (Princeton University Press, 2012)

    Dr. Dominik J. Schaller
    Research Fellow Karman Centre for Advanced Studies in the Humanities and University of Bern & Lecturer, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg
    Heidelberg, Germany
    Author of Late Ottoman Genocides: The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish

    Ms. Linda Melvern
    Department of International Politics
    University of Aberystwyth, Wales
    Author of A People Betrayed The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide (Zed Books, 2009)

    Dr. Roger W. Smith
    Professor Emeritus of Government
    College of William and Mary
    Author of “Genocide and the Politics of Rape” in Genocide Matters: Ongoing Issues and Emerging Perspectives (Routledge, 2013)

    Dr. Colin Tatz
    Professor, School of Politics and International Relations
    Australian National University
    Canberra, ACT, Australia
    Author of With Intent to Destroy: Reflecting on Genocide (Verso, 2003)

    Dr. Eric Reeves
    Smith College
    Northampton, MA
    Compromising With Evil: An Archival History of Greater Sudan, 2007-2012 (e-book; October 2012)

    Dr. Victoria Sanford
    Professor of Anthropology and Director of Center for Human Rights & Peace Studies
    Lehman College and The Graduate Center
    City University of New York
    Author of Author of Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2003)

    Dr. Maureen S. Hiebert
    Assistant Professor
    Department of Political Science, Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, University of Calgary
    Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Author of “Do Criminal Trials Prevent Genocide? A Critical Analysis” in Impediments to The Prevention and Intervention of Genocide (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press, 2013)

    Dr. John H. Weiss
    Associate Professor of History
    Cornell University
    Ithaca, New York
    Author of “Lessons from the Failure to Rescue Darfur” in Failed and Failing States (Cambridge, England, 2010)

    Dr. Elisa von Joeden-Forgey
    Assistant Visiting Professor in Holocaust and Genocide Studies
    The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
    Galloway, NJ
    Author of “Gender and the Future of Genocide Studies and Prevention” in Genocide Studies and Prevention (Spring 2012)

    Dr. Herbert Hirsch
    Professor of Political Science
    Virginia Commonwealth University
    Richmond, Virginia
    Author of Anti-Genocide: Building an American Movement to Prevent Genocide (Praeger)

    Dr. Robert Melson
    Professor Emeritus
    Purdue University
    West Lafayette, Indiana
    Author of Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust (University of Chicago Press, 1996)

    Dr. Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe
    Visiting Professor in Constitutional Law
    Universidade de Fortaleza
    Fortaleza, Brazil
    Author of Readings from Reading: Essays on African Politics, Genocide, Literature (Dakar and Reading, African Renaissance, 2011)

    Dr. George Kent
    Professor of Political Science, Emeritus
    University of Hawaii

    Dr. Henry Theriault
    Professor and Chair of Philosophy
    Worcester State University, Massachusetts
    Author of “Denial of Ongoing Atrocities as a Rationale for Not Attempting to Prevent or Intervene” in Impediments to the Prevention and Intervention of Genocide (Transaction Publishers, 2013)

    Dr. Robert K. Hitchcock
    Research Professor
    University of New Mexico
    Albuquerque, New Mexico
    The Genocide of Indigenous Peoples (with Samuel Totten) (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2011)

    Mr. George Shirinian
    Executive Director
    Zoryan Institute
    Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Editor of The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide: Essays on Asia Minor, Pontos, and Eastern Thrace, 1913–1923 (Bloomingdale, IL: Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012)

    Dr. G. Jan Colijn
    Dean Emeritus
    The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
    Galloway, NJ 08205
    Author of Ruin’s Wheel, A Father on War, A Son on Genocide

    Dr. Paul Slovic
    Professor of Psychology
    University of Oregon, Eugene
    Author of “Psychic Numbing and Mass Atrocity” in E. Shafir (Ed.) The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy (Princeton University Press, 2013)

    Dr. Rick Halperin
    Director, Embrey Human Rights Program
    Southern Methodist University
    Dallas, Texas

    Dr. Jamie L. Wraight
    Curator and Historian, The Voice Vision Holocaust Survivor Archive
    The University of Michigan, Dearborn

    Dr. Rubina Peroomian
    Research Associate, University of California, Los Angeles
    Author of three volumes on the Armenian Genocide, including The Armenian Genocide in Literature, and Perceptions of Those Who Lived through the Years of Calamity (2012)

    Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell
    Professor, Holocaust & Genocide Studies
    Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

    Dr. Kjell Anderson
    Senior Researcher/Project Leader
    The Hague Institute for Global Justice
    The Hague, The Netherlands

    Dr. Christian Davenport
    Professor of Political Science & Faculty Associate with Center for Political Studies
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    Co-author of “Data Limitations as Impediment to Genocide Intervention” (with Cyanne
    Loyle). In Impediments to the Prevention and Intervention of Genocide (Transaction Press, 2012)

    Dr. Douglas H. Johnson
    Former member of the Abyei Boundaries Commission
    Oxford, United Kingdom and Santa Fe, New Mexico
    Author of The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars: Peace or Truce (Oxford: James Currey, 2011)

    Dr. Yael Stein MD
    Physician and Researcher
    Hebrew University – Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
    Co-founder, the Jerusalem Center for Genocide Prevention
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Dr. Philip Spencer
    Professor in Holocaust and Genocide Studies
    Kingston University
    London, UK
    Author of Genocide Since 1945 (London: Routledge, 2012)

    Dr. Robert Skloot
    Professor Emeritus
    University of Wisconsin, Madison
    Author of If the Whole Body Dies: Raphael Lemkin and the Treaty Against Genocide (Madison, Wisconsin: Parallel Press, 2006)

    Dr. Peter Balakian
    Donald M and Constance H Rebar Professor of the Humanities
    Colgate University
    Author of The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response (New York: Harper Perennial, 2004)

    Dr. Deborah Mayersen
    Vice-Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Research Fellow
    University of Wollongong
    Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
    Author of “Responding to Genocide: Mobilising Political Will in Australia.” Australian Policy and History (2013).

    Ms. Sheri P. Rosenberg
    Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law
    New York, New York

    Dr. Edward Kissi
    Associate Professor of Political Science
    University of South Florida
    Tampa, Florida.
    Author of “Remembering Ethiopia’s Red Terror” In Documenting the Red Terror: Bearing Witness to Ethiopia’s Lost Generation (2012)

    Professor Elihu D. Richter MD MPH
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Genocide Prevention Program
    Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Public Health and Community Medicine
    Jerusalem Israel

    Professor Hannibal Travis
    Associate Professor of Law
    Florida International University College of Law
    Miami, Florida
    Author of Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan (Carolina Academic Press, 2010)

    Dr. Donna Frieze
    Professor of
    Deakin University
    Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Author of “The Destruction of Sarajevo’s Vijećnica: A Case of Genocidal Cultural Destruction?” in New Directions in Genocide Research (New York: Routledge, 2011)

    Dr. Damien Lewis
    Royal Geographical Society
    Cork, Ireland
    Co-author of Tears of the Desert: A Memoir of Survival in Darfur (Random House, 2009)

    Dr. Michael Minch
    Director, Peace and Justice Studies and Professor of Philosophy
    Philosophy and Humanities Department
    Utah Valley University
    Orem, Utah

    Dr. Simone Gigliotti
    Senior Lecturer
    Department of History
    Victoria University
    Wellington, New Zealand
    Author of The Train Journey: Transit, Captivity, and Witnessing in the Holocaust (New York: Berghahn Books, 2009)


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  8. Malith Alier says:

    Achievements and Failures of former Governor of Jonglei State
    Historically, this country called South Sudan had a shortage of education unlike other neighbouring African nations that attained independence much earlier leaving current South Sudan in the doldrums of subjugation of colonialism masterminded by the self-confessed Arabs further north to the Mediterranean Sea.
    South Sudan had no shortage of leaders on the other hand. The traditional leadership had the authority to deal with internal and external matters that arose at the time. At this point, it is fair to say that the level of sophistication to deal with international matters was a drawback that handed this territory to those who subjected it to more suffering longer after total independence of similar nations in the region. The traditional authority is still evident today in the countryside and even in towns in form of Chiefs.
    Leaders, traditional and modern are described as good or bad depending on what they do once they were in authority. The former leader of the SPLM/SPLA was described as charismatic and visionary characteristics, to which he is still remembered. Other leaders lack vision, uncharismatic, brutal, dictatorial, unpredictable, inconsistent, faint hearted, greedy or corrupt. Leaders identified with these negative attributes may not rise to the challenge that comes with leadership. Other leaders behave like fire but fire is a bad master and a good servant so goes the saying.
    This article is going to examine the achievements and failures of the former Jonglei State Governor and the prospects of more failures or successes in his new assignment as Minister of Defence.
    It was late 2007, like this when the first Governor of that State was exchange with a minister in the GoNu or Government of National Unity as it was known in the former Sudan. That minister was none other than General Kuol Manyang Juuk and the Governor was Philip Thon Leek. Among the reasons given for the relieved of the first Governor included; inability to curb cattle raids, children abduction and rampant killings. This was a state of lawlessness.
    The new Governor was therefore, sworn in on the 17 December 2007 in Bor before Salva Kiir Mayardit as a security Governor. Below are his major failures and achievements as security Governor of Jonglei State. This is the period from 2007 to 2013. Note that this is not his biography.
    1. Waves of massacres from 2008-2013. Everyone in Jonglei, the whole country and even abroad can testify that the State security worsened from 2008 up to the time of departure of the security Governor. The issue of cattle raids evolved and included aspects like barbaric killing of travellers, pregnant women, abduction of children and shooting dead those found in their sleep. What became peculiar was the killing of young abducted children who used to be taken alive in the past. Something must have gone terribly wrong in the psyche of those raiders. They grew more and more hostile and inhumane to the point of having no qualms for killing masses of those raided. This is what the world called massacre. It happened in a village in Padiet on the 18 Jan. 2012 where 86 were killed and 33 injured ST. It happened in Jalle, Bor County in the same year where over 40 individuals were killed and many more injured.
    Uncountable other massacres happened in the other three counties of Akobo, Uror and Nyirol.
    These happened on the watch of the saviour Governor and the other organs concern with security in the State Government.
    People became helpless. Up to this point, local youths contemplated taking the law on to their-own hands for their communities’ survival. The Lou Nuer youth under their spiritual leader Dak Kueth who mobilized a group numbering over six thousand (6,000) volunteers to invade Pibor County where the sustained attacks and raids were thought to be emanating from.

    This was the time the little known UNMISS waged an ardent campaign to save the aggressive Murle invaders who now were the victims. The UNMISS chief, Hilde Johnson was heard over the radio warning the government and Pibor residents to move away from harm’s way. Those UNMISS actions prompted the country’s Vice President to go to Pibor to confront his fellow Nuer youths to move back to their Counties. The irate youths did not heed the VP call to back off. They insisted that they came to clear the malicious cattle rustlers and people smugglers. They questioned why the government intervened now but did nothing when the Murle burnt down Nuer villages. On the other hand, they wanted guarantees that their villages will not be burnt, children and women abducted and their cattle will never again be stolen. The VP could not pledge those guarantees but returned to Juba unsuccessfully. After a few days, the youth combed abandoned villages for UNMISS had warned and helped evacuation of those villages.

    The strong UNMISS reaction raised many voices for UNMISS has been there since 2007 and the conflict has been raging without its involvement. The UNMISS has a mandate to protect civilians but chose to be a bystander. Each time the Murle steal, abduct and kill the UN kept silent contrary to when the Murle is targeted for revenge. UNMISS impartiality came under scrutiny.

    2. The Anyidi incidence. This is actually a Koth-Char – Anyidi incidence. Some individuals about four of them from Bor County went to Koth-Char in Pibor County in August 2012. They raided and returned with a number of cattle in the direction of Anyidi Payam. Once in Anyidi Payam, the cattle raiders were ambushed at dawn by the military and two members got injured according to Sudan Tribune. One of the injured was arrested while undergoing treatment in a clinic run by SMC (Sudan Medical Care) while the other two were later caught in the village.

    What happened after all this was unimaginable in a country that professes democracy and the rule of law. It was also disgusting to the community as a whole. The chiefs of Anyidi Payam were arbitrarily arrested as if they were the culprits. The SPLA soldiers were waiting for such opportunities to strike the cattle camps. It was reported that the very soldiers who purposed to execute the law and order became lawless by taking oxen for feasting, a kind of rewarding themselves as they meted out punishment without law.
    The governor who has long been accused of behaving like he was in a metal engineering workshop was yet to execute the best of the jungle laws, some people in Equatoria referred to Jonglei State as Jungle State perhaps because of lawlessness there.

    To come to some compromise, the Murle leaders arbitrarily asked for 418 heads of cattle to compensate themselves for robbed animals. “This figure was dismissed by people of Bor as unconfirmed” Sudan Tribune. Here, the case was shifted from individual criminal act to a collective domain of communal punishment as was the case during the days of struggle. Ironically, no single leader protested against this kind of injustice. Even the MPs went mum. But one of outspoken MPs from Bor North retorted that they were buying peace. In addition, the Governor himself concurred with the assertion that the cattle had returned to Koth char but he was punishing Bor People for the errand.
    One question remained unanswered. How long will the defacto rulers (Kuol Manyang, Muonyaciek Deng) of Bor continue to punish their subjects albeit arbitrarily?
    The State Security Council chaired by the Governor pressured the three Payams, Anyidi, Makuach and Kolnyang Civil Administrators, CAs and Chiefs to collect the 418 heads of cattle to be handed over to Murle owners. These animals were handed to the owner on 23rd September 2012. Few people questioned the number of animals taken by only four people. They also questioned the way justice was administered. The governor was gratified because this was his usual way of doing things. He had no regard for the courts of law.
    What happens the next day was unbelievable. The Murle whose one of their fellow members was compensated the other day attacked Pamuom cattle camp and looted about three hundred sixty (360) according to Sudan Tribune report.
    The compensation that was done the other day was in vain. Everybody became a liar including those who were buying peace and those who were punishing Bor people worked in vain. One more note on this was that the compensation was a Bor Gok issue but the 23rd September attacked was Athooc issue where the Governor and peace-buying MP come from. This issue was clearly a failure of parliament which should have intervened and pass a no confidence resolution in the governor for not implementing or upholding the State constitution particularly the separation of powers.

    3. Depopulation of three Counties of Bor, Twic East and Duk. It has never happened before, in the history of the three Counties of former Bor North and Bor South Counties for the villages to be depopulated like the scale seen today. Not even after the destruction of 1991 meted out by rebels within rebels of Riek Machar and Lam Akol. Villages are now complete ghost habitats and travelers are fearful of passing through them. On this scale, it has now become a blame game amongst the people on who is responsible to protect civilians in those Counties in particular and in Jonglei in general.
    There exist the SPLA. The Police, Prison wardens, Wildlife officers and even the fire Brigade who should protect civilians and keep law and order. All of these are trained, armed and should be ready to provide protection whenever and wherever the need be.
    What is lacking is the leadership and planning necessary to solve the Jonglei crises once and for all. The former Governor was heard on many occasions crying for nonexistent security roads. He thought that only roads would solve this complicated situation to which he was tasked by the president. He was thought to be such an invincible character that would unlock the secrets of insecurity in his home State and beyond. Alas, he was however, reduced to lamenting the absence of roads and motor vehicles to fight the insecurity.
    This was simplistic and hypocritical at most. There were lots of construction equipment and trucks left behind by AYAT Construction Company at his disposal. If he were serious about these claims he should have used them to construct those security roads for security personnel use. There are also the main roads like Juba-Bor-Malakal Highway, many feeder roads joining the three Counties of Bor, Twic East and Duk and the Bor-Pibor-Ethiopia Highway. Why he did not make maximum use of these roads is a question answerable by him only. On the other hand, there was no need to cry for what is nonexistent and virtually unachievable in short term. There are always alternatives in every situation no matter what.
    Despite all these failures and blunders, the president maintains his confidence in Kuol Manyang Juuk Chaw.
    There are two explanations for this. It might wrongly have been thought by the leadership of the SPLM that if the last hope has failed then nobody else was capable of unveiling a coherent strategy for solving the devastating crises in Jonglei. Secondly, the former Governor was thought to be the power behind the throne. Therefore, whatever, weaknesses or failures he has could easily be overlooked. Otherwise his State was the worst in terms of inter-tribal killings, cattle theft, child abduction, revenge killings and active rebel activities capable of threatening national security and possible destablisation of the whole country. The double standard by the President not to act in case of Jonglei explains the sacking of Lakes and Unity States Governors who were less incompetent than Jonglei State Governor.

    4. The cattle rustling rampage. In the past, the conflict among Jonglei communities was about cattle unlike what we see today. It was a simple animal theft involving one to a few heads. Sometimes there used to be large-scale group robbery but limited in scope and frequency like those of Anyidi, “Paluer”, “Amuometh” cattle camps just before the SPLA war. There were also attacks during the war but are less compared to the scale witness immediately after peace.
    The SPLM government often accused Khartoum of instigating policy of “destabilization” but failed to do something about those perpetrators of destabilization.
    The increased frequent attacks of cattle camps and even of those cows in byre(s) (luak/luek) made the cattle owners to abandon their original places for safer places in other parts of the country. This was a disaster because the youth left behind vulnerable elderly people. The elderly are unable to till the land and were susceptible to attacks. The other remaining youth moved to town in search of schools and business opportunities available.
    The Governor, who had acquired big swathes of land and built a cattle pen on one of them in Bor town, was not happy with those survival reactions by the youth and the community. He blamed youth for running away from the countryside where they could farm and to be idle and play games in town. The youth in turned blamed him instead for failure to provide security in villages as this was his responsibility to which he replaced the first Governor, Philip Thon Leek. They further, blamed him for bringing cattle and his mother who had been residing in rural Baidit Payam. His administration was therefore, marred in blame and counter blame in Jonglei at large and in Bor County in particular.

    5. Failed peace accords. Hundreds of peace accords have been signed among the warring communities from the past. Most of them were not honoured. This was the also the case after CPA where hope for complete peace was high on the agenda in the country. In Bor Town, five Counties; Uror, Duk, Ayod, Nyirol and Twic East held a four day peace conference ST May 10 2009. The Governor called on the conference to reach an agreement to realise the elusive peace in the State. Like many previous agreements, it suffered the same fate of dishonouring.
    The Agreements between Nuer and Bor Dinka are far better in implementation than those between Dinka and Murle or Nuer and Murle. The reason is that Murle is the most hostile trouble maker among these communities with multifaceted interest in cattle, children, guns and physical elimination of innocent souls. It was even blamed (Murle) during the conference of Murle, Jie and Kachipo (Suri) held in Bor City in 2012. The Murle leaders acknowledged this fact after that conference as the position held by even their close cousins in the State.
    It was also reported however, that the Murle leaders failed to condemned violence perpetuated by their members on many occasions ST Dec. 31 2007.
    Numerous organisations tried these peace building approaches committing communities to make peace but failed miserably. If one was looking for an axis of too many dishonoured agreements, then Jonglei State was that axis. Nobody could alter this fact though many peace-loving people still profess hope to call for those conferences of which as many lost hope. Some observers remarked that the sponsoring organisations are playing the devil’s advocates.

    6. Bungled disarmament campaign. The tribal instability in Jonglei State caused authorities in Juba sleepless nights since CPA. The first attempt at solving the crippling crisis in Jonglei was to change the first State Government in the hope that things will change for better as a result. The waves of death, cattle theft and child abduction proved the authorities wrong on Governor exchange notion. The problem was deeper than that.
    The second action was a voluntary or forceful disarmament of civilians initiated by the Federal Government in Juba. This was to be done by the SPLA, the country’s national army. It was not made clear prior to this exercise what methods the army will use to collect lethal illegal guns in possession of civilians. Later, it became clear the army resorted to its old tactics of forcing civilians by intimidation and torture to confess those with illegal arms and their whereabouts. No sooner had the orders been given than the army started torturing women, children and younger people to concoct evidence of gun ownership in the State. This approach however, did not work throughout the Counties. Many peaceful Counties, whose law and order had not broken down reported voluntary surrender of guns unlike the most belligerent County of Pibor where only six hundred guns were reported after several months of disarmament exercise ST 2012. This was disclosed by disarmament Commander in Bor Town in the same year. He further, stated that the army personnel carrying out the exercise were being killed and the youth run to the bush to avoid disarmament in Pibor County. After these adverse reports however, the government failed to make attempts to do something different to make disarmament a success in the trouble County.
    The same disarmament Commander was seen roaming the streets of Bor Town with full escorts avoiding to give necessary support on the ground where the experienced difficulties.

    The failure to carry out effective disarmament campaign in the State later evolved to something of a national threat, the rebellion of David Yau-Yau. He recruited the youth who churned disarmament and became a readymade fodder for his ends.
    It was now difficult to differentiate the combatant from noncombatant in the rebellion. Every attack was now blamed on him and his rebels who largely come from his Murle tribe. The question here is should a failed disarmament campaign be blamed on the Governor? The answer is absolutely yes. This is because he did not provide adequate leadership-guidance to the troops and the Commander-in-Chief. He was sitting in Bor and most of the time commuting between the Bor Town and Juba without touring the Counties to see for himself how the campaign is progressing. He further, failed as Governor to request Murle leaders to condemn violence as mentioned earlier around and help persuade their people to surrender all lethal guns and munitions to the SPLA and other security forces.
    This time as always, the president turned a blind eye against this chaos. Some people were of the view that the failed Governor should have been removed before commencement of disarmament. How can you be part of the solution if you are part of the problem? The exercise would have been done successfully had the President taken this approach.

    7. Nepotism. It has been alleged that the former SPLA strong man was less corrupt compared to his peers in the Movement and that he was more of a selfless nationalist. This is far from the truth. During the olden days of the Movement, there was nothing anyone could lay their hands on except priceless weapons and munitions.
    The fact that he appointed his son’s brother-in-law to head the Ministry of land talks allot about him. It has been argued that even if one is a close relative to the one appointing authority but is qualified she/he deserves that position like everyone else. After all you are all citizens of the same County/State/country. This argument in South Sudan has been abused and will continue to be abused if action is not taken now.
    Appointing close relations is what is termed as nepotism. It later breeds conflict of interest. For example if the wife of the former Governor is a land dealer. She will go right to her son-in-law and request for any piece of land anywhere in the State and you know what the request will be granted. Consequently, in case of issues arising because of that land, the Governor will be there to defend the indefensible leading to a cover-up and kleptocracy.
    The predecessor to the son-in-law was accused and dislodged from the Land Ministry simply because he did not enjoy any nepotistic relationship with the Governor of the day. This act of appointing a relative attracts criticisms justifiably because the links are apparent there. May be because of this, the former Governor was accused of owning large swathes of land in Bor. True leaders or those in charge of government institutions must avoid appointment of close relatives to head strategic government institutions because of unintended outcomes.
    His wife is also rumored to own two markets in the City apart from numerous real estates in the same City. Ironically, the Governor was not happy with some communities because they resisted his land schemes. He in particular singled out the three Payams of Bor County i.e. Anyidi, Makuach and Kolnyang Counties that hosts the State Government. People of Anyidi Payam insisted that land must be distributed on first-come-first-serve basis. That is to say if you are found on a piece of land then that piece should be allotted to you but not someone from elsewhere. This argument is logical on all occasions considering the urban settlement after the CPA and more importantly the movement to towns because of displacement in rural Jonglei. This argument further, curtails massive displacement of poor residents who can hardly afford simple construction materials leave alone modern construction materials.
    Due to these developments, the former Governor unleashed “cold war” on the residents in Machuor suburb (Hai Machuor) because of resistance to force land acquisitions. They have been denied clean piped water channeled to other parts of the City. Second, the suburb was not surveyed. Thirdly, they have been denied power available to all in town. In short, the land became a Governor’s family issue.

    8. Expulsion of MSF and Moldovans running Bor Civil Hospital and Dr. John Garang University respectively. One of the appalling things is the chasing away of a friend in deed. This was allowed to happen in Jonglei under the watchful eye of the former military Governor of that State. Both the MSF and ASCOM were doing a job no one was able to do effectively.
    MSF, as many know is a humanitarian organisation dealing with health matters around the globe. It was instrumental in Bor Civil Hospital where its Doctors performed surgeries and treatment of other diseases not taken care of by the State government hospital. The hospital has two sections one for MSF and the other for State Government. Some Doctors with conflict of interest were believed to have orchestrated the expulsion of this vital organisation. They operated private clinics thought to be in competition with MSF.
    As for ASCOM, some people from education side with self-gratification motive agitated the takeover by the ministry of higher education. This was a kind of early indigenization albeit haphazardly executed. Many independent watchers thought that this kind of takeovers were too early particularly for those institutions founded and fully funded by foreign investors. This is one method of scaring away investors in a country as young as South Sudan among others.

    9. Disorganized and stalled land distribution programme. The land distribution process was well before his time as second Governor after CPA. It only became apparent that this distribution was carried out without law in place (2007-2011) because land law was only passed in 2012. Nevertheless, the distribution stalled for political reasons during his term.
    The Minister of Physical Infrastructure, John Amuor Kuol was dismissed because of the some quarters were not satisfied with land distribution programme.
    Land allotment was now a clandestine business after the first land Minister Vacation of office. At this juncture, those who wanted land had to use unconventional means to acquire it. The former Governor further allowed the scramble over land jurisdiction and ownership among the State, County and Payams to flourish. Many may argue that the emotional land issue is not only confined to Jonglei or Bor County. It’s all over South Sudan. The inhabitants or indigenous people believed that they should have more say over land particularly where Capital Cities are located. This argument seems logical because they should be compensated in the event of displacement. Their holy sites must be respected like other citizens whose lands are not accessible to the government. In case the above land related issues are not adhered to or ignored, the local inhabitants may turn violent and reject expropriation of their land without consultation. This was true during the tenure of the first State Governor who was told to relocate the State Capital to Gediang by Bor County communities. The State government was rumoured to be support of the relocation idea but there were many reasons why it was left in suspense till today. Gediang is a remote area unlike Bor which is well served by river Nile and main roads from Juba and Malakal. Hence, the relocation was shelved indefinitely.

    10. Lacking coherent political philosophy. The current SPLM leaders are by any measure default leaders. Everyone knows and understands perfectly what happened on “The Long and Painful Road to Freedom” as captured by Arop Madut in a book with the same title. The past Southern leaders during the twenty or so years did not go to the bush for various reasons; the potential misunderstanding in the bush, lack of guaranteed victory over the enemy, education imbalance, generational gap and many more. These scared off the intelligentsia and after Addis Ababa accord leaders like, Gen. Lagu, Alier Kwai, Aru Bol etc. who ruled the South until the second rebellion. It has been rumoured that some shrewd professors and doctors argued rightly that the most ignorant rebel officers will likely eliminate them once they join the legion in the bush. The few who went to the bush along with the rebels were not accorded leadership chance because of fear. They were also considered bourgeoisie. In the middle of the war, it was apparent that it was led by crazy guys who grew dictatorial and fragile in mind so that some returned to the enemy back in Khartoum and verse versa. These events of acrimonious divisions and defections to the enemy further exposed the movement to be run by a very few with scanty leadership qualities.
    The former Governor is among this bunch. He is a no nonsense man with poor political and philosophical sophistication. The guy is addicted to commanding methodology to the point of neglecting other skills in other professions say politics. This phenomenon was confirmed during his time as Governor by a lady was quoted by the media that she blamed herself for voting for a Governor who failed to deliver. She blamed insecurity, unemployment, poor roads, disorganized land distribution among other campaign promises on the Governor.
    Because of his forceful nature and lack of political sophistication, the former Governor became more and more unpopular with his Bor Dinka communities. He was perceived as great liability particularly for failing to tackle destabilizing insecurity in the whole State. After all he was a security Governor by all accounts of his appointment and subsequent backing by the SPLM during 2010 election.

    11. Cleaning the State payroll from ghost workforce. The former Governor took it upon himself to clean the State payroll that was full of ghost names as one of his objectives.
    The government of his predecessor was barely two years since peace accord. It inherited a payroll that looked like a charitable affair. It contained all sorts of names of those not in a position to perform their duties together with nonexistent personnel. This crippled the State government activities. It was a war on corruption though in a small scale. He received a presidential award for it.

    12. Keeping Bor City cleaner relative to other States Capitals. Juba, both an administrative and a commercial Capital of South Sudan have been variously described as a big village. Juba City was thought to be standard bearer of cleanliness in the whole country however, it failed that test. In the case of Bor City, the former Governor descended on plastic bottles and bags to keep Bor Town clean. He banned their importation and sale in Jonglei in general and Bor Town in particular. Many people around the country were impressed about Bor Town cleanliness relative to other similar towns.
    He is not the only one who deserved praise here. The Bor County Commissioner was actually the implementer of this policy hence deserved the accolade. This is a typical local government area of jurisdiction and was below the functions of the State Governor.

    13. Construction and rehabilitation of the State Civil Hospital. The State Civil Hospital was built using government as well as private contributions from individuals and other institutions. This was through his direct initiative having witnessed the State Hospital in dilapidation after the departure of the army of oppression. Some organisations which offered basic health needs had no funds to rehabilitate this only State referral health facility. This work was later on furthered by IMA World Health.

    14. Encouraging Youth to join government and development efforts. This was seen in the way the Governor tried to lure the returnees from abroad in to his government. Notable, is the appointment of Bor Mayor in 2013 who is a Youth returning from Australia to take part in development efforts. However, this appointment has serious shortcomings constitutionally. A Mayor according to the National and State constitutions should be directly elected by the city residents. This constitutional requirement had never been fulfilled in the whole country. It also been alleged that a serious lobbying took place at a political level to appoint him with such little experience useful for the work of a mayor.
    15. Conclusion. Leaders come and go but government and the area of administration remain. History however, is the one to either judge past leaders favourably or unfavourably.
    It is okay to lobby for leaders to be brought to certain situations but it is something different altogether whether those leaders will live to the challenge. What people have not realized is that, leaders cannot be solely judged by their past highly rated performance. The former Jonglei keeps on riding on past performance without regard to present and or future.
    The former Governor was tasked to bring solutions to an already volatile situation but his past achievements were hardly replicated there. The security situation in Jonglei morphed from bad to worst contrary to expectation. No one at that stage was able to do something differently perhaps many thought that the end of the road was reached.
    The rafts of fundamental failures of the former governor dwarfed his small achievements. His achievements were too thin to do good for dear Jonglei. This is the likely scenario even with new assignments in future. The guys are too old to learn new tricks.


  9. Malith Alier says:

    What next for South Sudan Economy after the Aborted rate rise?
    Term it “Manasenomics,”* that is what the economy of South Sudan has become after November the 11th announcement of rate rise from 2.9623 to 4.50 South Sudanese Pounds per US Dollar.
    The reaction, both from the market and every citizen was swift. The market prices rose and citizens all of a sudden became gloomy about the future of their country’s economy.
    In the heat of the moment, the country’s parliament summoned the Central Bank Governor together with the Minister of Finance to appear before it to answer questions about the sudden rise of the exchange rate.
    Let’s come down to basics. South Sudan economy is a consuming economy reliant on imports from neighbouring countries and further afield. The country hardly produces anything for domestic consumption leave alone for export. It is highly reliant on crude oil exports which lack necessary infrastructure. The pipe lines are located in the Sudan to the nearest coast of Port Sudan. A crude oil production shutdown in 2012 led to what was known as austerity measures characterized by reduction of civil servant salaries across the country. This austerity situation is not yet lifted despite resumption of crude production in 2013. Many civil servants attempted strikes for their pay and allowances to be reinstated.
    Being an oil dependent economy, the Central bank has managed to steer the country through difficulties since independence in 2011. It has done so through managing foreign currency rates and allocation of major foreign currencies to foreign exchange Bureaus and commercial banks, something that is unique to south Sudan. No other country in East and North Africa is doing what the Central does in this country.
    This unique operation (weekly allocation of foreign currencies) of the Central Bank has been taken to mean the entire economic management possible for this country. About ninety Foreign exchange bureaus and close to thirty Commercial banks are now operating in the country. Their work is limited to allocation of Dollars from Central Bank nothing more or less.
    This allocation of foreign currencies to financial institutions has been an economic headache to the Board of Directors of the Central Bank. But not only that, it also has been a headache to all the financial institutions in the country. You find long queues for Dollars in all the financial institutions. The majority of those looking for dollars are not genuinely seeking it for foreign travel, medical or schooling abroad. They simply want to further exchange it to make effortless and quick gain in what is known as “black market.” Those who really deserve to have foreign currencies for the above reasons have been excluded in the process.
    The reforms that have been initiated by the Bank of South Sudan (BSS) are necessary because they are long overdue. No country in the world has two parallel exchange rates and where money is displayed on streets but is assumed to run an effective economy. No country in the world that spoon feed people through the allocation of foreign currency like South Sudan.
    The economy is still small but is it necessary to have close to thirty commercial banks in a short span of two years? Those people who forced the Central Bank Governor to back down are not honest to themselves and even to the country.
    The reaction we saw in parliament tells a lot. The parliamentarians took it personal and they all became emotional without restraint. Some of them at the same time have interests in Foreign exchange bureaus as well as commercial banks hence they cannot exercise neutrality. This was also the view of one economics professor from University of Rumbek during roundtable debate on the 13th November 2013.
    The good professor who is also one of the Board of Directors in Central Bank argues that allocation of foreign currency to banks and bureaux is “criminal” and will not help this country economically. He added the following;
    1. The rate rise was short term
    2. Commodity prices will rise but will gradually come back to normal or to equilibrium
    3. Investors will be attracted as a result of the rise
    4. Economic stimulation and growth is expected
    5. Foreign currency will be available and accessible to everybody who needs it
    6. Neutrality of currency is lacking but is required
    7. The parallel market or black market pays no taxes, something that should worry the informed parliamentarians
    8. Long queues for Dollars will be eliminated
    These points are powerful enough to tell South Sudanese where they are and where they should be economically. The professor further stated that Central bank was dealing with monetary policies and the Ministry of finance deals with fiscal policies like salaries for civil servants.
    The Central Bank action has been rejected but it has done a lot for the country. Lessons have been learned. It will further generate debate about the state of our economy in general. South Sudan economy will not be the same again, forward it must.
    The Central Bank Governor should have stood his ground before the supercharged parliament. No country in this world allows it economic direction to be determined by popular vote.
    *name of Parliament Speaker where the Central Governor was forced to revoke rate rise decision
    Malith Alier is a graduate with a Bachelor of Commerce Degree


  10. Malith Alier says:

    Who Rules South Sudan: Petroleum versus Foreign Investment?
    This image was taken from website.
    South Sudan this month organizes investment conference (December 4 -5) in Juba for the first time in its existence according to the Citizen Newspaper 3rd December issue. The conference is under the theme “Investment for Economic Diversification and Prosperity”
    The country organized such investment conferences outside for example in Europe and America.
    This is a possible solution to too much reliance on unsustainable petroleum since the era of CPA. The black gold was discovered in South Sudan in the late seventies however, the actual exploitation began around 1999.
    It is believed that Khartoum developed to the level it is today thanks to the Southern oil. On the other hand, the South did not benefit much because of many factors; the raging war (from 1983-2002) in the South and the rampant corruption after CPA to present. The warlords were quenching their material thirst in a lawless environment.
    Direct foreign investment was discouraged by insecurity and bad governance during peace time. Interestingly, the country has since seen influx of individuals from unstable neighbouring countries like Somali, Ethiopia and Eritrea. Others are from Kenya and Uganda besides those who elected not to return to the remaining portion of old Sudan after separation.
    South Sudan is a country of possibilities. It has expansive endowments under and above the ground. It has only to do away with lots of its past like insecurity, backwardness and laziness if it wishes to shed the failed state tag of 2013, the same year the investment conference is organized.
    Resource blessing or curse
    Very few countries in Africa are able to fully benefit from natural resources without much ado. South Africa and Botswana are the case in point. The rest have encountered trouble as they exploit natural resources. The likes of Angola, DRC, Zimbabwe, Libya, Nigeria and many more are in this category.
    South Sudan has therefore, many lessons to learn from these spectacular failures to properly manage her resources in the best interest of the country.
    It is a commendable idea that south Sudan has edged closer to Botswana, a country that has a lot to impart to it. The country’s president visits the Southern African country this year, 2013 on the invitation of his counterpart, Mr. Ian Karma. The Botswana president pledged to help South Sudan in the area of mineral development and management for economic development.
    Our black gold is either a blessing or a curse depending on the way it’s managed. It is a blessing because God gave it to us directly under our feet. We have to enjoy full benefits from it with no external interference.
    Various shortcomings prevent us from enjoyment of those exclusive rights; the issue of infrastructure, technology and skills suitable for proper petroleum and mineral management. The country has to look outside for them but in the process, it loses revenue.
    It pays transit, processing and handling fees to the Sudan, an amount of 49 percent of total revenue. This was disclosed by the Ministry of Petroleum and Mining after resumption of production this year. Further, the Chinese, Malaysian and Indian companies working in the oilfields deduct their dues.
    This means that south Sudan is left with about 20% out of this resource. This is no laughing matter. If this country was like a child as many politicians always say, it could keep crying for this unimaginable robbery by the Sudan and oil companies. But there is no immediate way out.
    A production stoppage in 2012 almost brought the country down on its knees. The SPLM let government called for austerity regime and further embarked on massive borrowing. The Minister of Finance and Economic Planning under pressure to pay government employees salaries only disclosed this borrowing in November 2013. The loan is a little over forty million US Dollars.
    Lack of foreside is to blame in this country. It was fully anticipated that separation was eminent. This was a fact after the copter crash that killed the only supporter of unity.
    Mini oil refineries should have been started during interim period. Failure to have constructed these mini refineries has not only deprived the country of domestic fuel production but it also deprived it of petroleum by-products. The country continues to import petroleum byproducts like jelly and creams in addition to diesel and petrol for domestic consumption.
    The mining industry has many suitors due to its demand worldwide. A company called White Nile was among oil firms to arrive in South Sudan. This author at one point in 2005 condemned potential early investors for oil rush but neglect agriculture and other investment areas other than oil.
    Foreign investment climate in South Sudan
    South Sudanese complain about foreigners having dominated some sectors of business. The Ethiopians/Eritreans dominate restaurant and hotel businesses on the one and Somalis in oil and building material enterprises. The Nile water tank business which does not need a large outlay of capital is also a preserve of the Ethiopian groups. In the process the nationals are left waiting on end for salvation from their government.
    In this world of cutthroat competition, it doesn’t matter whether it is nationals who are the most industrious or the foreigners. It comes down to hard work and ambition. South Sudanese can benefit from foreign investors if they pay attention to methods of doing business. Time cannot wait for them indefinitely.
    Immediately after signing of CPA, observers of this country before, and during the war agreed that any investor cannot go wrong if they invest in any business here. This is true because the country lacks everything since Adam and Eve.
    Look around and you will see virgin land, green forests, abundant wildlife, plenty of fish in the Sudd, innumerable cattle and the list is long.
    What is even perplexing is the size of the population compared the vast land. According to the last census, the total population of south Sudan was put at 8 million. If the land size is about 600,000 km2 then it is thirteen (13) people per square kilometre. Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda population density are 67/km2, 82/km2 and 137/km2 respectively.
    You can see that our neighbours have overcrowded their motherlands. The Ugandans and Kenyans are close to forty and fifty million respectively. The Ethiopians are over 90 million. Somalis have been displaced by wars. Therefore, south Sudan can absorb the spillover from those countries.
    The above-mentioned early investors have proved that south Sudan is a viable investment destination in the world. It can take less than seven days to register your business. The foreign currency e.g. the US Dollar is not a big issue since the country exports petroleum. The investors have a choice either to bring manpower from their countries of origin or get local labour. Many Ethiopian/Eritrean businesses bring their countrymen as work force. Although this cause uproar, it is convenient to the investor.
    South Sudan image within and abroad
    South Sudan is ranked among the most failed states in the world. It ranked 4th as the most failed state after a number of other countries all in Africa (Fund for Peace)
    The country is not doing any better on corruption perception index. It ranked number 173 out of 177 countries on that index (Transparency International). It was unranked in 2012 maybe because of difficulty ascertaining information just after independence.
    A failed state is regarded as having no control over its territory, erosion of legitimate authority to make decisions, inability to provide services to the citizens and finally inability to interact with other states as part of international community. South Sudan is doing fine on many of these points. It has gained membership in many international organisations such as the UN, AU and is seeking membership in East African Community. This is for the sole purpose of interacting with other states economically, culturally and diplomatically. It provides services to citizens in the whole country. It has established public sector and governmental institution for service delivery.
    Service delivery is the new mantra in the government vocabulary today. The presidency is driving it.

    Who Rules South Sudan: Petroleum versus Foreign Investment?
    This image was taken from website.
    South Sudan this month organizes investment conference (December 4 -5) in Juba for the first time in its existence according to the Citizen Newspaper 3rd December issue. The conference is under the theme “Investment for Economic Diversification and Prosperity”
    The country organized such investment conferences outside for example in Europe and America.
    This is a possible solution to too much reliance on unsustainable petroleum since the era of CPA. The black gold was discovered in South Sudan in the late seventies however, the actual exploitation began around 1999.
    It is believed that Khartoum developed to the level it is today thanks to the Southern oil. On the other hand, the South did not benefit much because of many factors; the raging war (from 1983-2002) in the South and the rampant corruption after CPA to present. The warlords were quenching their material thirst in a lawless environment.
    Direct foreign investment was discouraged by insecurity and bad governance during peace time. Interestingly, the country has since seen influx of individuals from unstable neighbouring countries like Somali, Ethiopia and Eritrea. Others are from Kenya and Uganda besides those who elected not to return to the remaining portion of old Sudan after separation.
    South Sudan is a country of possibilities. It has expansive endowments under and above the ground. It has only to do away with lots of its past like insecurity, backwardness and laziness if it wishes to shed the failed state tag of 2013, the same year the investment conference is organized.
    Resource blessing or curse
    Very few countries in Africa are able to fully benefit from natural resources without much ado. South Africa and Botswana are the case in point. The rest have encountered trouble as they exploit natural resources. The likes of Angola, DRC, Zimbabwe, Libya, Nigeria and many more are in this category.
    South Sudan has therefore, many lessons to learn from these spectacular failures to properly manage her resources in the best interest of the country.
    It is a commendable idea that south Sudan has edged closer to Botswana, a country that has a lot to impart to it. The country’s president visits the Southern African country this year, 2013 on the invitation of his counterpart, Mr. Ian Karma. The Botswana president pledged to help South Sudan in the area of mineral development and management for economic development.
    Our black gold is either a blessing or a curse depending on the way it’s managed. It is a blessing because God gave it to us directly under our feet. We have to enjoy full benefits from it with no external interference.
    Various shortcomings prevent us from enjoyment of those exclusive rights; the issue of infrastructure, technology and skills suitable for proper petroleum and mineral management. The country has to look outside for them but in the process, it loses revenue.
    It pays transit, processing and handling fees to the Sudan, an amount of 49 percent of total revenue. This was disclosed by the Ministry of Petroleum and Mining after resumption of production this year. Further, the Chinese, Malaysian and Indian companies working in the oilfields deduct their dues.
    This means that south Sudan is left with about 20% out of this resource. This is no laughing matter. If this country was like a child as many politicians always say, it could keep crying for this unimaginable robbery by the Sudan and oil companies. But there is no immediate way out.
    A production stoppage in 2012 almost brought the country down on its knees. The SPLM let government called for austerity regime and further embarked on massive borrowing. The Minister of Finance and Economic Planning under pressure to pay government employees salaries only disclosed this borrowing in November 2013. The loan is a little over forty million US Dollars.
    Lack of foreside is to blame in this country. It was fully anticipated that separation was eminent. This was a fact after the copter crash that killed the only supporter of unity.
    Mini oil refineries should have been started during interim period. Failure to have constructed these mini refineries has not only deprived the country of domestic fuel production but it also deprived it of petroleum by-products. The country continues to import petroleum byproducts like jelly and creams in addition to diesel and petrol for domestic consumption.
    The mining industry has many suitors due to its demand worldwide. A company called White Nile was among oil firms to arrive in South Sudan. This author at one point in 2005 condemned potential early investors for oil rush but neglect agriculture and other investment areas other than oil.
    Foreign investment climate in South Sudan
    South Sudanese complain about foreigners having dominated some sectors of business. The Ethiopians/Eritreans dominate restaurant and hotel businesses on the one and Somalis in oil and building material enterprises. The Nile water tank business which does not need a large outlay of capital is also a preserve of the Ethiopian groups. In the process the nationals are left waiting on end for salvation from their government.
    In this world of cutthroat competition, it doesn’t matter whether it is nationals who are the most industrious or the foreigners. It comes down to hard work and ambition. South Sudanese can benefit from foreign investors if they pay attention to methods of doing business. Time cannot wait for them indefinitely.
    Immediately after signing of CPA, observers of this country before, and during the war agreed that any investor cannot go wrong if they invest in any business here. This is true because the country lacks everything since Adam and Eve.
    Look around and you will see virgin land, green forests, abundant wildlife, plenty of fish in the Sudd, innumerable cattle and the list is long.
    What is even perplexing is the size of the population compared the vast land. According to the last census, the total population of south Sudan was put at 8 million. If the land size is about 600,000 km2 then it is thirteen (13) people per square kilometre. Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda population density are 67/km2, 82/km2 and 137/km2 respectively.
    You can see that our neighbours have overcrowded their motherlands. The Ugandans and Kenyans are close to forty and fifty million respectively. The Ethiopians are over 90 million. Somalis have been displaced by wars. Therefore, south Sudan can absorb the spillover from those countries.
    The above-mentioned early investors have proved that south Sudan is a viable investment destination in the world. It can take less than seven days to register your business. The foreign currency e.g. the US Dollar is not a big issue since the country exports petroleum. The investors have a choice either to bring manpower from their countries of origin or get local labour. Many Ethiopian/Eritrean businesses bring their countrymen as work force. Although this cause uproar, it is convenient to the investor.
    South Sudan image within and abroad
    South Sudan is ranked among the most failed states in the world. It ranked 4th as the most failed state after a number of other countries all in Africa (Fund for Peace)
    The country is not doing any better on corruption perception index. It ranked number 173 out of 177 countries on that index (Transparency International). It was unranked in 2012 maybe because of difficulty ascertaining information just after independence.
    A failed state is regarded as having no control over its territory, erosion of legitimate authority to make decisions, inability to provide services to the citizens and finally inability to interact with other states as part of international community. South Sudan is doing fine on many of these points. It has gained membership in many international organisations such as the UN, AU and is seeking membership in East African Community. This is for the sole purpose of interacting with other states economically, culturally and diplomatically. It provides services to citizens in the whole country. It has established public sector and governmental institution for service delivery.
    Service delivery is the new mantra in the government vocabulary today. The presidency is driving it.


  11. Malith Alier says:

    The Life and times of “General” Nelson Rolilhalha Mandela
    By Malith Alier
    I am not sure whether he was a General, a Colonel or a Captain. It is up to South Africans to remind us of that. But he formed umkhonto we Sizwe, a military wing of ANC.
    He went to Senegal, Zimbabwe, Cuba and Israel looking for arms to fight the apartheid or separateness. Can a civilian be head of a military organisation? This is also not clear.
    Gen., Col. or Capt. Mandela must have forgotten his military titles because of long incarceration for good twenty seven years, seventeen of which were on Robben Island in the South Sea.
    The military titles are really fanciful. We have generals lining up to rule forever in Uganda and South Sudan. We have field marshals in Sudan. Eritrea and Ethiopia are not different.
    Here is a list of titles an ambitious man can choose from; His/her Highness, His/her majesty, His Excellency, Commander in Chief, Supreme Commander of other armed forces, His Lordship, His Worship, His Invincible, His Unforgettable, His Eminent, His Omnipotent and not to forget Cde or Comrade One can even take them all like the old Idi Amin Dada.
    We go back to Southern Africa. Robert Gabriel Mugabe seemed to have fallen out with his military titles. He has been a general for many many years over thirty years. He was Captain, Major, Brigadier General, General and may be a Field Marshal.
    He is now simply referred to as President Robert Mugabe of ZANU-PF. He is a hero. He liberated his people from white minority rule. He defeated Ian smith in the eighties and became a prime minister before proceeding to be a president.
    He is still going strong as he continues to wage more liberation wars in a different way for us Africans. He keeps Zimbabwe for himself as Tony Blair keeps UK for himself. He is advised by great Field Marshal, His Excellency Mengistu Hailemariam, the former strongman of Ethiopia.
    The uniformed men are to blame for several coups in Africa. They perpetuate wars of liberation and reliberation. This is sometimes done by Captains like in West Africa. You remember Captain Dadi Camara and Captain Sonogo. They are brave men in deed. The problem with them is they did not hold power for long. May be they are like Nelson Madiba.
    Nelson Mandela parted with sophisticated and colourful titles before ascending to the Presidency in 1994. He even parted ways with Winnie Mazikidela Mandela to marry Graca Machel.
    Don’t blame me if I get those names wrong. They are after all for Southern African users who can spell and pronounce them in their own way.
    Nelson Madiba is considered a great personality in the world today not because of what he did but because of what he didn’t do. He was persecuted, imprisoned and humiliated but refused to take revenge. He was overwhelmingly elected for President, served for one term and chose not to continue for second, third, fourth, fifth, ……… and tenth term.
    Many people believe in him because he has not exhausted what he is made of. He told his people that he fought against white domination, black domination, women domination, men domination, children domination and even animal domination.
    The UN must have copied these values from him and set conventions for rights, human and animal. But there was no black, women, men, children and animal domination in South Africa only white domination.
    Many celebrate his remarkable personality but few are willing to copy him – even his Southern African neighbours, Zimbabwe included. The poor Macky Sal of Senegal is the only person who lately promised not to let power corrupt his mind. Will his thinking be long? Not sure. He might as well be like Museveni or M7 who proclaimed the demise of ‘big man’ era, set the term limit for the president only to change it several years down the line. Reason, until the vision of our ancestors is realised he won’t to quit.
    The era of father and son is proving to be a tantalisation. It has started in Kenya. It is coming to Ugandan and the East African Community.
    I can see why South Sudanese are unwilling to join E.A.C. The South Sudanese government has sacked the Government Chief Whip for opposing that move. Be careful next time when you are a Chief Whip. You whip everybody to tow the party or State line.
    The Europeans and the Americans are mesmerised by the life and times of Nelson Madiba. The USA, the UK and many others fly their flags at half-mast. This is the first time in the history of Africa and the rest of the world.
    Nelson has changed certain perceptions about Africa and the black people. He is like Martin Luther King Jr. or Martin loser Coon.
    The only difference between them is that Martin Coon’s ancestors were abducted and vanished to the Americas and the Caribbean. The other difference is that Martin Coon was killed by a bullet and Nelson went into sleep naturally.
    People are still looking for words to describe Madiba’s legacy. Some people are saying that there are no appropriate words to describe it. He was a fighter, a prisoner, a quitter. No, these words are not good enough to describe the legacy he left for South Africa and even to the rest World.
    Fidel Castro is also a great man. However, nobody has got appropriate words to describe his legacy for Cuba. He only broke his limb before abdicating power to his dear brother, Raul Castro.
    This is detestful in contrast to Nelson Mandela. He even didn’t want power for himself leave alone for his brother, sister or son or daughter. The man was out of this world. He was short of ambition unlike Alexander the Great and Napoleon Bonaparte.
    This does not mean that he doesn’t share something in common with them. They share immortality. They all will be remembered forever along with many other immortals. Immortality is what everybody wants after this life.
    ‘The world has lost one of its greatest lights’ this is David Cameron of UK. I wonder how many more lights like Mandela are now left in the world. There is none left in Africa may be some of Mandela’s descendents will be future lights but maybe they are still not bright enough to shine through. Who can tell? It is not yet clear. We may experience darkness for a while.
    Mr. Barack Obama was not clear on Mandela. He talked of his release from prison. May be he wanted him back in prison. You never know what the Americans are up to. They are unpredictable. They send relief aid through CIA or FBI. Their version of English is different from the UK one. Kilometre is kilometer to them. Centre is center. Programme is progam. They always want to be different from the rest. They’re seeking perfection.
    South Africans must come to terms with their lost. They must watch out against reincarnation of apartheid or separateness. There are many extremist still out there. Two of them were jailed for life recently for planning to kill the very Nelson Mandela not knowing that he would soon be no more.
    If the people of South Africa allow any room, they will have to go through another twenty seven years of liberation struggle for history repeats itself.
    Nelson Madiba has given up many titles but one remains, he is a ‘Supreme Diplomat.’ This title was given to him by Steve Cole of Aljazeera on the 06/12/2013
    Long live Nelson Rolilhalha Mandela


  12. Malith Alier says:

    It is not simply Dinka Versus Nuer Daniel Abushery and Luk Kuth
    Writing on the South Sudan News agency (SSNA) website 27 December 2013, Daniel Abushery Daniel and Luk Kuth Dak decry the silence of Dinka intellectuals on the attempted Coup and the subsequent killing spree in the country, ‘‘The Dinka Intellects: Your Silence Speaks volumes’’
    I stand to refute that the current chaos bedevilling the country is simply between Dinka and the Nuer. This is not true and you should as Nuer intellectuals, be the first to correct this perception. Sadly, you both have concluded that what happened was calculated, wicked, and despicable and a heinous cold blood murder of your people by the President and his home town boys. This is a foregone conclusion without facts on the ground.
    We all agree that the dispute was a political issue that should have been confined to the SPLM party room. It shouldn’t have spilt over to the streets leave alone to the armed forces. However, because of too much mistrust among tribes in this country, it got twisted to suite certain interests. Innocent blood was shed unfortunately. I have gone through your article and discovered many erroneous claims that have a potential to polarise further an already tense situation in the country. You have written these claims under emotions twisted with usual bias as observed by someone who answered you with a short statement on the net (SSNA website).
    Your first claim is that the Dinka intellectuals did not condemn what started on the 15th of December except Nyandeng and her son, Mabior.
    Your second claim is that and I quote, ‘‘thousands of innocent lives of Nuer children women and men were lost for no apparent reason other than fact they happened to be members of the Nuer nation’’. Your third claim is that the Dinka are getting rich on the fruits of your labour and the wealth gap is widening between the two people since president took power. You further, hinted that the country may be divided along ethnic lines if certain measures are not taken to change the current state of affairs in the country.
    First, both co-authors are not really credible people to talk about the current state of affairs because you most likely are going to distort the facts. Second, you also have the same responsibility as Nuer intellectuals just like your Dinka brothers to condemn the senseless killings of anybody be they Dinka, Nuer or other humans in this country.
    You have primarily failed in your message to condemn the coup plotters who happened to be lead by a Nuer. The coup plotters led by Machar do not have the interest of this country at heart. You can see the destruction they caused to human life and property around the country so far.
    To put this issue in the right perspective, the Dinka community, not a single community, was not aware that there was a plot to kill any Nuer in Juba on behest of a slightest command or misunderstanding. This is an indisputable fact before, during and after the failed coup.
    To remind you, the fighting did not spilt in to Juba suburbs, it was confined to Ghieda, new site and Mia Saba (107), areas that are primarily military settlements. What happened there, only the military can tell but not any other. This is to say that the fight was among the soldiers and their families involving women and children. If the fight was between the Dinka and Nuer soldiers in those military areas then we have no knowledge about that.
    On one suburb of the city where I was, I managed to run to the outskirts with Nuer brothers and we were not part of the thing. You can see if there was a plot to kill all Nuer we should have done it because we were many more there. Lies cannot be taken for truths.
    It was truly a military plot and that is why soldiers from Migori (Mangere), Mangalla, Gemeza and other outposts along the way to Bor, left to join up and kill people in Bor, Akobo, Malakal and Bentiu along ethnic lines without ascertaining the facts of what happened in Juba. This tells us whether there was coordination or not. If you were impartial, you should have been the first to condemn this barbaric act on innocent civilians far away from Juba, the scene of the coup.
    It is not always tit for tat at first instance that is the best way to solving problems. For instance if your kin and kith is wrongly killed and you kill to avenge it, then you’re not any different from the one who committed such a crime. You can only be described as someone who has taken the law on to their hands.
    The military generals who vow allegiance to protect the nation are now seen in tribal lenses. You now claim that they stand for justice. On whose side did they stand for justice? Riek committed massacres and crimes against in the army and in Bor before. Was he also standing for justice during 1991?
    The fight should have been contained in Juba with no further lost of life if all of us were slow to anger. Adding fire to fight fire is not always the best because we all lose in the process.
    As for your argument that the Dinka are reaping the fruits of your labour leaving you in poverty, I have these to tell you. All of us are South Sudanese regardless of whether we were fighting in the bushes of south Sudan, living outside during the war or staying in Khartoum. That time is past gone. No one should ardently keep reminding any other of our whereabouts and who is enjoying what in an independent South Sudan.
    It is not worth the efforts to take stock of who dominates the government or the military. Not every aspect of the government should be representative of our respective communities. Needless to say, it is only parliament that accepts representatives. For instance the military is not based on representation and you know what I mean here. Every citizen is free to work in the government or in a private sector. Many people think that life is only found in the government and if you are not there, then you are done. No, that is not the case.
    No one can surely comprehend your labour you’re talking about. If you claim that someone is enjoying the fruit of your labour, you indirectly mean that the concern person was not participating in actions leading to production of the said fruits. Let me remind you that the devil is always in the detail. You know very well that some communities participated in the fruits production but at the same time were oscillating dangerously in between the enemy and their people.
    However, patience pays. We are in independent South Sudan enjoying whatever, is at our disposal. I don’t think it’s helpful to keep narrating the past. Let sleeping dogs lie.
    Many of those who come from oil producing areas have enjoyed 2% of oil revenues since 2006. This amount is going to be 5% according to new petroleum management arrangement. The rest of the oil revenue, the government uses for provision of social services and salaries to the army and civil servants. No any other person is benefiting more than those in oil producing states of Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile.
    Alternatively, those individuals who are rich without being in the government are ordinary hard working South Sudanese. They should not be victimised if they happened to be from certain tribes. There is a saying that we should not wish for sameness. That is to say we should not be all poor or rich, strong or weak.
    What we have in South Sudan is what is called capitalism. We have already rejected communism or socialism. We want to nurture individual endeavours in life. This means that everyone should be different from everyone else according to individual talents and abilities.
    Hinting for division of the country is unhelpful. All of us should feel at home without nasty desire that may be impossible to achieve without losing even more. We have seen the last war that had cost millions of lives. Life is more precious than great riches particularly if you gained the whole world and lose your life.
    Each one should work hard in whatever, they happen to be managing. The farmers should work hard to feed the nation. The same applies to every citizen from all walks of life. It is time to stop feeding garbage to posterity. Thinking too much on ethnic lines will ruin this nation.
    We should work together to achieve common good. South Sudan is enough for all of us. Sometime, there is a feeling that certain regions are the ones maintaining the country. This is an erroneous thinking. Dr. James Okuk stated that, to Nuer, everything is Upper Nile and oil.


  13. Malith Alier says:

    A Call for Expulsion of Hilde Johnson from South Sudan
    This question is best answered by democrats who periodically elect their representatives to serve them at various levels in a democratic country. South Sudan is a democracy and those who understand the term can answer it.
    On 22nd December 2014, the South Sudanese political parties and civil society organisation went to the streets to demonstrate against the ongoing war in the country. The said demonstration was also directed against UNMISS chief, Hilde Johnson. ‘’Down down Riek Machar,’’ down down Hilde Johnson’’ denoting that the duo are working against the people of this nascent country.
    Hilde Johnson go! Reason being that the people of this country are frustrated by what UNMISS is or not doing since 2006. The initial contract for this UN mission was six months but has since been renewed multiple times the latest was last July 2013.
    Many citizens now begin to see the double standards of the UN mission in action immediately after the events of 15th December 2013 precisely the attempted coup and its aftermath. UNMISS is seen as a partial player and sympathetic to the rebels causes of which Yau Yau rebellion is among them. UNMISS is beset by internal and external problems it continuously overlook.
    Firstly, it has failed to condemn it as an attempted coup and has even facilitated the escape of ringleaders and masterminds of the coup. UNMISS hosted key rebel leaders in its Bor compound for several days as they waited for their departure using UNMISS helicopters and other motor vehicles for their destination. Some of these important leaders include Hussein Mar, Stephen Par Kuol, Duop Lam, Manoah Gatkuoth and many others. This is undeniable because they have been together with those who came to Juba after a short stay at the compound.
    UNMISS over the years armed itself to the teeth for purposes only known to itself. It acquired several military tanks and armoured vehicles to be stationed at it burgeoning camps in South Sudan. It has a camp in all the major towns and County headquarters across the country. Ironically, UNMISS has never short a single bullet to defend its staff at times of danger like when five peacekeepers were killed in Gumuruk, Pibor County and two in Akobo UNMISS compound. This tells us what kind of organisation UNMISS is. It is an organisation that would like to scare on the outside but is too timid on the inside.
    There happened a big farce about entry of information minister with armed bodyguards to the Bor UNMISS compound after the fall of Bor on 18th January 2014. Some of us fail to understand all of this when the very UNMISS failed to control armed rebel entry in the past. The UN continues to make a big noise in issues involving government but kept silent in front of rebels. The rebels commandeered all the armoured vehicles and tanks in Akobo, Bor, Malakal and Bentiu but the sacred UNMISS did not do much about it – only calling for rebels to respect its assets.
    The UN continuously displays double standard when it fails to blame a concern party in a particular circumstance. Why blame the rebels and government forces when it is clearly the rebels who confiscated its hardware and food stuff in the rebel held areas?
    On its internal front, UNMISS experienced several strikes from national staff who are underpaid and continues to be over worked by the UN Mission. The international staffs that are well paid and do less work in comparison to national staff. That is the source of contention and resentment between the international and national employees.
    The blame is filing up on UNMISS as long as its chief of eight years continues to run it. UNMISS is now highly inefficient as a consequence of its chief abandoning its mandate to join politics of the new nation.
    The UNMISS core functions include; child protection, disarmament and reintegration of militia groups, human rights protection and peace building. Other functions are food distribution, healthcare programme and transportation of government officials around the country (Juba Monitor 24 Jan. 2014). These functions have been abandoned in favour of meddling in politics and rebellion in the country. Functions like hosting, transporting, feeding and treating rebels are the new UNMISS functions today.
    The UN has insignificant presence in developed nations today because its work revolves around wars and refugees. In developing countries the UN is perceived to be part of a solution but instead becomes part of a problem. This is the case in Congo, Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia.
    Hilde Johnson, the current UNMISS chief in South Sudan worked in Congo and the situation went from bad to worse. Who in their right mind thought that she could be any better here? Mr. Ban Ki-moon should recall his special representative because she is no longer special in the situation of South Sudan. If this is not forthcoming, the South Sudan government should hear the citizens’ cries and expel her forever. The government should not soften on this demand.


  14. Malith Alier says:

    What is Hot in South Sudan Today? Comprehensive Situation Analysis and Recommendations
    The hottest topics in South Sudan are too clear for all to agree on them without much ado. The new country which has just started to grow up was envisaged to experience teething problems of its own making as asserted by independent observers. Above all, the country has failed to plan the path designed to avoid coups and mutinies or all out rebellions that befell other African nations immediately after independence.
    There is already enough discourse about corruption, tribalism/regionalism, land grabbing, and militia integration. The other side of the same discourse that has largely been ignored is the outcome of the parameters above. Issues like coup/mutiny, ethnic wars, revamped tribalism/regionalism, power struggle, and international community perspective about the country. These constitute what is hot in South Sudan today.
    Immediately following the events of December 15th, the international community led by IGAD or Intergovernmental Authority on Development descended on the country with speed to resolve a conflict that is about to engulf the whole nation. This conflict has a potential to destroy the usually referred to as a new nation to a Stone Age level.
    The strong intervention by IGAD is a gesture of goodwill. Never before, has an African regional organisation moved with similar speed to try to resolve an internal problem in a matter of days. All South Sudanese in the government and rebels should appreciate IGAD and AU for this rare gesture of goodwill and accept initiatives to resolve matters once immediately.
    As much as South Sudanese welcome the International intervention, there are two interventionist suggestions this author feels uncomfortable with; the pressure release of coup detainees and foreign military intervention. Why put so much pressure on a sovereign State to release rebels who have staged overthrow of elected government? Where is it in the world people are accused, detained and released with no charges about the crime committed? As for the foreign military intervention they have at least saved the lives of their trapped citizens which is the primary reason they came for. They have also saved countless lives of South Sudanese in the villages on the way to Juba. The world had at least witnessed the utter destruction in the main towns of Malakal, Bentiu and Bor inflicted by the merciless and lawless rebel forces. This warrants intervention by external friendly forces to save physical infrastructure and above all the capital city from such destructive intention by the rebels.
    The external pressure to release rebel detainees reminds us of a similar pressure mounted on the country in April 2012 on the occasion of Panthou/Higlig capture by the SPLA from the same actors. The government should send them a strong message that this is not about USA, UN or humanitarian work, it is about sovereignty and law of the country. The USA and the UN denied it was a coup and are adding insult to injury by pressing for release of detainees. South Sudan cannot go by the dictates of the UN and USA whenever, national issues arise. These issues need national solutions for the country to move away from ensnaring radar of super powers with different agenda. One wonders why the event of 1991 was accepted as a coup unlike the 2013 similar event by the same man, Riek. The 2013 is event closer to the power than the august 1991 virtual bush coup. This writer believes that the way he staged a coup in the bush is the same way he did in 2013.
    Call it a coup or otherwise, this war has been dubbed as a ‘’senseless war’’ by both sides of the conflict. This might be the view of other South Sudanese friends and well wishers as well as regional organisation like IGAD and AU. There is hardly a single dependable reason to have started it in the first place.
    However, there exist two political thoughts about whether it was an attempted coup d’état or not. One version is that of the government and it supporters. The government contends that Riek and his group planned the coup long before July 2013 cabinet’s dismissal including himself as Vice President. It was rumoured that those coup plotters distributed money to army soldiers in Ghieda and some soldiers who fell victims were found with money in their pockets in form of US Dollars and South Sudanese Pounds. It is further said that there was no forced disarmament of Nuer Presidential guards as put forward by rebels and their supporters. What happened was that ethnic Nuer presidential guards forced their way to loot weapons from military store to fight on the fateful night of December 15 2013. This version was confirmed by the General in charge of Tiger Division on 25th January 2014. The General highlighted that no soldiers are allowed to have guns except those on duty. All weapons and ammunitions are kept away in stores at all times. So there was no order disarmament at all. The other version is that the Nuer presidential guards were forcefully disarmed leaving others with their guns, something that has caused the rebellion.
    The failed coup deniers have never realised that the subsequent war that ensued have touched everybody in this country in one way or another. This author has lost two elderly relatives, one male and one female who were unable to stand on their feet and escaped the violence in Bor. At this juncture it is needless to talk about losses of property. Life is more precious than property.
    Coup and war aside, President Salva Kiir has been too lenient on his cabinet since 2005. This is called ruling for the elites instead of ruling for people of South Sudan, the common people. In fact, it is these ministers who have turned against him in the recent coup attempt. They have developed a false sense of entitlement to be in the government for life. Anything short of that induced rebellion, coup and the resultant war in response to their apparent exclusion from national cake and decision making. The issues of the 75 most corrupt senior officials served with letters, the large government with overlapping functions and deteriorating image of South Sudan abroad were the most urgent tasks before the President to fix.
    Besides the appeasement of the elites, another worrisome issue was the continuous integration and reintegration of rebellious militias mostly from Upper Nile. Many observers including senior SPLM members knew that this was a simple window dressing exercise bound to fail sooner or later. The December coup and the subsequent war in greater Upper Nile proved them right. The integration of militias not only caused discontent in the army but it was a ploy by the political class to employ to take power if political means failed. Furthermore, this was one of the areas where SPLM as liberation has lost its direction. In the original SPLA, it was not only illegal to commission oneself but was also a capital offence punishable by death by firing squad. Several people have died that way. This has gradually changed over the years because Western liberalism seen in government circles today. The integration of highly ranked militias or those who backstab the government is not only demoralising the faithful soldiers but it is also puts them on economic disadvantage. The SPLA pay structure is scaled from private to general that is to say from SSP 600 to SSP 12,000.
    No one is sure whether this time is going to be different but reforms are badly needed. The signing to end hostilities and to cease fire are signs that indicate the end of the war is insight. The other indicator is the surrender of many rebels in Juba, Bentiu and Malakal. The surrendering rebels realise that this war is a senseless one pitting a tribe against a nation just like the one of 1991. They further realised that life is very difficult in the bush and it take courage and bravery to endure hardships knowing that there are clear reasons to do so e.g. the SPLA fought for 21 years against slavery, discrimination, Arabisation, and illegal occupation of Southern Sudan by the Arabs. These facts do not exist in the current conflict, only search for political power.
    The current crisis cannot be levelled on a single individual. This is because the newest country is overwhelmed by alien modernism rushing to replace centuries’ old way of life. The terms like democracy, democratic transformation, professionalising the SPLA, fight against corruption, 25% women representation, taking towns to people, rule of law, good governance, freedom of expression, constitutional development, state or nation building, amnesty, State of emergency have created more confusion than never before.
    This author does not even comprehend some of these jargons despite the fact that he has been to a higher institution of learning. What about the hoi poloi in this country? It is not just the jargon that creates confusion but how to go about all of this. Take for example the 25% women representation. Is it only in parliament or all government institutions? Who elects the 25% women representation? Are they answerable to women? Some women continue to press the government to implement the allocated percentage according to the law. This shows that the allocated percentage is partially fulfilled.
    What about professionalising the SPLA? Clearly, this has been difficult because of militia integration and corruption endemic in the army circles. The corruption issue in the SPLA was acknowledged by the president and the C-in-C in Bilpham last year in one of military rallies there. On The other hand, militia integration was decried by the defence Minister as a failure in Malakal while addressing senior officers on 23rd January 2014.
    The state failures have just dawned on the country thanks to the disputed coup and the war that ensued. What is important is that South Sudan rulers now publicly admit their past failures. This is something to be applauded. This author like many other South Sudanese was aware that the open-ended amnesties accorded to rebels and integration of those who have taken up arms against the state are not the best way of solving problems. This was at best procrastination on the job. National problems are best solved on case by case basis even if it means hanging some culprits with capital offence on them.
    Some people cry foul against death penalty but this can at least calm nerves. What can a young state like South Sudan do when it just emerged from decades of conflict? Even advanced and democratically run nations like USA abolished death sentences only to be revived after trials. It is only NGOs and INGOs which are not for capital punishment. An example of INGO against capital punishment is SHURSHA however; this view is not held by South Sudan Human rights commission. This South Sudan body formed by Act of Parliament accepts that if anyone intentionally kills then there is no excuse for the murderer not to go the same way. It is now up to the State to match rewards and punishments directly to good deeds and offences respectively.
    1. Implement South sudan constitution to the letter
    2. Implement the SPLA Act in letter and spirit
    3. Suspend 25% representation to women and let competition rule
    4. Initiate urgent and badly needed reforms in the army and the civil service
    5. Stop integration of rebels enmass, it should be done on individual basis after thorough screening. Leave out the illiterate and over 35 of age.
    6. SPLA soldiers should sign a military contract of service; say for five years renewable for another term if both parties are satisfied.
    7. Call for replacement of UNMISS chief
    8. Intensify corruption fight by empowering anticorruption to arrest and prosecute anyone involved in corrupt practices
    9. Implement capital punishment on capital offenders
    10. Eliminate perceived tribalism by offering employment based qualification and integrity basis as parameters to employment only.
    11. Implement UN and NGO law so that they do not interfere in country’s political landscape.
    12. Do away with UN, NGO and international community jargon and pressure because these are unimplementable even in the long run. Everybody is aware that the UN is meddling in the country’s affairs too much. You heard that the President has declared a state of emergency in Upper Nile, Jonglei and Western Upper Nile (Unity State) but UN and NGO are making a mockery of it by entering to assist rebels there. A BBC reporter enter Lankien with MSF hence violating the constitution of South Sudan.
    13. Vice President and ministers to sign contract of service that stipulates that they are not to remain in their post for life. This issue is the one that caused the current conflict.
    14. The government to abandon the policy of too much appeasement of individuals because we have seen the consequences of that.
    15. President should reduce rule by decrees. There is no point of using decrees in small matters like appointment of a press secretary. This can be done through other channels that are less controversial.
    16. Freeze rebel assets including those of Nyandeng and Adwok Nyaba. They may be among the more than 75 officials served with letters by the President last year 2013.
    17. Expel rebel members from the SPLM party so that they form their own parties like SPLM in Opposition.
    18. Constitute a local court to try human rights violations and refer major violations to the ICC or International Criminal Court. This can deter future violations in the country.
    19. Encourage multi-party democracy in the country so that those who are not satisfied in a particular party like Riek Machar and group can form their own parties that are funded by the state. It is no brainer to duplicate names like SPLM, SPLM-DC and SPLM-O. This is a problem when it comes to registration identification of political parties.
    20. Implement national truth and reconciliation agenda immediately while paying attention to groups and individuals who committed rights violations against the state or groups or individuals.
    21. Develop award system for South Sudan so that South Sudanese with outstanding achievements in military, science, agriculture, humanitarian work etc can get the award of the Order of South Sudan.
    22. Implement federalism and partition Jonglei state and any other large states to bring services closer to communities. Jonglei state is the largest and therefore, ungovernable with the so called white army, a lawless civil/military organisation. This is the demand of Yau Yau rebels and it is the cry of greater Bor Counties of Bor, Twic East and Duk.
    23. Try to reach for peace with rebels but don’t ignore justice.


  15. Malith Alier says:

    Uganda People’s Defence Force, UPDF in South Sudan; why they are here for?
    The UPDF is not here to stay if peace is realised in the short run. Many authors have branded UPDF as an invading force that entered the country illegally with no or little support from South Sudanese people.
    The people with this thinking are at least in two categories; those in the armed Opposition and their supporters and those who fear that the presence of UPDF will create more chaos than envisaged restoration of peace and stability.
    On the other hand, the government and the majority of South Sudanese believed that UPDF offers more benefits than ills. The UPDF is not the first force to intervene in crises situations; these happened several times since world war I. these are called military alliances or simply allies.
    Reasons for such allied interventions are many; to support an ally, to restore peace and stability, to prevent genocide, to empower local security forces through training and capacity building at the times of needs among others.
    South Sudan is a signatory to one other intervention by international community immediately after signing of CPA in 2005, the UNMIS charter which later became UNMISS in July 2011. The purpose of UNMISS is primarily peace keeping in the country. Other functions include; child protection, disarmament and reintegration of militia groups, human rights protection and peace building.
    UPDF acts as a complementary force to the SPLA and UNMISS and as such, has accomplished what UNMISS was unable to do, restoration of peace and stability.
    UPDF has gone further and now secures and protects vital infrastructure like Juba International Airport and other national physical installations. Who else could have done that if not UPDF? The stretched country’s armed forces are engaged in the battle fronts.
    On February 5 2014, members of UPDF were seen cleaning Juba streets particularly, the littered streets of Konyokonyo market. These actions will surely wind hearts and minds in the country where hope about future is at the lowest.
    UNMISS has been here for close to nine years so far. Its mandate has been blurred by contrary actions or inactions at the time of need. Perhaps this can be attributed to complacency and financial constrains. The government and the people of South Sudan recently call for review of UNMISS mandate. Others are calling for replacement of UNMISS chief or total expulsion based on what is perceived as contradiction in its mandate.
    UNMISS armed itself to the teeth in the name of civilian protection. This was hardly seen in action in the past years. Its acquired arms and munitions can be taken away by anyone anytime as seen with the SPLA in Opposition. Therefore, the time is rife for UNMISS to be disarmed and be allowed to act like other UN agencies that prohibit portage of arms.
    The SPLA, the country’s army has a lot to learn from UPDF. It should set up a rapid standby force to intervene in regional hotspots; it should do away with tribal elements among its ranks and above all should do away with the name “SPLA” because even UPDF used to be known as NRA or National Resistance Army during the time of liberation of Uganda.
    UPDF is perfectly doing more than expected in South Sudan. It rescues trapped civilians, restores peace and stability in Jonglei State and engages in activities that enhanced sanitation in Bor and Juba. How dare some people brand these actions as invasion?


  16. Malith Alier says:

    South Sudan Addis Ababa Negotiations in Muddled Water
    Peace is desirable but anyone who wants peace should instead prepare for war. After war therefore, is genuine peace achievable. This maxim is seen after many wars around the world in general and South Sudan in particular.
    The former VP, Machar fought in the SPLA and defected to become a militia leader allied to Khartoum but humiliatingly returned to the SPLA fold with bitter experiences. Peace was for that matter attractive to him after those experiences. This is the case even today. Nobody takes up arms in order to surrender tomorrow so soon without exhaustion. The Anya-nya was in the bush for 17 years and that of SPLA is a little more over 20 years.
    This is not to say that the author is beating a drum of war. Nobody knew that what started in capital, Juba will spread to other parts of the country like bush fires seen in dry parts of the world. The conspirators have good reasons to have orchestrated and even better reasons to sustain it beyond anyone’s belief. The dichotomy of coup and no coup is now irrelevant. The conflict has continued to metamorphose to dangerous levels day by day.
    One well placed gentleman from the SPLA but is now on a reserved list warned us three days after what was believed to be a coup that the war has just started and will take some time to settle. This warning was taken lightly by us but it is clearer now after more than three months and the rhetoric continuous unabated.
    South Sudan is now a country at crossroads, the road to peace and the road to peril. Many friends and well wishers to this country want to take the country back to peace. However, there are insurmountable obstacles and contradictions on the road to peace. Some of those are of our own making. There are also a host of historical injustices, crimes and misdemeanours which will not help a great deal even if we continue to talk about today.
    There still exists the usual war of words after signing the secession of hostilities in Addis on the 23 January 2014. This means that the agreement was imposed on the parties by external actors particularly the IGAD in the hope that the parties to the conflict would honour it. Truly, this is the first test of well intentions of IGAD, AU and UN. In addition, this test if well executed will allow the mediators to move the parties to the next level. However, despite signing secession of hostilities accord, the war is still raging and so is the mobilization of combatants as well as the war of words or propaganda by the rebels.
    As much as the mediators and the international community would like to halt the atrocities and stop the war, they exhibit contrary actions that are unhelpful in their endeavour. These actions send wrong signals to the warring parties and bring confusion to the situation as a whole. It is advisable to handle issues step by step towards final solution of the conflict.
    Initially immediately after conflict broke out, the Americans and the UN denied that it was a coup and therefore, demanded for immediate release of the accused plotters. The people of this country are baffled by this attitude of the US government. This is a second time for the USA to meddle in internal affairs of South Sudan after that of Panthou/Heglig. Then, comes the constant demand for withdrawal of Ugandan troops. One wonders what USA is up to.
    It has been alleged that the US is the largest donor to South Sudan government and is threatening sanctions on the country. Money at this time fights no war and the US government is advised to stop it for time being. America, the world watch dog rushed to Bor to rescue her citizens in the wake of the uprising but left the vulnerable South Sudanese to be slaughtered by white army, a supposed vengeance about what happened in Juba on the coup day. Now one fails to understand why USA is coming back to condemn what has saved our skins and what is left of our belongings in Juba. One would conclude that the US government has a hidden agenda to mete out on South Sudan. Both demands for release of detainees and withdrawal of UPDF are not supported by ordinary citizens of this country.
    If history is anything to go by, the President in the past tried a conciliatory approach on various rebel groups but this was abused and the result is what is seen today. This policy of appeasement to the International community and rebels was destined for failure as seen now. No country should be ruled by another country in this century. This is to say that the USA problems are not similar to South Sudanese problems. America is fighting Islamic terrorism but South Sudan is fighting a different kind of terrorism in form of rebel militias and the white army.
    President Kiir has been wrongly branded as a dictator. This is a view of those who have not read him well. Luka Biong Deng responded to the president’s critic that the humble man in the hat is a consensus builder. Indeed, the South Sudanese president is a reluctant leader who has not fully internalised the assumption of leadership responsibilities. For any leader to be effective, he has to be hands on manager ready to face any problems head on. Instead, our president is more like an angel. How can you explain his handling of the coup detainees who were well fed, were not tortured, none has had a heart attack in the detention? Everyone should appreciate this man before he departs the scene. Many South Sudanese including this author are extremely frustrated with this softly approach. There is time for everything as narrated in the holy Books. A time to laugh and time to be serious.
    For peace to be successful and help the mediators, everybody feels that they should be included, women groups, Church leaders, Youth groups, political parties, and any other groups or individuals with the same feelings. The issue of religious leaving the word of God to be deeply involved in country’s politics is an issue that should worry us. They are involved in reconciliation commission; they are negotiating with SSDA or Yau Yau group. Who will preach the word of God if the religious leaders have become part and parcel of politics at the highest level?
    All South Sudanese should not make mistake to assume that war always brings something meaningful to every living soul. The Any-nya war is a testimony for South Sudan. Another was brought destruction to the people of this nation is that of Riek in 1991. It brought destruction to Bor and other former Upper areas. Costs associated with any war include; militarisation of civil population, increased disability, displacement leading to several IDP camps, increase of refugees, destruction of property, loss of life, disorientation of business activities, scarcity of commodities,


  17. 17.2.14. By Deng Diany Acuiel. Paanluel Wèl many. Iwould like you to contact me through this email


  18. 17.2.14. By Deng Diany Acuiel. Paanluel Wèl many thanks and Iwould like you to contact me through this email


  19. Malith Alier says:

    Why greater Upper Nile Militancy is to blame for a culture of Violence in South Sudan
    After the conclusion of Addis Ababa peace agreement (APA) of 1972 those who were unhappy about that agreement remained in the bush. They were later referred to as Any-nya two. Their number was greatly reduced as a result of that agreement and subsequent integration of Any-nya one forces into the Sudanese army. The defaulting Any-nya forces had serious reservations over the APA short comings in addressing their overall demands that lead them to be in the bush for 17 years. Even if critical issues like self determination and the Abyei issue were included in the agreement, there appeared no built in guarantees that this agreement was going to be implemented.
    Most of The following rebel leaders hail from greater Upper Nile region. The cited timeframes are not exact but may overlap because different rebels rebelled at different times.
    Gai Tut, Akuot Atem, Gordon Koang and Abdalla Chuol 1972 – 1984
    These men were core Any-nya one officers. However, after APA of 1972 they decided to remain in the bush and later became known as Any-nya two. During the SPLA leadership contest Gai and Akuot wanted to be leaders as opposed to John Garang, Kerubino and Nyuon. This led to a bloody feud and both men were killed in pursuit.
    Dr. Riek Machar, Dr. Lam Akol Gordon Koang Chol 1991 – 2002
    It is not clear who initiated the coup against Garang among these men. All are PhD holders not in political science but in engineering and strategic planning. Dr. Riek and Dr. Lam were both high command decorated officers in charge of conflict zones.
    It is rumoured that Dr. Lam Akol was the chief strategist but later parted ways after Dr. Riek’s marriage to Emma, an aid worker in their area of operations.
    The main reasons cited for the rebellion was that Dr. John Garang treated the SPLM/A like a personal chattel coupled with the apparent lack of democracy thereof. However, what happened after this chain of events is anyone’s guess. The SPLA United or Nasir Faction disintegrated and everyone ended up in Khartoum under the umbrella of the erstwhile enemy whose ways they hated to the core.
    Dr. Peter Adwok and Taban Deng Gai 1991 – 2002
    Peter Nyaba is a war disable who was amputated on one leg. He joined Riek Machar and Lam Akol but later fell out with the group. They ended up in Khartoum in the house of Beshir. One reason cited by Nyaba for parting ways with Riek is his marriage to Emma McCune. However, like his peers, Dr. Nyaba returned to SPLM and became Minister of Higher Education in the government of National Unity in Khartoum until 2011. He held a similar ministry in South sudan government after 2011 till 2013 when many of his colleagues were jetted out of the cabinet along with a long serving VP, Riek Machar. Peter is accustomed to being a minister to share the spoils of the government hence he thinks that anything else he can rebel against the system. For this reason, he joined Riek Machar who was critical of the government after his dismissal in July 2013. Peter was arrested but released shortly because of lack of evidence to implicate him in the coup.
    Taban Deng Gai was a onetime Itang refugee camp manager. He was a darling of the chairman for doing well in managing the camp as well as providing major support to the SPLA on the ground. This is outside view. The man is highly manipulative and rebellious in nature. He is the number after Riek in 2013 rebellious affairs. Taban was the Governor of Unity State until his sacking in 2013 by the President.
    Arok Thon, Gelario Modi and Joseph Oduho 1999
    Arok Thon Arok was number five in the formation of the SPLA. The SPLA was headed by John Garang followed by Kerubino then William Nyuon, Salva Kiir and finally Arok.
    It was rumoured that Mr. Arok was not pleased by this sort of arrangement because he was a senior to Salva Kiir in Sudanese army. Unmindful of this, the chosen leader had his reasons for the new order. This might be among other reasons why Arok eventually returned to Khartoum. He later on died in a plane crash along with Sudanese Vice President in Malakal. Dr. Lam Akol survived that crash.
    On the same note, Joseph Oduho was a member of the political wing, the SPLM. The political wing like the military wing was headed by John Garang followed by Oduho and Martin Gai. Note the SPLA/M chairman fell out with many of his deputies during long walk to freedom. Oduho was killed in Panyagor, the present day Twic East County capital in 1992.
    William Nyuon, Kerubino Kuanyin, Paulino Matip and Peter Gatdet 1991 – 2005
    William Nyuon was the number three most powerful man in the SPLA/M after John Garang and Kerubino Kuanyin Bol. However, this man has an inherent culture of rebellion in his life. He was first in Any-nya one and was among those integrated into the Sudanese army after APA of 1972. According to Abel Alier’s book “Too Many Agreements Dishonoured” Mr. Nyuon as a non-commissioned Officer was sent to Zeraf Island in Upper Nile to capture or Kill a certain captain who expressed contempt over APA. He managed to kill that rebellious captain and was commissioned as a captain himself. Mr. Nyuon joined the rebellion after liquidating many of his colleagues in the Sudanese army in Ayod and Akobo areas of what is now Jonglei State.
    As illiterate as he was, Paulino Matip Nhial commanded a large force of rebels compared to his peers along Sudan and South Sudan border. He was indeed the one with the help of Riek Machar who signed agreement with Khartoum that paved the way for oil exploitation in Unity and Upper Nile states. This development benefited the regime in Khartoum and prolonged the civil war in the Sudan. The regime would have crumbled had it not for revenues from petroleum industry. Matip also managed to keep the killer Peter Gatdet on his side. He was an asset not only to SSDA (South Sudan Democratic Army) but also to the SPLA, Torit faction under John Garang, the all time strong man.
    Peter Gatdet eliminated the enemies of Matip and SPLA and this explains his back forth and to the SPLA freely. Gatdet was also illiterate like his boss, Matip. This explains their cordial relations because they thought along same lines of revolts and elimination of perceived enemies’ superior to them in rank and age. The latest side switch by Peter Gatdet was in 2012 where “Mayom declaration” was made to fight Salva Kiir government but only to return months before long.
    Theophilus Ochieng, Peter Lorot and Alfred Ladu Gore 1990 – 2005
    Dr. Theophilus Ochieng was a leader of what was known as Equatoria Defence Forces, EDF. Peter Lorot is a little known rebel leader in the whole of South Sudan. His activities were confined to Chukudum and Latuke.
    Gatluak Gai, Gabriel Tanginye and Gatwick Dual 1991 – 2012
    Gatluak Gai was sadly killed in unclear circumstances while reintegrating his forces in Fangak County in 2012. The SPLA said that it was his guards who killed him because of misunderstanding caused by the agreement with the government. There was accusation and counter accusation but the dust settled shortly after that.
    In the many rebellions in the country some are so lucky not to suffer the same fate like Akuot Atem, Gai Tut, William Nyuon, Kerubino Kuany and Gatluak Gai. Gabriel Tanginye is one of those lucky folks. He commanded many attacks during the interim period but always emerged with no hurt. He was even arrested for close to a year before being pardoned in late 2013 together with Peter Abdurrahman Sule but alas he rejoined what he knows best, the current revolt led by Riek Machar.
    Gatwich Dual is also another rebel in blood and is now back to it again with Riek Machar. He was put on reserve list along with many of his colleagues but was reinstated with other five Major Generals immediately after coup attempt. Unashamedly, he joined what he prefers, rebellion.
    Bapiny Monytuil and Johnson Olony 1991 -2013
    Both Bapiny Monytuil and Johnson Olony were the latest arrivals who accepted the President’s amnesty in 2013. They came with large forces some of which are not integrated even today. Some of those forces were stationed in Mayom and are fighting the current unrest along government troops in Unity and Upper Nile states.
    For Johnson Olony, the reason for rebellion was the issue of land between his Shilluk and the Dinka in Upper. However, for Bapiny, the reasons are not clearly stated but for the sake of coming back to be reintegrated with your acquired ranks in the bush. This is a self reward system adopted by Southerners since Anya-nya days but blessed by the current President who reintegrated numerous militias unscreened.
    George Athor and Peter Abdirahman Sule 2010 – 2012
    George Athor was one of the heroes of liberation struggle in South Sudan. He was a highly decorated commander who happened to be one of deputies of SPLA chief of general staff.
    Like Yau Yau, he rebelled after 2010 election when he failed to become a governor of Jonglei State. Despite persuasions to be impatient he launched a rebellion whose aim was sketchy to most. One time trial and failure is not an indication that one has lost forever. Athor ended up dead under unclear circumstance like Gatluak Gai.
    The rebellion by peter Sule was nipped in the bud. He got arrested in Central Equatoria, his home State and was later pardoned with Tanginye in late 2013. He was a chairman of United Democratic Front, UDF. He contested 2010 general elections under the ticket of UDF but failed.
    David Yau Yau 2010 – present
    This man is a two time rebel as a result of 2010 elections where he unsuccessfully contested for an elected seat in his state of Jonglei. He responded to general amnesty only to disown it months later for reasons known to him and his Murle tribesmen. The second rebellion was bloodier leading to human rights violation accusations on the government of South Sudan. The Yau Yau rebellion bears semblance with that of Riek Machar of 1991 and present because they both led exclusively by members of their tribes. This is something that limits their appeal nationally.
    Riek Machar, Taban Deng, James Koang and Peter Gatdet 2013 – present
    The greatest rebel leader, Riek Machar who started the latest torrid events in the country thinks that he is a beneficiary of prophet Ngundeng’s prophecies. He was the country’s Vice President until his sacking in July 2013. Last year’s coup is his second attempt at the presidency of South Sudan.
    Taban is a notorious manipulator in politics. He had switched sides triple times since 1983. He was unconstitutionally sacked along with Chol Tong Mayay of Lakes State in 2013.
    Meanwhile, James Koang Chol rebelled for the first time ever perhaps he was misinformed about the supposed Nuer massacre in Juba after coup attempt. He was until then a respected general in the SPLA for his diligent work during and after the liberation struggle. He was shortly installed himself as Unity State governor after his forces capture Bentiu from SPLA forces.
    Peter Gatdet is a notorious rebel who had switched sides severally in the past. His whereabouts are currently not known whether he is a life or dead. He exhibited estranged behaviour just before the December 2013 rebellion but strange enough he got away with it despite attempts by his juniors and security forces in Division 8 stationed in Jonglei State. Peter Gatdet had never been to school and what he knows best is military uniform of which he cannot live outside.
    The 2013 rebellion saw mass defections from all SPLA forces by Nuer sons. They left death and destruction in their wake just like 1991.
    The former greater Upper Nile as a region has also had great leaders who changed the course of history of South Sudan for good. Some of the prominent leaders include Dr. John Garang and Maulana Abel Alier. They were both involved in the histories of Anya-nya one and the SPLA. During the negotiation of APA and CPA they had greater parts and their deeds are recorded in the annals of history of this country. This dichotomy reminds us of the saying that where there is greater evil there is greater blessing. The greater evil is the many aimless rebellions that cause suffering and take the country back to dark days of Stone Age.
    In the Citizen Newspaper on 15 Feb. 14, Ahmed A. Morgan, a Lecturer at the University of Juba examines the costs and benefits of rebellions and wars that have been there since 1955 up to today in an article entitled “The Costs and Benefits of the Culture of Continues Rebellions by South Sudanese” he that stated no goods reasons are always advanced for continues rebellions which are in themselves a failure to deal with issues politically. He is of the idea that the South Sudanese are the same whether they illiterates or PhD holders politically. He thinks that if this country called South Sudan had good politicians like late Mandela, Gandhi, Yaser Arafat and Martin Luther King then its independence could have come through peaceful means rather than wars. He noted that what we have in this country are tribal heads who masquerade as politicians on the outside. He explains that the short sightedness of the so called politicians who always choose rebellions caused destruction and retardation each time the nation tries to move forward.
    This nation indeed tried to move forward in 2013 despite corruption that crippled many critical areas of development. Mr. Morgan wondered whether South Sudanese are cursed with constant wars that have no end in sight. Each time this sort of rebellion occurs what the country gets are loss of human lives, maiming/amputations of thousands, displacement internally or externally, food insecurity hence danger of starvation. These are the consequences of the each cycle of violence. This is even worse when it is the same people who perpetuated violence but achieved nothing in the past. In this context, Riek Machar is the point man who prefers violence to attain political solutions to political problems.
    In summary, Upper Nile takes greater share of rebellions more than other former regions of Equatoria and Bhar El Ghazel combined. This is attributable to certain communities being rebel minded in the region. Mr. Ahmed Morgan blamed a culture of rebellion in the country that seems to have taken hold over the lives of South Sudanese politicians who resort to their communities to settle political scores. He thinks that war solves no problems but it instead causes suffering to the population. Loss of life, retardation of development, disability, displacement, food insecurity and break down of law and order are the results of any war. The latest round of violence was absolutely unnecessary. This deadly round of tribal conflict will increase political and tribal temperatures and this is not good for the country. Some people had their children in schools in neighbouring countries. These children will now leave schools and join the suffering masses in refugee camps.
    Index of names of rebel leaders according to regions of South Sudan
    Greater Upper Nile
    1. Samuel Gai Tut
    2. Akuot Atem de Mayen
    3. Gordon Koang Chuol
    4. William Abdalla Chuol
    5. James Koang Chol
    6. David Yau Yau
    7. George Athor Deng
    8. Bapiny Monytuil
    9. Johnson Olony
    10. Gatluak Gai
    11. Gabriel Tanginye
    12. Gatwick Dual
    13. William Nyuon Bany
    14. Paulino Matip Nhial
    15. Peter Gatdet Yak
    16. Arok Thon Arok
    17. Dr. Riek Machar Teny
    18. Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin
    19. Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba
    20. Taban Deng Gai

    Greater Equatoria
    1. Peter Abdurrahman Sule
    2. Gelario Modi Wurnyang
    3. Joseph Oduho
    4. Peter Lorot
    5. Theophilus Ochieng
    6. Alfred Ladu Gore

    Greater Bhar El Ghazel
    1. Kerubino Kuanyin
    • Liberator Magazine July 2011
    • Citizen Newspaper 15/02/14
    • Too Many Agreements Dishonoured (Author: Abel Alier)


  20. Malith Alier says:

    The Failure of the SPLM led Government to Regulate Land is a Sufficient Reason for Land Grabbing
    By Malith Alier
    20.02.2014 Jinja, Uganda
    Land grabbing is a grossly over misrepresented phenomenon among town and city dwellers in South Sudan. According to the CPA, land is defined as a communal asset. This means that land is the property of a particular community whose ancestors originally inhabited that piece of land. This definition was appropriate for the interim period i.e. from July 2005 to July 2011. However, this definition stuck beyond the stated period and continuous to create difficulties not only to individual persons but also to various levels of the government.
    The first land confrontation was between the Central/Federal Government and that of Central Equatoria State. For Juba to be a true capital of South Sudan, the Central Government requested Central Equatoria State to relocate to Yei or any other town of its choice. In defiance of Central Government request, the Central Equatoria Government cited the CPA provision and its own State transitional Constitution as reasons that enable it to exercise jurisdiction over Juba.
    However, instead of fighting on, the Central Government led by the SPLM revisited a little known Ramciel Project and strove to accelerate relocation of the capital from Juba to the designated capital, Ramciel.
    The SPLM led Central Government has a particular way of dealing with national issues of magnificent concern like the Ramciel and Juba issue. One would assume that there exists the same provision in the South Sudan Interim and Transitional constitutions that make Juba the capital of South Sudan just like the Central Equatoria Constitution. If so, both Constitutions have conflicting provisions that need to be sorted out by law.
    The South Sudan Transitional Constitution is not subordinate to that of Central Equatoria but it is the other way round. In case of similar federal States the world over, any conflicting provisions in federal and State Constitutions are resolved through the courts. Always the federal Constitution prevails over State Constitution. This is the path South Sudan Government should have taken instead of choosing a less controversial but costly relocation at the time when the country has no known developed infrastructure and resources to support the relocation.
    The planned relocation is a good idea whose time is premature. Many notable South Sudanese object to this relocation on the grounds that the country is not ready for it right now. There are issues of rampant corruption, poor infrastructure and prohibitive high costs of the project itself.
    Looking around us, there are many examples of planned relocations on the African continent. Tanzania relocated its capital from Dar Es Salam to Dodoma. Nigeria relocated from Lagos to Abuja, Uganda relocated from Entebbe to Kampala. Further afield, Australia relocated its capital from Sydney to Canberra. These are a few among many more examples of recent relocations. So, relocation of national capitals is not a bad idea but it must be carefully planned if it were to succeed.
    The Government of the Republic of South in it assessment failed to identify true reasons that make relocation necessary. These reasons include; poor plan of the existing capital, lack of space for expansion and problems of strategic location of the current capital. Some people argue that a capital should be located in the centre of a country.
    Land grabbing and loggerheads with any State government are not sufficient reasons for relocation. With open mind these problems could easily be solved constitutionally.
    The Central Government abandonment of Juba for Ramciel has a number of consequences a part from being unachievable at the moment. First, the Central Government is seen as weak and unaware of legal avenues at its disposal. These legal avenues can be used against States that challenge the Federal Government authority in matters of which is has jurisdiction like land, foreign affairs and defence. It is the Central Government that should delegate some land issues to the lower levels. Second, the abdication of Central Government has emboldened State Governments and local communities to become obstacles to land distribution programmes equitable to all South Sudanese.
    Juba is the most difficult city to acquire land title in the whole country. It is also where cries for land grabbing are the loudest. Reason, the land acquisition is obfuscated among different levels of the Government and local Bari communities.
    The other towns with the same scenario are Yei and Nimule. The Madi of Nimule is often at the loggerheads with Eastern Equatoria Government over war time displaced people that settled in Loboni, Mugali and Magalatoria. The UN which used to feed the internally displaced people there invented the term IDPs or Internally Displaced Persons. This term is nostalgically still in use today to describe those who settled in Nimule despite the fact that the three settlements have been abandoned and the country is independent. Nobody should be identified by this UN demeaning term “IDP” in their own country. This was the same message by Minister of Interior when he visited Nimule last year. This message however, was not well received by the Madi diehards who want to continue with regressive land policies over the coming years.
    As Juba, Yei and Nimule continue quarrelling over how to deal with land; other towns are more progressive and accommodating and therefore, have devised progressive policies that are favourable to locals as well as other prospective land owners. Bor, the recently war devastated capital of Jonglei State is a case study in the country.
    The first independence Governor of Jonglei Mr. Philip Leek initiated a land distribution programme in 2007 after consultation with local people. The local people like the Madi opposed the idea because they felt that they will be disadvantaged in the process of distribution. However, the former Governor managed to sufficiently address their concerns and they were the first to receive land allotments wherever, they are located. The Land distribution programme was going on well before the recent upheaval in the country. The case of Bor is the best example of a successful land distribution programme to emulate.
    There are important issues South Sudanese have not known about land. Land is a factor of production like capital and labour. Land is a very important economic factor without which production is impossible to realise. Land is a resource that holds other resources like minerals. If these minerals are not exploited and developed than they mean little to mankind. The same to land, if not develop it has little value to man. This is to say that a surveyed land is more valuable than free land.
    The intensified migration to towns meant that land be surveyed and allotted to individuals or institutions for a meaningful use to take place. Nobody loses anything in this process. If one is not directly allocated a piece of land he/she can have an option to buy from legal owners and ownership is completely transferred forever. Indeed, it becomes easy for those who transfer from one city to another. They can sell their homes from where they’re leaving and buy from where they’re going. This means a total peace of mind to everybody in the country.
    Opposition to land distribution programme can cause unintended problems as seen in parts of the country particularly those cities that hinder allocation of lands to those who need it. Juba is not only the capital of the republic but is also a cosmopolitan city that accommodates all sorts of people around the globe. Instead of being narrow minded, the authorities should devise clear land policies that cater for diverse needs of South Sudanese and other people who join them as businesspeople or as diplomatic community. Every one of the mentioned stakeholders has unique needs that warrant specific attention.
    Strangely, holding to “our ancestral land” only emboldens those who feel marginalised to take the law on to their own hands.
    The incident when about fourteen (14) people were killed in Komiru, Juba was a horrific result of not transparently allocating land to legitimate claimants. Remember that the so-called land grabbers have legitimate claims to land ownership anywhere in the country. The questions they normally asked include; now I am in this city where my family and I should stay? Also during the liberation struggle, the fighters fought anywhere regardless of where they come from. The transitional constitution of the Republic of South Sudan confirms this notion in no uncertain terms. South Sudanese should stay anywhere in the country without discrimination according to both Interim and Transitional Constitutions.
    The second problem is the legal battles over land cases that otherwise are avoidable. In most cases, those who are accused of land grabbing are those who found an empty land settle on it only to be informed later that they hand grabbed that land.
    The third problem is the loss of income to the government. Many land deals are done underhand far from the government radar. In Juba alone there are tenth of thousands of land leases going on since 2006. The Ethiopians, Eritreans and other investors have taken advantage of this legal loophole and are the prime beneficiaries of these illegal land deals. This issue had prompted one of the Citizen Newspaper Columnists, Mr. Sunday D Tor to refer to Juba as Juba Na Foreigners instead of Juba Na Bari as advocated in the past.
    The final problem is to do with the legal implications of these illegal land deals in the foreseeable future. Will more land problems arise between land owners and foreign investors? Will they come to the government? How shall the government handle these cases?
    All in all, land grabbing is a manmade issue that should never have been had the government taken charge to allocate land transparently. The government and local communities have made land in the cities like a forbidden fruit. South Sudan as a country has abundant land compared to other parts of East Africa. Why should people fight over urban land is something that warrants special government intervention.
    Nobody should call a fellow countryman an IDP in their own country. This is a shameful UN tag that has no meaning in an independent South Sudan. The country is too big for the people of South Sudan and as such even welcomes the Sudanese nomads of Mesiryah and Rezegat yearly. It is mind boggling why should South Sudanese be so vindictive on one another in regard to the land issue which has claimed millions of lives to liberate it?


  21. 26.2.14 Regard by Deng Diany Acuiel. Panlual wëël i surely you are more qualfied this why iam marked as afrist friend so any curner you go we go together idon,t like those with athick mind


  22. Malith Alier says:

    Is South Sudan at the Mercy of the UN and Other Hidden Powers?
    The discovery of UN weapons consignment to the conflict zones as reported on the SSTV is not an isolated case. It only reinforced our earlier fears that the UN is here to destroy this country contrary to the stated aims. To this effect, many South Sudanese are now saying “I told you so” after this shocking discovery of sophisticated weapons in forms of anti-aircrafts, antitank, rocket propel grenades landmines and other assortments of modern day weaponry.
    Madam Hilde Johnson, the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) and Head of UNMISS wrote on the Citizen Newspaper a piece with the title; “The UN in South Sudan: Impartial, Unwavering and Committed.” This wonderful piece was designed to draw attention away from the impending evil weapons consignment underway to Western Upper Nile State. Check this article out on The Citizen Newspaper Thursday March 6 2014.
    I have no intention to repeat what was narrated in the said article but I will only discuss the direction the Government should take to tame the benevolent UNMISS under the Special Representative.
    There are people out there who may think that Ms. Johnson is unfairly targeted by South sudan citizens and their Government. Here is here charge sheet for the benefits of such people;
    1. Open support to David Yau Yau and now Riek Machar
    2. The shooting down of UN helicopter under unclear circumstances in 2012
    3. Involving in South Sudanese politics and abandoning UN mandate
    4. Failure to protect civilians during conflict
    5. Involvement in arms smuggling which the latest saga
    6. Failure to maintain working trust with government of South Sudan
    Sudan, the former arch enemy country we seceded from most of the times makes wise decisions in her interests. This prudent decision making approach is utterly lacking in the new country named South Sudan. The Sudan did away with UNMIS or United Nations Mission in Sudan, the predecessor to the present day UNMISS.
    The possible negative reasons for Sudan not to sign up with UN this or that are in play in South Sudan today. It is now up to the SPLM led Government to blame itself for allowing individuals like Dr. Johnson to stay long in the country. Eight years is a long period of time in this dynamic world of politics and change.
    The attempted coup of December 15 to UN and other powers was nonexistent. The heavy weaponry was also for exclusive UNMISS use despite misgivings surrounding them. For sure, UNMISS personnel does not need all this sorts of weapons in such large quantities. The eleven mega containers would make the unsuspecting suspicious.
    It is variously claimed that this country is at the mercy of God. The existence of stomata at borders confirms this school of thinking. Every foreigner contemplates entry to South Sudan to experiment nefarious and prohibited activity in their mother countries.
    This foreign onslaught has overshadowed the work of the Government where every workshop, meeting, rally, and demonstration involves foreigners. The white people in particular are everywhere in Juba and other cities of this country. Some reasons for this onslaught; ceaseless capacity building, humanitarian assistance, foreign investment and tourism.
    Xenophobia is a fear of people from foreign nations. This is what the dirty actions the UN and other foreigners who overstay their welcome instil in the usually hospitable South Sudanese people.
    The South Sudanese Government has signed a Status of Forces agreement (SOFA) with UNMISS since 2011. This agreement called for a parallel army with a mandate to carry weapons meant for protection of civilians. Secondly, the UNMISS vehicles, planes, and premises cannot be searched by any Government department. This is a smart agreement on the side of UN. The question is did anybody contemplate what the so-called UNMISS would do under the cover of darkness? The UN is there to exploit this rare opportunity to engage in smuggling in and out things that cause harm to this nation forever. The UN with all the sophisticated equipment can exploit rare gems and take them out for the benefits of the Americans and Europeans. It can fuel conflict for continuation of its work.
    The nature of UN is that of the one that thrives in the existence of conflict. If there is no conflict there is no work for the UN in all its forms after all, the UN was majorly founded because of devastating past conflicts such as world wars I and II.
    Dr. Johnson has completely lost her credibility in the country. UNMISS was accused of supporting Yau Yau rebellion. Now she proved beyond doubt after the macabre discovery of sophisticated weapons that the UN in South Sudan is far from being impartial, unwavering and committed. I am at a lost whether Madam Johnson could be called a liar or not. What is undoubtedly evident is that South Sudanese have made a verdict in that demonstration on the December 22 2013 that Johnson, Toby Lanzer and number third person in charge of UN in South must go.
    Ms. Hilde F. Johnson together with Susan D. page, it is about time for South Sudan to reject a perpetual petticoat government.


  23. Malith Alier says:

    Three possible Exit Prompts for the Embattled UN Chief from South Sudan
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    It is abundantly clear now that the UN chief, Dr. Hilde Johnson evaluates her continued stay in South Sudan in the light of weapons debacle barely in the wake of the current conflict.
    In our old traditional settings within communities, individual communities with even simple weapons like spears, sticks and arrows clutched them properly especially if it is known that a mad man is around. This preventive principle is absent from and among UNMISS’s guiding principles. South Sudan is now classified as half sober and half mad which the UNMISS is aware but venture through this madness on roads instead of up high in the air.
    Arianne Quenterre, the UNMISS’s spokesperson has arrogantly defended the mission since the surface unfortunate concealment simply regarded as “regrettable error” in UNMISS circles. The Ghanaian force commander added his voice late to defend the indefensible acts of commission or emission.
    The South Sudan Government has decided to take the usual route of playing blame game without concrete action plan to correct a situation that has the potential to destroy our entire social, political and economic fabric. With the UN now being an untouchable entity as demonstrated by the past events like the barring of the Minister of Information from entering UNMISS Bor compound together with permanent change of mission camps into civilian protection sites, it is imperative now to change tack in dealing with UN head, head on.
    In informed and democratic western societies where Ms. Johnson comes from, nobody wants to be sacked when one no longer worthy of the trust of an organisation and the people they work for. This is the situation she falls in because of her own making. There exist three possible exit initiatives available for the UN head;
    Self initiative
    Resignation is nothing new the world over except South Sudan where it is unheard of. Those hold high positions in the government thinks that they are the only ones who deserve to remind on helm for life as was the case with left out former ministers. This stance has spread to the high office holders like dr. Johnson in the UN.
    Rose Sakala, a conflict resolution expert from Zambia agrees with most south Sudanese who are convinced that the UN head should called it quit as she no longer command trust with the government and people of this country (march 7 2014 Instead of continuing her initial form, she not only now becomes a polarising figure but also a dangerous guise to the national security.
    The former VP, Riek has flair of courting UN and NGOs staff to support his quests for power. He is known to have managed to pull the most powerful woman in the country to his side and this is something South Sudan is dealing with. Rebecca Garang followed him last December and now is the turn of Hilde Johnson.
    Ban ki Moon initiative
    The UN Secretary General should not believe that everything is alright and act like his representative. I believed that Madam Johnson was chosen based on the close relationship between South Sudan and Norway. No one doubted her knacks as she used to be foreign affairs Minister of her country, Norway. She further was also instrumental in the CPA negotiations in Kenya. Most of the water has gone under the bridge since then. Dr. Johnson has written a book entitled “Waging Peace in South Sudan” on the 2005 peace process including her role as a minister. However, she intends to wage war this time round. Dr. Johnson insistence to continue in South Sudan is perhaps to write more books on the post war era.
    Many south Sudanese are calling for her to leave on her accord. However, in case this call fails, her boss, Mr. Ban should act now and the sooner the better. Take her away. She did not have to be there for a fixed term like you at the UN in New York. Take her either to New York or elsewhere. The people of South Sudan deserve better.
    Government action
    The Government of South Sudan should stop being coy and play victimhood all the time important decisions are before it. Sovereignty is the ability of a country to make decisions that are in the best interest of its people. The time to make such decision is now. This country in its short lifespan has never taken a major decision that changes the course of political, economic and social direction for the better. The time is now to be a true sovereign nation not under UN colonialism as Wani Igga would want us to believe (Juba Monitor Tuesday 11 2014).
    Let it be known that no one heeds rallies that have no steam. SPLM youth rally, Political parties’ youth rally or women for peace rally remain dead on arrival (DOA). It is time the Government invoke a persona non grata status for UNMISS fugitives.
    Not very long ago there used to be a boy who was courting a girl for a long time year in year out. One day the boy thought that the courtship had matured and it was time to test the love or the lack of it thereof. They boy decided to do a lot of talking in the hope that the girl accepts and lay on the bed for him to move over. However, the girl was upright and dead silent. Sensing that the boy does not intend to act, she implored him to push her down for his wishes. This is what South Sudan should do to anyone who comes in contact with it.


  24. Malith Alier says:

    The Jonglei State Two acting Governors
    Jonglei is the largest state in South Sudan measuring about 200,000 square kilometres. It borders Upper Nile, Lakes, Central Equatoria and Eastern Equatoria States. It is an easterly State bordering Ethiopia and Kenya. Like her sisterly states in former Upper Nile Province, Jonglei has vast oil reserves lying unexploited underground. These reserves were discovered in late seventies and early eighties by American Exxon Mobile and French company, Total. However, despite natural resource blessing, Jonglei state is only known for endemic conflict spanning decades on end.
    Administratively, Jonglei State is divided in to eleven Counties namely; Duk, Uror, Nyirol, Akobo, Pibor, Bor, Twic East, Pochala, Fangak, Pigi and Ayod. The lower administrative divisions are Payams, Bomas and lastly villages.
    The demographics of Jonglei is Nuer, Dinka, Anyuak, Murle, Kachip or Suri and lastly Jie. These grouping have fought themselves over cattle for centuries to satisfy their traditional needs like marriage and sustenance. The re-emergence of new conflict tends to further this age old enmity which is passed down to young generations.
    The current rebellion has extended the suffering of the people of Jonglei in particular and greater Upper Nile in general. There was a glimpse of hope that the year 2014 was going to be different from other years since interim period. Nobody was aware that Riek Machar will be on the spotlight once again in spearheading internecine conflict over power. Bor, the capital of Jonglei since last December changed hand four times between the SPLA and rebels. The population of Bor is scattered to lakes, Central Equatoria and Eastern Equatoria besides neighbouring countries in this region. The Government of South Sudan is doing what it can but there is a funny twist in this endeavour. The acting Governor of the Jonglei State is stuck in Juba for reasons known to him.
    The president of the Republic, Salva Mayardit issued an order for Governors of the three most affected States to return to their respective States to reactivate their duties in order to alleviate the suffering of Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile. One Governor who did heed that called is John Koang Nyuon, the Governor of Jonglei. He is currently in the coordination office in Juba, doing nothing for the welfare of the State. Mr. John Koang was appointed late last year replacing Kuol Manyang as an acting Governor pending election in 60 days according to the country’s constitution. There are other two acting Governors in Lakes and Unity States whose tenures violate the country’s constitution. Two of these governors returned to his state after the presidential order and are now active on the ground in his state.
    The Bor, Twic East and Duk County MPs several times have unsuccessfully requested the acting Governor to return to Bor to encourage the displaced people to return to Jonglei. The MPs are telling the acting Governor the obvious. They are the second voice after the president. His work station is Bor but not Juba! The president, the MPs and the people of Jonglei would like to see the acting Governor return because of the following reasons; his work station is Bor, to combat insecurity, to delivery basic services, to encourage displace people to return and finally to organise the State affairs which are devastated by war.
    Mr. John Koang should know that he is illegally occupying the seat of Jonglei State Governor. He further, violates the South Sudan and Jonglei State constitutions by allowing another acting Governor in Bor while he stays in Juba. There are clauses in both constitutions which allow two governors at one time. In case he is not confidence in the state, he should resign with immediate effect to allow the President to appoint another acting Governor because that is what the war imposes on the three States of former Upper Nile.
    John Koang is the current president appointed acting Governor for Jonglei. He is currently in exile in Juba while a Minister of Finance, Aquila Mam is the one on the ground in Bor carrying out duties on behalf of Nyuon. This is a constitutional crisis added to the current crisis prevalent in the nation.
    The president of the country should urgently intervene to correct this anomaly in the State of Jonglei. If John Koang fears for anything in Bor he should make it clear to the people of Jonglei and the President of the Republic. The acting Governor should know that being a Governor comes with obligations and privileges. He is now enjoying privileges while churning obligations.
    The five or six peaceful Counties in the State demand a committed Governor on the ground but not the one who cowardly procrastinate in Juba which is for Central Equatoria State and Central Government.
    State Coordination offices are headed by State Coordinators but not Governors like Nyuon. Every citizen of Jonglei should think of this issue seriously.
    Displaced people of Jonglei are languishing in Mingkaman, Guolyar because no one encourages them to return to Bor. The State Relief and Rehabilitation Commission try to persuade them but to no avail. If the top man, the Governor has no confidence in security of the State then who should spearhead the return to the State?
    The Bor County Commissioner is the real man of the people. He stayed put with his people in Guolyar and was the first man to go to Bor when it was recaptured by SPLA forces on 18 January 2014. The few people who returned to Bor were encouraged by his presence there. The acting Governor should take hint from this man who has the interest of his people at heart.
    I urge the people of Jonglei to call for relieve of John Koang for refusing to heed calls to return to Bor. The MPs should change their views and join the rest of us to call for his replacement with immediately. He should be replaced by somebody from the peaceful Counties in the State. The two acting Governors will cause more confusion than solving problems of the State.
    David Yau Yau is fighting for division of Jonglei State since 2010. Since Jonglei is the largest State South Sudan, the rest of other Counties should join him for division of Jonglei to three States that will be peaceful with themselves. It should run like this; Bor, Twic East, Duk and Pigi should form one state. The Nuer Counties form the other and the last one Pibor and Pochalla. This way, the problems of Jonglei would be over. Cattle rustling, child abduction, war, destruction and pillage will things of the past.
    In conclusion, the acting Governor should either go to his work station in Bor or step aside to allow the President to appoint a new acting Governor. The displaced people should be encouraged to return to Jonglei to join in food production because the rains are at hand. Jonglei State should be given a lease of new life with a committed Governor who attends to important issues on the ground.


  25. Malith Alier says:

    Western diplomats condemn South Sudan’s attack against UN mission: A right of reply
    By Malith Alier, RSS
    The report of 29.03.14 that the western diplomats in the name of USA, UK, Norway, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Canada missions gathered to condemn the Government and Opposition forces on alleged attacks against UNMISS is not something new.
    However, why the US and European nations diplomats? Are they the police of the world or do they speak for the UN? The US and those other nations are not the only UN member states in South sudan who should constantly bother us with UN defence each time there is a crisis involving the UNMISS and South sudan. Last year they carried out the same condemnation against the country and its people.
    The 29 March 2014 news conference can only be compared to the December 6 news conference master minded by Riek Machar and his supporters to condemn and give ultimatum to the same government the diplomats are now after.
    I do not want to speak for the government but I would like to reply as an ordinary citizen who do not admire the UNMISS and its backers. This is because the UN and its backers always want to push victims to weaker positions each time they faced with stark realities as is now the case in South Sudan.
    The people of South Sudan are almost always willing victims of circumstances imposed up on them starting from the conspiracy of the 1947 conference in Juba. Not only that there was a slave trade conspiracy that depleted the whole of Africa of human beings, particularly in the front states to the Arab world like South.
    The other conspiracy was the longest civil conflict starting from 1983 and ending in 2005. This long war cost the country human life, development and created an induced dependency on aid like what the UN is here for. This war would have been stopped within a few years had it been happening in one of the developed nations say in Europe. They UK and other European nations knew full well that it was the UK that conspired to hand over the Southern part of the country to new coloniser, the Arab north. This is what explains their silence over the 22 year war and lately over the 1956 borderline between the current two countries.
    The present conspiracy is instigated by Hilde Johnson, Riek Machar and Nyandeng de Chol. UNMISS is here under UN Chapter VII but has done so little to the country over the past 9 years. UNMIS or UNMISS, they are the different faces of one coin. The UNMISS seems to take advantage of the situation where the government wants to stick to unproductive UNMISS because its white helicopters fly a few army officers from one town to another. That is the far the UNMISS goes in terms of responsibilities assigned to it by the UN Security Council (UNSC)
    The outspoken western diplomats have perhaps read the sentiments of the South Sudanese through several demonstrations and hence are acting in defiance of those sentiments. They think that South Sudanese can be taken for granted. That is to say that any message that comes from South Sudanese themselves is less than what comes from Washington, New York, London, Madrid, and or Berlin. You can see they are big powers who have the audacity to police the world and calm down “unfounded fears” as the ones caused by the discovery of the weapons of mass destruction on the UNMISS trucks in Rumbek, Lakes State.
    The presence of undisclosed landmines, RPGs, antitank, antiaircraft and other weapons capable of hurting masses tells us that there is something more sinister with the UNMISS disguised under Chapter 7 in the burgeoning Republic. This is where our problem with UNMISS and now the western diplomats start. We say they are guns but according to them they are “crowd control equipment” or “arms for the Ghanaian Contingent” or better still “weapons for peaceful service.” So there is a misunderstanding or lack communication between the South Sudanese Government and the UNMISS. The Norwegian foreign affair Minister one Mr. Brende was the first to weigh in and defend her country women, Ms. Johnson during the first days of weapons’ discovery. Next, the UNMISS force commander, Maj. Gen. Delali Johnson Saki said that the seized weapons were for “peaceful service” the Citizen Newspaper March 13 2014. What a coincidence, Hilde Johnson and Delali Johnson. Are they a brother and sister in arms?
    The UN and the western diplomats continue to preach democracy but ignore on the other hand democratic expressions such as the demonstrations held in Juba, Rumbek, Wau and Aweil by South Sudanese demanding that Hilde Johnson leave the country. Sadly, they will not be there when aggrieved citizens react and get rid of someone who is imposed on them. What did the UN and western nations do when the SRSG to Iraq was killed in a bomb? The UN and western nations think that south Sudanese take their rights lightly. They are dead wrong. They should have heeded some valuable lessons in Iraq and stop imposing individuals in the world body on other nations who expressly say no to such characters.
    The UNMISS chief has allowed the talking be done by others including the force commander in the hope that she will emerge stronger after the defeat of South Sudanese sentiments by those who talk on her behalf. They in this case portraying south Sudanese and their Government as wrong and the head of UNMISS as right. Having realised that UNMISS is constantly attack by the government and Opposition forces, should call for withdrawal of UNMISS in order to give a chance to other UN agencies who are trusted than UNMISS.
    South Sudan is now alienated by the UN and its western backers as always being on the wrong due to trauma. Even the South Sudanese ambassador to the UN, Dr. Francis Deng blames “trauma” on South Sudanese action against UNMISS on the Citizen Newspaper of March 20 2014.
    The south Sudanese ambassadors in Brussels, Washington, Addis Ababa and Moscow were recalled for reasons the Government knew better. Many of us would like Dr. Deng to be recalled. He is no longer our permanent representative because he has joined those who blame us. He does not seem to understand us and the situation we are in. Ambassador Deng was rejected by many South Sudanese during his appointment to the UN by the president. Among reasons for his rejection is the fact that he is out of touch with South Sudan realities. He was nowhere during the liberation war and is above all not helpful to the Abyei issue. Abyei is his very own motherland placed right there in jaws of Sudan and South Sudan.
    Therefore, appointing Dr. Deng to represent South Sudan in the UN is like appointing a white man who has some knowledge about the country to represent South Sudan in the UN.
    To confirm our earlier fears immediately after his appointment, Dr. Deng made a terrible mistake by voting for a Palestinian representation on the very UN and got away with it. Someone else got the blame despite the fact that he was the boss who oversees the direction South Sudan should take over world matters.
    Inclusion, south Sudan is now more confused on the UN fundamental ideals of human rights. Clearly, the bringing in of concealed weapons is a human rights abuse that requires Hilde Johnson to leave the Country. There was no need for western diplomats to gang up in support of a mission that has lost credibility not only to the government but also as expressed by ordinary citizens in several states in the nation. It may not be Hilde Johnson alone who deserves to leave the country. Our discredited overseas representative should follow suit if South Sudanese managed to rid the country of bad people in the UN Mission.


  26. Malith Alier says:

    How will the President Sell Division of Jonglei agreement (DoJ) with SSDA – Cobra Faction to the people of the three Counties of Bor, Twic East and Duk
    Jonglei State is the sick man of the Republic of South sudan like the 19th century Turkey used to be in Europe. The damp squib status is directly attributable to the sons and daughters of that State. The Endemic conflict characterised by cattle raids, child abduction and the present wider conflict that has cracked cleavages for disintegration is too late to halt. The long awaited match towards emancipation has indeed begun in Pibor County, the home County of a two times rebel leader, David Yau Yau. The rest of the restive Counties of Akobo, Ayod, Nyirol and Uror can’t be part of problem/solution because they are involved in a different quest altogether. The ball is now in the court of the staunch supporters of the government in the three Counties of Bor, Twic East and Duk.
    There are uncountable instances of the prodigal son in South Sudan since signing of CPA. The rebellions for good and those for no good reasons were staged but all of them ended up in re-integration. Rewards for high rank and cosy V8s. And a chance of a lifetime to be part of those who enjoy protocols in ministry of Finance and the Central Bank of South Sudan (BSS).
    This was no longer the path for the second generation of rebels like David. He had to fight for a State for his people and the vulnerable neighbours.
    The Division of Jonglei Agreement (DoJ) was inked in Addis Ababa on the last days of March 2014 and it is the time now to sell it to the people of Bor, Twic East and Duk Counties who have never asked for anything at gun point yesterday or tomorrow. Last Saturday, the people of the three Counties rushed to Nyakuron Cultural Centre in Juba to hear the good news of DoJ from the President himself. However, the President was not well prepared to deliver the news of the coming back of one of the prodigal sons in the country. Here is what the President will tell the people of the three Counties. The gathering will also be attended by people from other States, diplomatic mission ambassadors, MPs from the concerned Counties and their well wishers. Here we go.
    Honourable MPs,
    Ministers from State and national governments,
    Ladies and gentlemen,
    Good afternoon
    Your President has received on the 31st of March a copy of a preliminary peace agreement with rebels lead by one General called David Yau Yau. The agreement reached between government delegations led by the Church leaders is called Division of Jonglei peace agreement (DoJ).
    You know in 2010 just one year before the vote for secession, an election was held in April of that year. Many people expressed disappointment claiming that the SPLM rigged it. David Yau was one of those kinds of people. From theology to elections and to armed rebellion he is a tough man indeed. He was made a “General” in the SPLA when he returned shortly after first rebellion but this was not enough for him. Some people incited him to leave for Nairobi and in to the bush to demand a whole State from the largest State in South Sudan.
    Ladies and gentlemen,
    The above is the background of David’s rebellion and first steps your government took to make peace with your brothers who disagree with you and me on minor things. George Athor was also in the bush for the same reason as David. They joined forces and the late Athor gave a Faction let by David a name cobra – Faction. That was how he got the name. They were all under SSDA/M or South Sudan Democratic Army/Movement.
    As you gather today particularly you the people of three Counties of greater Bor, I have for you and Yau a peace agreement on a silver plate. This peace agreement is for you. It’s for your welfare. You have been devastated in the past years since commencement of the rebellion. The abduction of your children by the people of David, the cattle raids and the senseless death in the process of those raids will be a thing of the past.
    People of the three Counties,
    My Government in the past resisted formation of new states and counties on the ground that they will require new line of budget, borrowing from World Bank and IMF included. Had it not been because of the current Riek Machar’s rebellion, the government would have fully lifted the regime of austerity imposed on the country in 2012. Lucky enough our oil still flows to the world market but not a 100% like before.
    You are the first people in the whole of the country to accept this agreement. I sell it to you before the whole country. Now the new political dispensation gives you more opportunities and freedom you have your own state as well. This means that Jonglei will be divided in to three states like this. Number one Pibor County makes a State of its own. Two, your three Counties form another State and lastly the greater Akobo which is now occupied illegally is another State. All of this is designed to bring peace to Jonglei and the whole nation.
    In specifics, Pibor will have six Counties headed by Commissioners. The six Counties will be headed by someone appointed by the President and is only answerable to the appointing authority i.e. the President of the Republic. You can see now how my powers expand. What is more important for Pibor is a creation of a special fund to develop the Eastern State. You all know that there is syphilis there which is a major cause of childlessness. Did you know that child abduction and trade thrive because of this?
    Pibor County has suffered for centuries and it is now time to rectify that. Your prosperity and justice starts in Pibor.
    Great people of the three Counties,
    I personally acknowledged that you are the only ones in this State who staunchly support the SPLM Party and government whole heartedly. This position you have taken has its drawbacks because you will always be the one who welcome home the prodigal son as in the old Bible. Things like promotion in rank and elevation to Statehood will come last to you. This is the sad fact.
    You see the power centre is shifting away from you lately. From the beginning the first two State Governors came from you. This has changed in the face of this rebellion. The Governor comes from one of the Counties which are not under the government. I thought he was going to appoint someone from your sons and daughters but I was wrong. He has appointed Medan from the newest State. Yours now is the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning.
    There are some people who say that my government employs a policy of appeasement. This is not true. It is the poverty in the country that has caused some of these rebellions and chaos. So what my government does is to give the disgruntle ones livelihoods and comfort full stop. This is the most effective tool since 2005. The foreign countries approve of it. This is what keeps the country united except this new scenario of David Yau Yau. This is no appeasement.
    Ladies and gentlemen,
    I am about to conclude this speech with the following;
    1. Receive the prodigal sons with level headedness
    2. Open up more space for future prodigals
    3. Accept the movement of the centre of power away from you
    4. Your State will follow the Pibor lead
    5. What you see is one way of more decentralisation and eventual federation in the country
    6. Continue your support to the government of the day
    7. General elections are coming up in 2015 each of you South Sudanese like I who aspires to become president should get prepared for them.
    Thank you all for coming here and God bless you,
    President of RSS


  27. Malith Alier says:

    The US sanctions on super rich South Sudanese Government Officials is a welcome Reprieve
    It is no secret any more. It is officially endorsed by the President and only awaits implementation by the Secretary of Treasury in consultation with the secretary of State.
    The move by the Obama Administration to impose targeted sanctions on those officials on both sides of the conflict generates mixed reactions in the country. Like any other political issue, there are those who are for and against the sanctions. Those who are against the sanctions would like the downtrodden to continue to suffer and those who have access to resources to continue to enrich themselves unfairly.
    The country’s oil has been flowing to the world markets since inking of CPA in 2005. The CPA wealth sharing clause agreed a fifty per cent to the South and fifty per cent to the central government in Khartoum. However, the government in Juba was recalcitrant with the large amounts of petrodollars allocated to it. First was the denial of non receipt of the agreed amount. The government maintained that it received less than fifty per cent because the central government deployed less transparency over oil. The SPLM government in the South was totally ignorant of the barrels produced in a daily monthly or yearly basis.
    The same lack of transparency was the norm in the Southern government. The ordinary south Sudanese eyes were fixed on referendum and for that reason not bother to know about oil and other issues considered less important at the time. Second, the war impoverished government officials took advantage of the state of South Sudanese who emerged from devastating conflict and were desperate to rebuild their lives before the D-day. The petrodollars allocated to the government disappeared before reaching Southern Sudan. Each one of us knows the case between the first Minister of Finance and the SPLM secretary General about the disappearance of US Dollars 30m in the 2005/2006 financial year. That was the first crack in the financial mismanagement by government officials.
    The President declared war on corruption and to that effect established anticorruption body to fight it. Assets were declared but so far the people of South Sudan did not know whether the huge cash stashed away in US and Europe was disclosed. The list of suspected 75 super rich was published but that did not end corruption. It was too little too late.
    The six failures of the government were highlighted but no reforms were introduced. SPLM vision and mission is collapsed, foreign policy has failed, corruption was thriving, tribalism paralysed the system and violations of the constitution were points noted by the very SPLM members. However, it was business as usual. Then is the war pitting SPLM against SPLM and SPLA against SPLA.
    Enough is enough enters President Obama of the USA. “And here I declare a national emergency to deal with that threat” the Citizen Newspaper April 5 2014.
    I order the Secretary of Treasury to freeze your money, homes, cars, boats or private jets on the US soil. This is not only that, it also extends to those in possessions of US companies abroad. Your assets may not be transferred, paid, exported, withdrawn or otherwise dealt in at your wish. I have taken this position because your crimes are as red as crimson. The cries of the people of South Sudan have reached me in the white House and I have to act in their interest.
    Thank you Obama, the money was forever stolen from us. It was never to return. The country leaders were soliciting direct foreign investment but ironically siphoned away huge sums to be stashed in developed countries that do not need it. You have acted wisely by not sanctioning the country as a whole. The ordinary citizens will not feel pinch of the super rich sanctions. The SPLM led government employed too much talk but too little action for public good.


  28. Malith Alier says:

    UNAMID Whistle Blower: UNAMID work in Darfur is a Cynical Farce
    What about UNMISS in South Sudan?
    UNAMID stands for United Nations Assistant Mission in Darfur. This UN mission in Darfur came about as a result of the 2003 conflict by the sons of Darfur with government of Sudan. The conflict killed and displaced several tens of thousands of people in the Western region of the Sudan. This was at the time the then Southern Sudan was about to ink a Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The negotiations were on progress toward that goal. However, today, the 9 of April 2014, the former Spokesperson of UNAMID drops a bomb shell about the work of the UN mission in Sudan. Aicha el Basri calls the work of that UN force a “cynical farce” according to the BBC focus on Africa.
    What is then a cynical farce?
    A cynical farce is a travesty or circus carried out by a pessimistic person or organisation like UNAMID. These were the words of a former UNAMID’s spokesperson turned whistle blower. A whistle blower is someone who discloses secret information about an organisation he/she worked former. The most recent whistle blower is Edward Snowden, a former CIA worker who is now taken asylum in Russia.
    It is always said that any actions done in secret will one day be broadcast on the rooftops. This is what happened to UNAMID under the former head, Ibrahim Gambari. It may also still the case today.
    It is good that this information has come in the backdrop of several strikes against UNMISS in South Sudan and the apology by Ban Ki Moon on the twentieth commemoration of the Rwandan genocide in Kigali under the watch of UNAMIR. The UN Secretary General accepted that the UN mission in Rwanda did not do more to save genocide victims during the onslaught in 1994. This is an unfortunate apology because the same genocide is occurring in Darfur under the watch of the same world body but no one dares to acknowledge so. UNAMIR, UNAMID or UNMISS they all are UN missions of failure.
    The United Nations Mission in South Sudan under Hilde Johnson is also a cynical farce. This is what Arianne Quentere, the Mission’s spokesperson like Asha will tell the world later when it’s all over. These people just want to protect their livelihoods in the UN by not tell the truth that the Mission is failing in its duties to protect civilians in worst affect areas. Those who died in Akobo, Bor, Malakal and Bentiu should have not died if UNMISS was having steel teeth. We all knew the circumstances under which they died.
    What was the response of Harve Ladsous, the head of UN Peace Keeping Operations to the damning disclosure?
    It ran something like this; that the UNAMID in Darfur have been working under difficult conditions. That the government of Sudan has not been supportive enough of the UNAMID and that the Security Council did not act or respond in good time to correct the situation. This was after an insight truth telling that Ladsous accepts the failures of UNAMID after denials of that observation in the past.
    This was in contrast to the same Ladsous who harshly criticised the government and the people of South Sudan when they expressed the same grievances as those expressed by Asha.
    The conscience of those who went on strike against Hilde Johnson is clear. Though most if not all did not go through the Status of Forces Agreement, they knew that something was seriously amiss. Failure to protect civilians and involvement in the conflict itself are just too clear to anybody in the country. Keeping silent on certain events that affect the country like the December 2013 coup adds to the list.
    South Sudanese are not sable rattlers but if push too far, they can act. The information coming to us is that those weapons are already released to the UNMISS. However, the government needs to inform those who went on demonstrations about the findings of the investigation by UN delegation from New York and its own findings. The UN is always talking about transparency and accountability. This is the time for both as a matter of demonstration to the people of this country. The government has not been transparent and accountable to the people of this country on many occasions. I am not talking about the issues of corruption here but I am talking about issues of life and death. The Athor’s white helicopter was widely publicised during its capture. Months later it disappeared into thin air like the UN weapons including landmines that were released without a fluff up. The same applies to various criminals who are displayed on television on their arrest but disappear later under different circumstances.
    Some of us South Sudanese are convinced that Hilde Johnson has lost the little credibility left after the events that happened in the country since independence. She, like Ibrahim Gambari has to move on for the UNMISS to rebuilt trust with South Sudanese under new management.


  29. Malith Alier says:

    The Mystique Nile River (part I)
    Stand on the banks of the River one lovely evening like this and watch the River flow north in one style, progressively determined for its destination. The cadet blue water takes after the River valley silts. The River banks are lush with evergreen grasses that drink from the River day and night at no cost. Huge green trees parade calmly morning and evening along the course of the River. They play with the mighty wind during the day in contrast to the morning and evening posture.
    Stand on the banks and watch the shadow of the trees cross to the other side of the River during sunrise and sunset. The sun mysteriously throws plant shadows across to commune with one another on the divide in a spiritual union.
    The River attracts every creature, insects, birds, reptiles, amphibians and above all people who develop inseparable association for millions of years with the River. The River is their life and their life is the River.
    Crocodiles, hippos, fish and insects dominate the second longest River in the world. The crocodiles are the strongest of the reptiles. They police the Nile down to the bottom. They are master swimmers and live longer than any other creatures in the Nile. Their teeth grow continuously. The new ones push the old ones out in gradual replacement. They must have the strongest jaws in the world to support the long teeth that are in perpetual growth.
    Walk on the Nile one evening and notice amazing scenery, the nature’s gift of water that nourishes flora and fauna. The water swirls on the deepest spot as it moves with speed like a dancing crane. This is one of the latent powers that enable the water to redefine the River course. The water has the power to carry away soil and vegetations in its passage. It soaks hard ground and dissolves it despite resistance. The rocks underneath are laid bare by the same power that dissolves and erodes the less compacted soils.
    The Nile feeds and keeps alive the Mediterranean Sea in Arabian Egypt. The people of Egypt who demand exclusive use of water also regard it as a give from the almighty. This false entitlement perception is a result of the Anglo Egyptian treaties of 1929 and 1959. These not only deprived the upstream peoples of their natural accession but also set a dangerous course for the future generations to contend with.
    River Nile is like a great serpent moving from highlands to lowlands. It dug a trench million years ago where water collects from the mountains through the valleys and eventually to the sea. It waters the fields that feed mankind.
    Lake Victoria joins the countries of East Africa of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. This is thought to be the important source of the Nile. The city of Jinja is the first exit point of the River. The River meanders through Uganda, DRC, South Sudan, Sudan and finally Egypt. Egypt is the self appointed mother or father of the Nile River who has never been.
    The total length the River is approximately 3,700km or 2,300 miles from the city of Jinja to the delta.
    The Nile is given names in sections from the Lake to the sea. From Lake Victoria to Lake Albert is Victoria Nile. Albert Nile is after Lake Albert in Uganda. Bahr El Jabal is from Nimule to where it is joined by Bahr el Gazhal River and that section becomes White Nile. It eventually becomes River Nile from Khartoum where it is joined by Blue Nile which emanates from Ethiopian highlands.
    The Busoga People in Jinja continuously collect water hyacinth ( Eichhonia Crassipes) barred by a dam immediately after the River exit. This is one way of keeping the Lifeline River from pollution this strange weeds whose native abode is South America. A few metres upstream after the bridge are Bujagali Falls. This is where Uganda generates much of its electricity supply. The water holds back, collects and superimposes on the rock forcing its way and creating incredible energy as it falls. Man has realised that this can be harnessed to generate power for lighting and industry usage.
    The other water falls on the way from Uganda to south Sudan are Karuma falls, Murchison falls and the lesser Fulla rapids. Water features like these are not only for power generation but are also tourist attraction. Towns or cities with waterfalls serve as tourist attraction sites. The incredible sights and thrill or sport are difficult to erase in the memory of those who witnessed them forever.
    Listen to water roars as you approach Murchison or Karuma falls. The mountain devils unleash wails for help as water splash mercilessly between the rocks. This is a rite of passage with force even the mountains cannot deny. The Nile creatures dare not to be careless on the falls for their lives may be in danger. The canoe people and the swimmers exercise extra care over the falls. And then there is the Murchison Falls National Park. Uganda is blessed with plenty of animals in the wild. These animals are threatened by urbanisation, pollution and poaching. It has become a habit for all countries to provide protection to these wild creatures in game Reserves and Parks. This is the age of harnessing nature in modernity. Waterfalls are for sports and generation of energy and wild life generates income through tourism. Poaching is the killing of endangered wildlife for meat or parts like tusks for sale. This is illegal in most countries including Uganda.
    The Nile associated vegetations are in form of papyrus, tall bamboo like grasses, reed mace (Typha Latifolia), water lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes) and water hyacinth (Eichhonia Crassipes). Large fruit tree like mangoes are a feature of the River valley.
    River Nile is not the only source for fresh water, fish fruit trees but it also used in other beneficial ways. Watch the people mould bricks on the banks in Juba. Young men build huge hillocks of moulded earth which is burnt to increase strength for construction of shelters. This is an important source of income in Juba in particular. Young people who are unemployed successfully engage in brick moulding which in turn make them useful contributors in the development of their country. Self-employment is the word.
    Stand on the Nile and look at the fishermen traversing the River in canoes morning and evening. These are called “atooc” in Dinka. They have special skills in dealing with the River. They hollowed logs for use as canoes. They are usually seen rowing canoes with small oars or bamboo which is lowered down to push the canoe forward in shallow sections close to the banks. This is also the case in rocky and shallow sections in the middle of the River. The catches include tilapia, Nile perch and other variety.
    In South Sudan, the nomads depend on the River like no one else. Crossing to either side seasonally is like a sport. This usually is motivated by the search of green pasture during dry season. The cattle owners envy the greens on the western side of the River known as “toc” the night before the crossing is a colourful night. Certain rituals are performed like those of the Israelites when they crossed the Red sea. This is usually to avert disasters like the refusal of a herd to successfully cross all in one accord. Someone volunteers to kill a cow. Others perform prayers, usually someone whose ancestors were the ones who led such activity. In this way, crocodiles and other animals that have potential to destroy the epic journey are put to rest that day.


  30. Malith Alier says:

    The IDPS Provocative Acts in UNMISS camp in Bor are in the Centre of all this fracas
    Reports coming from Bor, Jonglei State’s capital that people are being killed by UNMISS “protection force” is the first of its kind. Under whatever circumstances, it should never have happened. The UNMISS which has now taken a partisan stand did not use force in Gumuruk and Akobo when about seven members of its staff were killed by attackers from the Counties of Pibor and Akobo respectively.
    The latest development is a sign that the current conflict has so far acquired a three notch height. It is advisable for UN mission to note that fact. More than five people dead and many more injured by the UNMISS which is suppose to protect civilians is not a simple matter. Let’s recalled that UNMISS was advised to evacuate those they think are in danger to safer places because its compounds were never meant to be for camps of displaced people. From now on nothing will prevent such occurrences from taking place while this conflict persists.
    The people of Bor are not to blame in this situation because of UN and government negligence. This is because there are many unpalatable events that have spelt doom to cooperation among the host community, IDPs and the UNMISS.
    First of these is the weapons saga that surfaced in Rumbek early in the year. This has had irreparable damage to the relationship. The same saga surface once again when a boat carrying fuel was discovered to have a hidden cache of weapons and munitions on board. This caused disagreement between the State Governor on the one hand and security and the residents of Bor on the other. The Governor argued that they should be allowed to proceed to Bentiu which is still experiencing fierce battles and also under threat of rebel control citing their clearance from Juba by Ministry of Interior.
    Secondly, is the imposition of a Governor on the people of Bor and other scores of Counties whose inhabitants have not rebelled. He himself is seen in the lens of rebellion because his County of Fangak is under rebels’ control. This is evident from the fact that he recently appointed new County Commissioners of Fangak, Uror, Nyirol, Ayod and Akobo replacing the ones who joined Riek Machar conspirators. Note further that he had stones thrown at him with his entourage at the same camp when he went to persuade the IDPs to leave the camp and join the rest of civilians. Therefore, he is neither credible nor reliable in the eyes of the rebels and government supporters. The rebels think of him as a sell-out but the government supporters regarded him as sympathetic to rebels. His appointment of Baba Medan whose County was involved in another devastating rebellion is like adding an insult to injury.
    thirdly, those who shelter in the UNMISS camps are rebel core supporters who celebrate every little victory scored by the rebels either on the battle field or in Addis Ababa on political level. The capture of Bentiu was a major victory they celebrated in such away to annoy the residents of Bor City. There is a saying that says do not abuse the crocodile while you have not crossed the river. The rebels should have known that those who dying on the front line have family members in Bor who do not share their happiness brought about by the fall of Bentiu. Had they celebrated quietly in doors, the results should have been different. What they did was an intolerable height of folly.
    Last but not least is the genesis of this entire ongoing and unfortunate hostile environment beginning last December. It has stoked hostilities and drove wedges among communities and between communities and the UN Mission. Riek Machar and President Kiir will have an uphill battle to reunite a country ethnically divided down the middle if either wins the fight for the soul of South Sudan.
    The people of Bor are among the most tolerant people in this country. This tolerance was shown the night before the fall of Bor on 18 December 2013. Two brothers close to Nuer camp popularly known as “ci Nuer ben?” in Dinka were mercilessly slaughtered by the rebels who hid in the camp. There was no retaliation despite Dinka being the majority in the town.
    The events of 1991 seemed to have been tacitly forgiven however, the 2013 and running conflict where the so-called white army ransacked and killed thousands of innocent people for the second time will take years to heal. The living dead still haunt us in whatever we do. Nobody celebrates death except the IDPs in Bor compound under the watch of UNMISS. This celebration is utterly intolerable and deserves what it gets. Just imagine if it were the other way round. Would they accept it, absolutely no?
    The demonstration in Bor is a result of temperature boil over in the heat of towns falling to rebels and the subsequent celebration by the displaced people not knowing that they are in a different territory that is mourning not only the lost of towns but their sons being killed in the battles. People should not offend sensitivities of others particularly in relation to death. It is un African to celebrate death event that of your enemy.


  31. Malith Alier says:

    President Kiir Should Form a War Cabinet without Delay
    It is true that President Kiir reiterated that he would not take the people of South Sudan to war many times since independence. He also promised that the events of 1991 would not be allowed to happen again during the National Liberation Council (NLC) meeting on the 14th December 2013 a day before it all unravelled in to the current distressful conflict. Both, the promises of not taking people of South Sudan to war and the prevention of 1991 have come to negative. What does the President tell the people of South Sudan as the situation untangle further?
    It is four months now since the beginning of the conflict but no solution is insight. Yes there is the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) led peace process in progress in Addis Ababa. However; this may not yield instant fruits. The government negotiators are telling us that IGAD is dragging its feet and so much worse are rebels who are emboldened by easy capture of towns from the government. This precarious scenario prompted the writer of this piece to alert the government in order to devise a new approach to tackle this war.
    This viewed is shared by many concerned citizens within and without the country. I have read two important articles by concerned citizens one from Australia and another from Malaysia. Both articles have one thing in common, alerting the government to change gear on the current conflict. It is now up to the government on the other hand to heed to these calls for its own survival and that of the majority of South Sudanese.
    Now let’s analyse both statements by the President in the lens of management. Consider ideal and practical standards in management circles. The President thought it ideal not to take the country back to war or allow the event of 1991 to happen again. This was his vision for the country that has been in war since creation. He thought that the country could not afford another war because its people are war wary at best and with that in mind he wanted people to rebuild their lives in peace at least during his presidency. This proposition did not materialise why because he failed to take practical steps to realise that. The proposition that there will be no war is a mere wishful thinking without demonstrated path for peace. This is where something called SWOT analysis comes in. SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. I wonder whether the government advisers committed themselves to this process of identifying Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and possible Threats to a country called Southern Sudan or later South Sudan. One expected that the late Dr. John Garang had this in mind and that was why he fought hard to retain the SPLA as one of the strengths in Southern Sudan. Now let’s list these in turn.
    1. The SPLA
    2. Southern Sudan Interim Constitution
    3. The Troika: USA, UK and Norway
    4. The CPA
    5. UNMIS or United Nations Mission in Sudan
    1. Too many agreements dishonoured
    2. Militias allied to government in Khartoum
    3. Corruption
    4. Tribalism
    1. Oil revenues
    2. The CPA – referendum
    3. Autonomy during interim period
    4. Vast prime agricultural land
    5. MTDF or multi Donor Trust Fund
    6. Goodwill from International Community
    7. JIUs or Joined Integrated Units
    1. SAF or Sudan armed Forces
    2. Border
    3. Tribalism/nepotism
    4. Oil
    5. Abyei
    6. Militias
    Our existential threats as a country have now multiplied as opportunities diminish in the current conflict. There is a gathering cloud over the nation where rebels kill everything that has life, UNMISS is double-face, USA wields sanctions, destruction of oil infrastructure and forced oil shut down, Sudan support of rebels, IGAD dragging feet and the looming famine in about five months as predicted by UN agencies. Can the current government emerge intact under such weighty threats? The guess is yours and mine. Some people may argue that the situation is not yet desperate to require desperate measures. Whatever the case, the time is now. Formation of a war Cabinet is long overdue. The talk about government of national unity, interim government or coalition government is a non-event. War cabinet is the answer.
    The essence of war Cabinet
    President George W. Bush said during Iraq war in 2003 that the war was not going to be a campaign of half measures. True, there is no small war that one should handle by a campaign of half measures not least the current rebellion. South Sudanese know themselves better. They fight to the best of their ability when the fight is among themselves compared to when they fight foreign invaders or Arab colonisers. Big towns like Bor, Malakal and Bentiu have exchanged hands eleven (11) times in four months, something that did not happened in 21 years of the SPLA versus SAF war. Malakal like Juba and Wau was never came nearby by the SPLA rebels leave alone being captured despite efforts by all South Sudanese to liberate Sudan from the Arab minority rule. Only Bor exchanged hands at least three times but not in four months as seen recently. This is a break neck speed!
    The American assistant envoy to Sudan and South Sudan reminded us that it is not business as usual during his meeting in Washington with the Minister in the Office of the President, Mr. Awan Guol Riak. Nobody should remind the President and people of this country about this position. It is self evident. Having more than twenty ministries and subject to expansion not only flies in the face of the lean government proposal but also a hindrance to successful conduct of the war. The war Cabinet (Ministries) should comprise of no more than fifteen ministries as follows;
    1. Ministry of Defence
    2. Ministry of Interior
    3. Ministry of National Security
    4. Ministry of Health
    5. Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Preparedness
    6. Ministry of Cabinet and Parliamentary Affairs
    7. Ministry of Dams and Water Resources
    8. Ministry of Transport Roads and Bridges
    9. Ministry of Communication, Broadcasting and Telecommunication
    10. Ministry of Finance and Commerce
    11. Ministry of Energy and Mining
    12. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    13. Ministry of Education
    The main aim is bringing the war to an end perhaps a bench mark of six months is in order. To do this, there are two main frons i.e. the domestic and international fronts. The domestic face of South Sudan needs to change to reflect the new realities of the war. Fuel and food rationing should apply, travel restrictions particularly that of foreigners should be imposed, recruitment which is in progress should continue, emergency laws which are ill defined in greater Upper Nile should be strengthened, contract with UNMISS should never be renewed and so forth. On the international front, the country should try to identify hostile countries and keep low profile from them, should strengthen cooperation with friendly nations so that more breathing space is created, do away with missions of hostile nations existing in the country and limit travel abroad by ministers and other government officials who waste scarce public resources even if they go outside to talk ill of the country and its leadership and then come back like angels to continue draining the very country they have no love for.
    The former Sudan successfully resisted the massive efforts by the SPLA by metamorphosing regularly as conditions change. Neimeri was deposed by the military and General Sawara Daaf took over after which elections were held. Sadig El Mahdi who won the elections was deposed by General Beshir who is the current President of the Republic of Sudan. When General Beshir came, a lot of changes took place domestically including the ones earlier cited in this article. In order to stay abreast with the Khartoum war tactics, Dr. John who was as shrewd as the Arabs employed creative reasoning premised on the commitment and motivation of the SPLA and the people of South Sudan. A training of no less than six months was accorded to recruits before going to the field. The recruits were divided in to military formations and given interesting names derived from well known fierce African animals like Lion, Cobra and others. Some situational names like “Dhalan” the angry and “Majnun” the mad one were also given. Further, some targeted campaign names were also the norm. Bright Star Campaign or BSC and Operation Jungle Storm or OJS among others were operational names that caught the attention of every SPLA and were like catch phrases.
    Time has come now for the President to try those solutions that work. The government of South Sudan tried reintegration of militias, pardon of military renegade officers who should have instead face the music for various crimes including treason charges went unappreciated.
    The SPLA soldiers fighting the rebels needs regular morale boosting particularly visits by the minister of Defence and the President on other more important occasions like the fall of Bentiu, Malakal or Bor. They also need replenish of military supplies and not forgetting regular salary and perks for their families’ upkeep.
    The Addis Ababa peace is not coming any time soon. This necessitates full commitment to the war by formation of a War Council. This helps solve lots of problems like waste of scarce resources.
    Identification of existential threats is half the solution to the current conflict which is sometimes misunderstood as ethnic conflict between the major tribes in the country. Therefore, the government of the day should identify and effectively utilise available opportunities to achieve maximum advantage over the rebellion.


  32. Malith Alier says:

    Pagan Amuom: Two Times Lucky in the Web of South Sudan Politics
    By Malith Alier, South Sudan
    It is 25 Apr. 14, the day when Pagan Amuom, the former SPLM Secretary General and three other coup suspects are released from detention in Juba. The etiology of their detention is directly traced to last December attempted coup against Salva Kiir led government in Juba in the Republic of South sudan. Though this coup was denied by the world and continued to be denied by the accused, they have gone down in history as those who have been detained and put on trial for a mutual self annihilation stoked by SPLM party members who run the government in a rebel manner.
    With the rebellion suspected ring leaders in the bush and those caught red handed released, the rebellion is now a poison chalice to the people of South Sudan who have perished in great numbers since first days of the contention. The world, who have been advocating for the release of eleven detainees have finally got their wish fulfilled. This may not necessarily be in the interest of the country as many thought. These very people have been recycling in government without apparent interest of the country at heart. Billions of funds disappeared without trace on their watch but chose no action in the interest of the country. The group of 15 super rich which was later expanded to 75 were identified but left scot free.
    Pagan Amuom is a veteran of both Anya nya two and the SPLA. He is one of the Garang Boys as opposed to Salva Kiir Boys of which is Dr. Majak Da’Agot. The two camps of Garang Boys and Kiir Boys do not naturally blend as part of the same SPLA party. This is probably as a result of disagreement between Garang and Kiir in 2005 on how to run the affairs of the SPLM and indeed those of the country. Here, it’s worth mentioning that Dr. Riek Machar has his own boys such as Taban Gai and the rest of those who swung between the government and contumacy (rebellion).
    Pagan is a seasoned politician full of oratory skills unlike his peers in the SPLM party. He fluently speaks English and Arabic during political rallies in Juba and other cities. He modelled himself on the late Dr. Garang who was able to make up persuasive ancient stories some of which are extracted from the Old Testament and linked them to the current situation in the Sudan. On one occasion he audaciously stated that Rumbek was the Garden of Eden and human kind originated in South Sudan.
    As veteran of Anya nya Two and the SPLA, Pagan is not new to controversy in former Sudan and now South Sudan. He was among the unfettered critics of the Bashir and his regime. On one occasion while he was a minister in the Office of the President in Khartoum he called the government of which he was a minister a criminal regime which has lost direction. He was known to be a basher of GoNu or Government of National Unity while Sudan was still united.
    Pagan Amuom was elected SPLM Secretary General in 2008 convention in Juba. The term of office of the SG and his team is eight years after which another election may be arranged through a national convention. However, the SPLM defaulted to hold its national convention in 2012 because of loggerheads among its organs like Political Bureau and National Liberation Council. This is one of the geneses of the current crises that have spilt over in to bloodshed. As the top party Boss, Pagan Amuom got involved in corruption allegations related to US Dollar 60m released to the SPLM by Sudan Government for initial establishment of the government of Southern Sudan. The former Minister of Finance Akuin Chol went to court to sue Pagan for defamation disappearance of US Dollar 30m. These court proceedings put a spot on the role played by the government and the Chief Justice who walked on the court while the case was being heard. There was a public outcry for the quick acquittal of pagan of all the charges related to financial scandal.
    That government protectionism of the powerful SPLM SG fast disappeared when he decided to challenge the SPLM chairman, Comrade Kiir in leadership contest along with Riek Machar and Nyandeng Atem. He took campaigning to the media and social gatherings to the annoyance of the chairman and supporters. He was therefore, put on a high level investigation by a committee headed by SPLM deputy Chairman, Wani Igga. He was also gagged and put under travel ban pending investigations.
    Pagan Amuom defied the Chairman by refusing to appear before the committee. The only thing he did not attempt to do prior to December 6 news conference by the group of disgruntle former top government officials was to talk to the media and travel outside Juba. He sensed that the security might arrest him. During the NLC meeting on 14th and 15th of December pagan did not attend but his dismissal from his post was tabled as recommended by the investigation committee. No sooner has the two day conference ended than the conflict eruption engulfed Juba and spread far and wide.
    Pagan Amuom is finally out now but the decision is his whether to join Riek Machar or to be part of G7 or form a forth group of G4 if they strike an agreement among themselves.
    The international and national campaign to free Pagan and the group has borne fruit and he is indeed a two times lucky in South Sudan contemporary politics. Out of corruption charges and attempted coup, his fate will now depend on further actions he may choose.


  33. Malith Alier says:

    Riek Machar and Nassir Unfinished Business
    The Riek Machar rebel movement organised a four-day conference in Nassir from 15th to 18th April 2014 to decide leadership and direction of the movement that started on December 15 2013 in Juba. The following is the address by Riek, the Movement’s Chairman.
    I warmly welcome all of you to Nassir 2014 Ladies and Gentlemen,
    The year 2013 has ushered in a new revolution led by the true sons of the land in the person of the sons of Upper Nile region. Among these sons of Upper Nile is Dr. Riek Machar myself, the leader of the revolution. Others are Taban Gai, Peter Yak, James Chuol or CDR, Gatwich Dual, Gabriel Tanginye and many other great men of this region among you here. The 15th December 2013 is a great day when we nearly exterminated the enemy in Juba to free our people from the bondage of servitude.
    Ladies and Gentlemen,
    The great Naath nation has missed the first opportunity in 1991 in the very Nassir you’re assembled in. This was Nassir one like Anya nya one. The Nassir two of 2014 is like Anya two which is the SPLA. Therefore, our Movement is named SPLA/M in Opposition to signal the impending victory that awaits us in a few months from now. The great prophet Ngundeng foresaw this during the Anglo-Egyptian condominium rule in the 19th Century. Gua? Gua long However, we have also considered other names like SSRA/M but this may go down in to history dustbin like SSIM/A. so it was scrapped.
    Great people of Upper Nile,
    You have seen with us here many experienced military Generals as mentioned early. They are men of action as seen immediately after December 15 2013. Peter Yak overran Bor, James Chuol took Bentiu and became Governor there and Malakal exchanged hands 4 times in 4 months. The liberation speed is never seen before anywhere in the ancient world as well as now. You bear witness that the Naath nation fought the British successfully in the 19th Century under the leadership of Prophet Ngundeng Bong and did the same years later under Guek Ngundeng, the prophet’s son.
    Dear Naath nation,
    Though prophet Ngundeng is not now with us, we have other prophets who are equally determinative. Dak Kueth is on top of the list. He has been decisive in several battles against the SPLA and Murle. What more do you from any prophet?
    That is the short history about our Movement, the SPLA/M in Opposition. We tentatively chose this name because we tried other names in the past but did not succeed. SPLA Nassir Faction, SSIM, Riek Machar Action Movement (RMM) were good names used among others. We even signed Khartoum Peace Agreement (KPA) in 1997, which was later dishonoured. However, it was the precursor of CPA. Therefore, without KPA there would have no CPA. This also shows that I am not short of great ideas that help this country!
    Comrades in arms,
    Let me not bore you with every detail of history; let’s go straight to today’s business, the mission of this gathering. The agenda of this conference is to elect the chairman and commander in chief of the SPLA/M in Opposition and formation of national committees. These organs will help our great movement move forward in this critical phase of liberation. I put myself forward for the seat of the Chairman and Commander in Chief of the army. As you know, I am the most senior with the rank of a General. I have also been Vice President for eight years from 2005 to 2013. There is no one to challenge me in this post. Above all it was predicted by the Prophet and therefore, there is no need for voting, we only proceed to formation of National Committees (NCs). They are as follow;
    1. Justice and human rights committee
    2. Peace and national reconciliation committee
    3. Political mobilization committee
    4. Foreign affairs committee
    5. Finance and resources mobilization committee
    6. Information and public relations committee
    7. Humanitarian and social services committee
    8. Women and youth empowerment committee
    Each committee shall be headed by a chairperson followed by deputy and then secretary. All will be appointed by the Chairman, Dr. Riek Machar Teny. Therefore, there is no need for election of committee officials. This is the best democracy. Elect the chairman and the chairman elects the rest.
    Our movement calls for the following;
    Removal of Salva Kiir given his bad deeds and we urge international community to do the same.
    Withdrawal of foreign forces in form of UPDF and others form the country.
    Intensification of the war in to Bhar el Ghazal and Equatoria
    Formation of federal state in the country by restructuring of all sectors
    However, we are committed to peace processes under IGAD in Addis Ababa.
    I thank you all for your sacrifices to liberate South Sudan from Salva Kiir
    Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon
    SPLM SPLA party in Opposition
    Nassir, South Sudan


  34. Malith Alier says:

    Neither the SPLA nor the rebels has the ability to successfully defend towns they control
    Malith Alier
    The past three days constitute a special moment for the SPLA since December 15 twenty thirteen. The consecutive capture of Ulang, Nasir and Bentiu in three days is a jewel in the crown of the new Chief of General Staff (COGS) who was installed hardly a week ago. General Awan now has something to boast about as he embarks on the mission and mandate of securing and protecting dear South Sudan from enemies of peace.
    It is one thing to take up arms and it is a different thing to claim victory with less preparations. The rebels have overrun towns and cities in greater Upper Nile in an impromptu manner; under whatever means they used to capture towns, the whole world has caught a glimpse of the fight against the well prepared soldiers on the government side. The rebels have so far tested sweet revenge they yearned against the government and its supporters. Revenge was one of the unpublished objectives of the rebels as expressed by generals who defected and turned their back on their constitutional obligation enshrined in the country’s constitution.
    The war turned nastier and the horrors of the conflict are now felt by everybody in the country. The loss of life and property, displacement, destitution along with hosts of other elements of desperation will be difficult to erase in many generations’ memory. South Sudan is once again fully remilitarised to the chagrin of us all.
    Many of us thought that the enemy of South Sudan comes from outside however; this assumption is unfounded based on this fully pledged brotherly confrontation. South Sudanese are the worst enemies of themselves. The ideals of liberation from colonialism failed to be realised for the same reasons. Chief among them is democratic transformation. Instead of being an ideal to be achieved together, democracy is now a bone of contention among the South Sudanese. In addition to this is the form of government, federal or decentralised. Further, is the argument in parties over leadership transition? No one was aware that intra SPLM quarrel would spill over and cause much bloodshed of thousands of innocent poor people of this country.
    War is not the best way to solving human problems. It complicates matters farther and beyond control. The people of this country particularly the SPLM leaders learned nothing from many wars of the past. Wars poisoned relationships and increase mistrust among the parties beyond anyone’s imagination.
    The divorce between Sudan and the Southern part continues to present difficulties simply because of bitter wars fought for nearly half a century. The modern war has acquired a new meaning because of advancement of technology and the issues of human rights violations. That is to say that the current war is different from the Sudan civil war ended about ten years ago.
    The last capture of Bentiu was truly a pyrrhic Victoria to Riek Machar and his bloodthirsty rebels. For the first time since start of the conflict, the capture exposed true intentions of the rebellion (contumacy). Vengeance, insensitivity and lack of respect for human life and dignity are attributes to rebels and their leadership. It is now very hard for rebels to deny commitment of massacres in Bentiu based on ethnicity, national identity coupled with targeted killings based perceived support offered by certain quarters to opponents. Killings of hundreds of innocent civilians in the religious facilities, hospitals, schools and other sanctuaries in the town speak volumes of how the rebels have run amok. The said atrocities are well documented by the UNMISS, the only body on the ground in rebelled control Bentiu. The current war has not only increased suffering to citizens but also brought shame upon all South Sudanese. It exposes selfish and ignorance professed by some politicians who do not hesitate to solve pertinent matters in peaceful fashion. The way to shed blood seems to be more appealing to them. However, they’ll end up being humiliated by outsiders or the people of South Sudan at the end of it all. Let them ignore this fact for their own peril.
    Genocide is now feared in the country as the war atrocities progress. The use of radio fm by the rebels for the first time to disseminate hate messages receives serious attention not only from the media fraternity in the country but also from the government and international players concern with South Sudan conflict. The concerned actors realised that this same radio messages were employed in Rwanda in 1994 genocide. The same was purported to have been used in Kenya during 2007 general elections causing violence and destruction to lives and property. Some people are now in The Hague for this matter. Therefore, the fears expressed by the actors are not unfounded. South Sudan is indeed in danger of going down the Rwandan path if no action is taken right now, the earlier the better.
    The issue of IDPs is a major concern each time these towns change hands. Some IDPs are known to play a cat and mouth game during these occasions. These particular IDPs swap uniform for civilian clothes when the government rolls in and verse versa when the rebels are in control. This is a major concern to some people who when as far as questioning UNMISS for such behaviour. The UNMISS answer was that they have no knowledge of such people. It further, said that even if anyone was in military uniform and has chosen to be under UNMISS he/she deserves that protection accorded by UNMISS as long as they do not have weapons with them. Fair dinkum, let them rest and join the rebellion when they fell strong.
    If at the current rate the towns and cities exchange hands, many towns would exchange hands twenty times if this war were to last over ten or twenty years down the line. It was never seen before in the old Sudan and beyond for an army unable to defend areas under its control. Even the bush army was able to defend towns like Boma successfully on many occasions from the enemy. Many lives are needlessly lost because of this apparent weakness to defend towns. They say that prevention is better than cure. Prevent more towns from rebel capture and you would have prevention half of possible casualties that may be incurred on the offensive. The current Chief of general staff should work towards this. To prevent the current towns under government control from recapture. This could stem unnecessary destruction and it is the ultimate responsibility of the SPLA.


  35. Malith Alier says:

    IDPs UNMISS Camp Option has consequences
    Malith Alier
    Choices and options have consequences at least in relation to those who have chosen to be in UNMISS camps in Juba, Bor, Bentiu and Malakal.
    To begin with, every State capital and other major towns in the States have camps especially designed to accommodate UNMISS personnel particularly the peace keepers and UN Police (UNPOL). Any other people to be accommodated there are a supernumerary.
    The UNMISS and the government of South Sudan are aware of this simple fact. However, the UN now boasts of this as having discovered something new first branded as Emergency Accommodation (EA), later rebranded as Protection of Civilians Site (POC). The country now has these POCs majorly in the above mentioned cities most affected by the current upheaval. The IDPs, UNMISS and the government are parties to this new approach never seen anywhere before. The IDPs and the UNMISS are not entirely to blame for this concentration camps imposed by circumstances beyond their capacity. Some people in the camps think that being under UNMISS compound is the lesser evil than being outside like ordinary citizens. This perception is highly controversial because there are enormous problems of immeasurable proportions facing the IDPs in displaced camps.
    Competition for space and other resources
    It has been mentioned time and again that the UNMISS camps were not meant for large numbers of people like what is there now. Putting people in a small space first of all causes congestion or overcrowding. A human being needs enough space to turn around and breath. He needs space for shelter and exercise. In the UNMISS compound, there is shortage of water, toilets are few and worse, contagious diseases may break out and affect all families.
    There are stories of several deaths in those camps as a result of preventable diseases under normal circumstances.
    Lack of space may cause infighting as already witnessed this week in Juba. Violence broke out between rival clans and many people were injured some critically. Violence begets violence. The Nuer tribe may resort to sectionalism because tribal menace is eliminated by the self imposed isolation away from the rest of South Sudanese.
    Resentment by other South Sudanese who remain outside protection sites
    This is particularly the case when no apparent danger poses to those who choose to be in the camps. The UNMISS is there to keep peace or protect all of us in case of impending danger.
    The government, UNMISS and ordinary citizens have tried in vain to persuade the IDPs particularly the ones in Thong piny, Juba to come out and go to their homes since there is relative calm in the city. Their refusal means that they have other agenda other than insecurity. This is confirmed by celebrations when the rebels score victories on the battle front.
    The IDPs in Thong piny vigorously protested the secession of hostilities agreement and celebrated the capture of Bentiu by the rebels together with those in Bor UNMISS camp, a matter that angered those outside the camps. The resentment by outsiders rolled on to the streets in Bor and turned violent leading to butcher of over fifty IDPs and demonstrators. The IDPs do not know how to control their behaviour in the face of this huge calamity brought about by war described by many as senseless.
    Dependency syndrome in UNMISS camps
    The ones who choose to stay in camps are not productive but depend on handouts by the world body. Some of the ones currently residing in the camps were once productive members of the community. They use to feed their families and pay tax to the government through employment either in public or private sector. However, residing in displaced camps brings all this to naught. Previously employed IDPs on some occasions tried to go and receive their salaries from former places of work but no one wants to pay for no work performed, not even the government.
    The world body has recently appealed for more funds to handle the IDPs and the predicted famine. As mentioned earlier around, the IDPs need heaves of short term and long services. They need toilets, shelter, food, medicine, schools and many more.
    Anxiety and psychological torture
    Congestion, anxiety and all sorts of thinking can definitely cause mental problems. Not everybody is the same. Some are easily affected by crises more than others. Children, women and other vulnerable groups are the most affected in any crisis. Children who are two years or more and are able to speak usually ask their parents about certain changes they observe. For example a child may ask parent why they left their home to be in such place as the UNMISS camp which is congested and looks like a prison. What does the parent tell the innocent child that there is a war between Dinka and Nuer? This will not be forgotten by this child for life. This is a long lasting impression on both sides of the conflict especially when towns exchange hands and stories of suffering are narrated particularly to children who are the next generation to managed and coexist in the country. Many of those in IDPs camps are rebel supporters who are waiting for the rebels to triumph and that is the only time they will come out and join the triumphal forces. This is the mental anxiety everyone is seeing from IDPs.
    The IDPs should come out of IDPs UN camps and return to their original homes because the consequences of not doing that are detrimental to their existence. Relief handouts are minimal and cannot satisfy individual needs leave alone those of family members and close relatives. It is now clear that the rebels will have a long time to have their way under the current circumstance so it is not worth waiting for them under prison like situations. Please come out!


  36. Malith Alier says:

    Dr. Majak D’Agot: wealthy, clever but politically naïve
    By Malith Alier
    Politics is the art of possibilities. It is the ability to come up with anything possible and similarly be ready to explain why it was not possible when the time for accountability comes. This was the case with one politician in Egypt who duped the electorate that he was going to construct a bridge across Red Sea. Everybody knew that it was going to prove an impossible task but nevertheless, the said politician cynically projected the idea to the gullible electorate at the time.
    We are short of such politicians in South Sudan at the moment that can play politics in such a treachery way to win votes and later explain why their pre-vote campaign was full of unachievable possibilities. What we have are those who depend on blame game, something derived from past politics with Khartoum governments. Other politicians depend on history, you can call them leaders by default, to perpetuate their incompetence and stay in power for their own good.
    That is why this country will remain in the doldrums for foreseeable future. Mark the words of this author that some politicians would like to come to power through remote control. They are afraid to come to the fore and elucidate acceptable ideas and be approved by electorate to lead the country as a whole. Being acceptable by your own village is not enough to propel you to the national stage. The country has abundance of such politicians and the former deputy minister of defence, Dr. Majak D’Agot is one them.
    Majak D’Agot is a public figure who has never fully assumed that disposition except on the occasion of the infamous December 6 2013 news conference held in the SPLM House by Former VP, Riek Machar and his group. This gathering has proved disastrous to the whole country in a short stretch from the day it was perceived and now. They rightly announced that the country was going to be in chaos if their demands were not met, something the government took lightly. Chaos indeed the country is experiencing, thanks to them being true to their words. Tens of thousands of people have perished and the figure is still counting.
    The good Doctor is one of Kiir Boys as opposed to Garang Boys as mentioned elsewhere in some articles by the same author and other media. It was Salva Kiir who brought him up to the level he’s in today less of his own efforts. He even continued his studies to become a PhD holder with the assistance of the same man he is against today. Wonders for quest of power will never cease.
    One of the few philosophers in South Sudan said once upon a time that never help to raise a human being, help and raise a melon because it will be thankful to you by giving you its fruits.
    If he were a real politician who do not depend on others, Dr. D’Agot should have left his deputy National Security (NISS) post to contest for 2010 elections. However, he chose to stay away for reasons best known to him. This was his first lost opportunity for him to prove his readiness for emerging politics in the country.
    After the partition of 2011, he was replaced by his benefactor and later made deputy minister of defence by the same authority he always depended on but it was rumoured that he was reluctant because he thought that he was overqualified to be under someone like John Nyuon, the then Minister of defence.
    The last straw that has broken the camel’s back came after the release of the hypothetical politician when his misguided supporters sang songs that predated 1983 liberation struggle. These songs were not only irrelevant but also insensitive to the death and suffering of millions of innocent people around the country. Many commentators on this forum have already questioned this joyful celebration just for the release of a few politicians who are contributors in one way or another to the current predicaments South Sudan is in. one would conclude that the good well informed Doctor does not know how to rise to the occasion and instil sense in to unstructured situation. Whatever the case, the damage has been done.


  37. Malith Alier says:

    Nyandeng de Mabior: Political dynasty restoration gone wrong
    In a Book entitled; ‘The River and the Source’ by Wandia, it is stated that yesterday, today and tomorrow are not the same, each day is different from the eyes of ‘Were’ (Luo for God).
    This is the cardinal message to be sent to the former first family of Dr. John Garang de Mabior who are now engrossed in the quest of dynasty restoration albeit haphazardly. Nobody is sure about what drives the son and mother to simultaneously scramble for the country’s leadership without considering one principal thing, hierarchy, observed by the princes and the kings of this world.
    The untimely death of the then charismatic leader is to blame for everything that goes wrong in his family and the Country at large. The country is however, rambling on and this may not be the case with his family now in the open fighting for the soul of the nation using whatever, means available even with the demons. A respectable family knows how to organise and handle its affairs as far as leadership aspirations are concern. Everybody thinks that they’re fit for leadership but only through honourable and permissible means that do not drag your name in to disrepute.
    Everybody in this country has the illusion of what Garang’s family is after. Regaining the presidency is the ultimate goal but how they want to do that is the question in everybody’s lips. Nyandeng was once a powerful minister and she is currently an advisor to the President on social and religious affairs. Like everyone else, these positions do not motivate her any longer and that is the logic why she wants to be the president herself to further her husband’s unfulfilled dreams for South Sudan. The same could be said for her son, Mabioor Garang de Mabioor. The two family members need to reconcile on who should be allowed in the quest for political dynasty restoration.
    Nyandeng was the first to blow it to the media that the SPLM has lost track of the vision and mission as articulated by her hubby, John Garang. She even cried at some point about this issue but nobody, took heed of her opinions not even the sitting president whom she advises. This is what stoked her bitterness now unleashed through the rebellion of Riek Machar with her support.
    Riek has been courting Nyandeng loyalty since demised of Garang and this culminated in the thinly availed apology for the 1991 massacres of the Bor Dinka right in her house. There was no single reason why he should apologise in her house without travelling to Bor and talk directly to the aggrieved who are still bitter to date. Nyandeng was not a representative of Bor Dinka in Juba to directly receive this belated change of heart aimed at scoring political points. The whole issue was like supping with the devil as evidenced by the events of December 15 2013 and running.
    Nyandeng’s failures are innumerable. She has failed to manage her family which serves as an example on how well one would do managing the whole nation composed of many families. Her sons are not properly married according to Jieng customs along with the daughters. Worse, the family is not united on anything worthwhile as seen through the political disarray now in play. The whole family has failed to listen to advice from relatives, uncles and other well informed individuals in the community.
    Comrade Nyandeng has tasted good life since her marriage to Garang and won’t let go of it easily. Everyone sees that she is in for a long haul to achieve what no woman in America has achieved, to become the president. This is an impossible task before her right now. Further, looking at how prepared for such a task she is, reveals shocking details. She is less educated by the standards of South Sudan ladies. She is not skilful speaker who possesses exceptional oratory skills among other women who are well ahead in formal education. She is not a well established businessperson.
    She established one school in Juba and was involved once in farming in year 2013 in her village of Pawoi. These endeavours were largely funded by taxpayer money or family sources mainly from the government.
    She was one of those who abuse public property with impunity. She paid no taxes. She unfairly benefits from free labour from the armed forces. She was guarded twenty four hours by commando forces even on her private farm. That is the nature of Nyandeng who wants to bask on glory unlimited.
    Comrade Nyandeng is still remorseless and unapologetic despite the fact that thousands and millions of people are killed and displaced respectively. She is one of the soulless and spineless politicians who ever exist in human history. Mothers are always soft hearted but ‘mama’ Nyandeng as she used to be referred to, has a heart of a stone simply because she wants to be president. This is the tragedy that has befallen South Sudan. Many people think that she lost the ‘mama’ title of respect. When she comes back nobody is sure on how to address her. Some already think that she remarried and this is another reason she turned her back on her party, people even her very family.
    Tell me who contributed to the death of tens of thousands of South Sudanese people and this writer will tell about Nyandeng, the wayward mama. She lectured over the BBC about assumed killings in Juba without ascertaining facts on the ground, something that fuel the crisis on end. The Obama administration should include her on the sanction list for this is the right thing to do now that others have received those sanctions.
    In conclusion, Nyandeng will not by the path she has taken become the president of this country. She is already been despised and shoes thrown at her by many of her womenfolk. Her support is lowest in South Sudan even before the current crises of which she played a major part. She is now unsure of what to do after leaving Juba where she claimed that she was under house arrest. The great respect bestowed on her by the president and the whole country has now largely disappeared and she is now the naked queen of yesteryears.


  38. Malith Alier says:

    How South Sudan is doing on democratic front
    Today the National Elections Commission Chairman announces preparations for general elections without specifying when those elections are going to be conducted. This announcement comes on the heels of another announcement by the President that general elections slated for 2015 may be delayed following Addis Ababa peace accord that calls for transitional government before preparations for election.
    The president’s suggestion is not received well by the rebel leader, Riek Machar and his position is yet to be known on this issue. His position on the issue may only be clear after scheduled negotiations to first of all resolve the conflict among the parties on the same venue in Addis Ababa. However, the president may be right on this issue because there are very important steps to be taken right after a final peace agreement that may take several months or years to negotiate.
    One reason why some South Sudanese are fighting in the bush is the issue of democracy. They think that it is their objective to bring about change through the barrel of a gun and to organise the country democratically later. So, democracy is on the lips of every politician not only in South Sudan but also in the whole African continent. Winston Churchill, the war time British prime minister summed up democracy in the following phrase;
    “It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried” Winston Churchill.
    Now you can see why the whole world craves democracy even if your country has no infrastructure and elements for it. The first element for democracy is election. This is the reason why countries organize them to legitimise the otherwise undemocratic incumbent governments. Other elements of democracy are equality before law, freedom and rule of law which can result in good governance.
    South Sudan is not well placed on the democratic path as we speak. Since 2010 elections, no single election whether general or by-election have been conducted. The term of the current SPLM led government have automatically been extended to 2015 after independence. The members in the defunct government of National Unity (GoNU) in Khartoum have also been arbitrarily lumped into the independence South Sudan parliament with no constituent representation. This is one way democracy is mocked in South Sudan.
    As already mentioned, another extension is highly likely considering the current state of affairs the country is in. this is going to extend the tenures of acting State Governors who were appointed to fill posts vacated by incumbent governors for various reasons including reassignment to ministerial positions in the national government in Juba. Because of these relieves and reassignment, the country’s States are now forty per cent (40%) undemocratic. Jonglei, Unity, Northern Bahr El Ghazal and Lakes are headed by appointed caretaker governors. There stay beyond a sixty (60) without organising by-elections is in violation of the supreme law of the land, the South Sudan Transitional Constitution (SSTC).
    To come through elections is now more difficult than to come through the barrel of a gun. Instances abound for this observation. The militia route according to SPLM government is the only easy route to come to power. Many militias have been integrated and given prestigious positions of power in the government and the army to the disadvantage of those who remain faithful. The faithful are however, always on the receiving end on behalf of the incumbent government. They are killed, displaced, starved and lost dignity. Those in the government and the army remain in the same situation devoid of progress.
    Therefore, south sudan is now ailing and may soon be on the deathbed of democracy


  39. Malith Alier says:

    Bor is on high spirit once again
    My visit to one of the most contested cities in the former Sudan and now in modern South Sudan on the 16 May will go down like soothing cooled water a thirsty person drinks in the spring. Bor is a strategic city located on the eastern bank of river Nile and is roughly midway between Juba and Malakal. It is strategic militarily because anyone who controls it has cut of Malakal and other small towns from Juba both by road and river. It is also located on the Sudd swamp which one of the largest in the world. That is why fiercest battles have been fought over it.
    The now branded the “SPLA Day” was not celebrated on the very day like in Juba or other cities and towns in the country in the normal way. I was informed that shooting erupted on the early evening going throughout the night and ended just after six o’clock in the morning. The day was also graced with one of early heavy rainfalls that lasted several hours to late morning.
    A timed gun shooting used to be the way the day was celebrated right from the first anniversary and through rest of the 21 years of struggle ended in 2005. The order used to be gun shooting at exactly the time the first bullet was released in Bor by 105 under the command of Karbino Bol and colleagues followed by military marches then speeches by officials and later in the day colourful dances performed by various South Sudanese cultural groups.
    All the aspects of May 16 celebration remain but gun shoot. It is one aspect that has become out of fashion and for good reasons. Nobody wants to accidentally get hurt in the festivities of the SPLA Day.
    Bor is the undisputable birthplace of the SPLA and the struggle for what South Sudanese regarded as their freedom from oppression. So, the citizens of Bor have every cause to celebrate the day in unison with celebrations by fellow South Sudanese in the country. Anything less than that is not from the liberation birthplace and cradle.
    The resilience people of Bor display have no march in the entire country. Their adversities are too many however; this has never dampened their spirit to celebrate on national commemoration day like May 16.
    The city exchanged hands four times which has left unimaginable destruction of property and livelihoods. Despite this, people are slowly but steadily returning to rebuild this historical town in small steps. The small traders align streets with their wares. The hoteliers and restaurateurs are resuming cuisines. Travellers move in and forth to see for themselves the destruction and how people return to what was once vibrant city. The UN agencies and NGOs are starting operations. Schools and banks are resuming. More importantly, the State government has named and sworn-in State ministers just a week ago. All this will make a great difference for the local people because service delivery will be enhanced.
    There is still a long way to go before the city returns to its former self. It is now upon the people to accelerate that. Those who went to various places for refuge should think of returning. Those already there should not think of leaving the city.
    The government of the State and the national government have a major role to play to assure the devastated inhabitants to stay. One way of doing that is providing security in the city and the surrounding areas. It has somehow been achieved by the SPLA who liberated Ayod County from the rebels who recently threatened to send expeditions to rescue those in the UNMISS camp in the city. Another way of assuring the people is for the President to visit the city. Since the onslaught of the current rebellion, the only government officials who visited the city are the ministers of information and Communication and Defence and Veterans Affairs, both are from the area.
    If the president visits Bor today how would people receive him and what would he likely tell the people there?
    Well, he will definitely receive a hero’s welcome and what he would tell them may run something like this,
    Dear citizens,
    I personally apologised to you because of two things; the destruction and loss of lives caused by Gatdet and white army and the long delay to visit this historical city which is the cradle of South Sudan. I fully take responsibility for these two government failures.
    You understand that the white army was defeated on the way to Juba and subsequently the complete liberation of the beloved city of Bor. The city and the surrounds are now under full control of the SPLA and allies. Never again shall it fall to rebels.
    Dearest citizens,
    I am fully working for peace in Jonglei and South Sudan at large. David Yau Yau’s peace is complete and Riek peace will soon be complete. This is what a responsible government does to the country.
    I announce to you that Bor is our first priority in terms of rebuilding. My government therefore, announces SSP 3.5 billion over three years for this purpose. Hospitals and health centres, schools, roads and government institutions shall in short time be rebuilt.
    The SPLM government shall do it. We shall rebuild, we shall rebuild, we shall rebuild.
    SPLM Oyee!
    I think that a visit as this is highly likely going to increase the moral and encourage the likely return of those in Mingkaman in neighbouring Lakes State to Bor. It can further encourage the army to defend the city in case of attacks launched by rebels in future.
    A song such as this would also encourage the citizens of Bor to stand firm in the face this calamity. Here is the lyric,
    Medina Bor you are our cradle
    We will never leave you to thugs and those who kill
    Your good name shall never be erased in the psyche of your people
    You are a gift to our ancestors
    No matter how we are scattered over the world,
    We remember your good name, the floods and “thou” (lalop)
    Your shady neem and mango trees are there
    For generations to come
    The scattered cattle long to run
    To graze pastures and live ancient camps on high
    Your daughters shall return to dance and marry in you
    Your sons shall be proud of your greatness among towns
    Of the South forever


  40. Malith Alier says:

    This is no time for South Sudan to mince reforms
    by Malith Alier, Juba
    Reforms here mean reorganisation or modification of the existing institutions and structures of the government including the overlap in the military and civil and constitutional structures
    Another term that may be used in this article is overhaul that means overtake, leave behind or go past the existing structures or institutions of the government of South Sudan
    It has been reiterated time and again on many fora that South Sudan needs reforms particularly democratic reforms; truncating the army (the SPLA) from the party (SPLM) as well as reforming other institutions to enhance democratic transformation in the country.
    Reforms of any form and shape are a hallmark that serves to better that society in various ways and have the potential to unleash the best practice across generations. This is to say that ignoring reforms can have unintended consequences which no one wishes to experience.
    In any society, there are antireform groups or hardliners and pro reforms groups. In some countries, these roles have been taken up by political parties where one comes across far right, far left and centre right or centre left parties. Each a party with certain ideology is in government, it tries to advance that ideology only to be reversed later when it is out of the government.
    The SPLM led government is never clear on the issue of basic reforms necessary in a democracy. When the SPLM/SPLA former rebels joined the Sudan government in 2005, they first met the usual bickering in politics by National Congress Party (NCP) whose political ideology differs very much in terms of party interests and the larger national interest including implementation of the CPA. In being associated with NCP, the SPLM inadvertently adopted some aspects of that party ideology to be applied in independent South Sudan.
    What is observed so far seemed to suggest that the hardliners in the SPLM have carried the day. This group includes those who were expelled from the party at different times but were later reinstated.
    The comrades in the government for close to ten years did not see the reason why separating the SPLA from the SPLM was necessary. If anything, it was a lip service mantra to shield the party from criticism.
    Only until last month, the President of the Republic instituted an order that requires former SPLA officers now holding constitutional (elected) posts and those in the public serve to drop their former military titles such as general, brigadier, colonel and so forth. This is what this author referred to as mincing reforms.
    Why did it take so long for the president to recognise that this was the first step he should have taken to delink the two institutions early in time for the sake of democracy and state building?
    The general, colonel or captain so and so who is no longer in the military uniform has become problematic to the people of South Sudan in many ways. At one stage, the South Sudan Muslim community reminded their secretary who was fond of using his military rank while carrying out Muslim religious affairs to either be a full army officer or civilian religious person but not both.
    The continuation to be in the military was justified by the fact that the issues of separation were incomplete, the border between north and south Sudan and other borders because the country has many neighbours with un-demarcated boundaries. Another reason hinges on the benefits these folks get in the army like salaries and above all the prestige derived from being in the liberation generation. Neverthless, the former soldiers are aging very fast and may not be the ones to do much in future military confrontation with any neighbour. Young and energetic officers are required for that purpose.
    The reluctance not to fully discharge the former SPLA officers has other consequences like inflated army payroll. Second, the un-discharged former officers may masquerade as active army officers and carryout criminal acts but claim innocence later. Sadly, it is not uncommon to find civilians on armed forces payroll on national and state levels for the sole reason of receiving salaries. There must be a complete separation of the civilian person and a military guy for the above mentioned reasons unless the country has military reservists. This is not currently application in South Sudan.
    Despite the good intention by the president, nobody understood essence of dropping their former military titles? The evidence suggests that nobody would actually listen or implement it in real time. South Sudanese are very funny people when it comes to what is relevant. There are well educated people high up in the government who still called South Sudan “Southern Sudan” they are not aware that this name was altered on 9 July 2011, the day Southern Sudan attained independence.
    There’re people who confuse languages and in the process duplicate and distort the meaning of words in different languages. Take for example “Firik awel” in Arabic which is directly translated in to English as first lieutenant General which is direct translation from Arabic to English. The same title is simply “general” in English. As you know the military commissioned officers’ titles from lower to highest are, second lieutenant, lieutenant, captain, major, lieutenant colonel, colonel, brigadier, major general, lieutenant general and finally general. These are the commonly used ranks in the military in South Sudan anything else is a supernumerary and demonstrates ignorance of the current affairs in the nation.
    The South Sudan television (SSTV) which is the government mouthpiece is still calling the president of the republic “His Excellency general Salva Kiir Mayardit” worse still he has host of other titles including Commander in chief of the SPLA and Supreme Commander of other organised forces. This is the way South Sudanese are superfluous with the jargon and several titles unnecessary at this level. Those who are fond of using these jargons are like school children unfamiliar with new vocabulary and would want to repeat it over and over again to make sure that they get it right into their memory forever.
    The confusion in translation to various languages in South Sudan needs everyone to double or triple check a particular language in everyday use. This is particularly so in official communication like on SSTV because foreigners and even well informed nationals can rate your service poorly and imbue you with a bad reputation. The former deputy minister of interior Mr. Salva Gengdit reminded South Sudanese to simply use general instead of first lieutenant general which is nonexistent in the system.
    Other areas where reforms or complete system overhaul is required are many; the constitution, judiciary, local government, wildlife and fire brigade, land and the civil service.
    The current constitution has granted too much power to one man in the country, the president and was therefore, discredited for that reason. The commission who drafted the document and the lawmakers who endorsed it are both to blame for this anomaly.
    The local government act has gone unimplemented for the duration of independence. No one is fully aware of what local government means in the lives of citizens. Whatever, was stipulated exists only on paper and this spells its doomed nature. It unfortunately becomes a practice to elect chiefs in some parts of the country but not County Commissioners as required. Chiefs have a dual role of being judges and civil servants at the same time. A government has three arms i.e. the legislature, judiciary and executive. Nobody should be in any two. This is to guarantee the independence of each arm from the other.
    Land is an important factor of production and is often a major source of conflict among communities. If not managed well, it can cost the country dearly. South Sudan is blessed with abundant land but managing it proved an obstacle in recent years. The concept of land being a community asset compounded this problem in many states. With just a small population of ten million which is about 13 people per square kilometre, south Sudan is among the least populated in the region. Therefore, the government should reform land policies to enable farmers to access land for all kinds of production necessary to feed the nation. Food importations from neighbouring countries costs South Sudan the hard earn foreign currency that should be used to import medicines and defence materiel. The Land Commission like other nominal government organs has failed to initiate economically viable land policies to suit the current needs without impacting on future needs. Nowhere is this failure more compounded than the cities where nationals are regarded as foreigners and denied pieces of land for settlement. Juba is the most cosmopolitan in the whole country but is the top most notorious city with everyday land cases that are avoidable had land policies been set clear. The government officials particularly the central Equatoria officials have invented the term land grabbing but fall short of addressing the root causes of the so-called land grabbing.
    Reforms are necessary for renewal. Any country that resists reforms courts trouble in the long run. Those in the SPLM who are hardliners and antireform should remember that there is a saying in Kiswahili, “mabadaliko hunadumu” roughly translated as change is the only lasting phenomenon. Even the South African ANC has undergone changes that have saved it to this day. On the other hand, the Kenyan KANU that resisted change for forty years from 1963 to 2002 is no longer in existence. You can see the difference change brings about, survival or death. Fear of change is therefore, not an option if survival is to be guaranteed.


  41. Malith Alier says:

    David is a lone wolf on Greater Pibor Administrative Area (GPAA)
    By Malith Alier
    David Yau Yau is increasingly becoming a lone wolf on the just signed Greater Pibor Administrative Area peace agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The SSDA/M, Cobra Faction leader, immediately after arriving in Juba embarked on selling his disdainful agreement to those he thinks support him the most. He visited the President two times, visited Vice President, Speaker of parliament, Ministers of Cabinet Affairs and Minister of Interiors among others.
    Imagine a ship travelling with few people and would want extra passengers on the way but ironically the few passengers already on board are falling off. What would the captain of that ship do? Abandon the ship or continue with the journey, this is a dilemma the SSDM faces.
    War is unpopular and so is an agreement that did not involve important constituents along with key stakeholders that may be affected by it in one way or another.
    Jonglei State is the largest in South Sudan in terms of landmass and so are its unsolvable perennial problems. The root causes of these problems were for all the people of that State to identify and solve them together so that no one is left behind in a limbo. Leaving others behind tend to serve as an obstacle to any envisaged solution such as the division of Jonglei State manifested in GPAA peace agreement. Even the supposed beneficiaries like the Anyuak and Jie people have voiced their rejection of the agreement.
    The GPAA agreement after conclusion received mixed reactions not only in the country as a whole but also within the area itself. The first to react were the Anyuak of Akobo County. They rejected it and completely distanced their community from it. This is primarily because the agreement specified Greater Pibor Area that also includes Pochalla County leaving Akobo as an outsider. There may be other reasons that discouraged them to join this noble endeavour to bring development to the vast and underdeveloped part of Jonglei. However, is there any more developed part of Jonglei in comparison to GPAA? The answer is none, making the claim preposterously unsubstantiated.
    The second community to distance itself from future GPAA is the Jie. This was disclosed through The Citizen Newspaper on May 26 2014 on the cover page. The four Jie communities want an independent County administration that will bring development to its communities in Kessengor and surrounding areas. The eleven member Jie team led by its chairman, Mr. Zachariah Ngoletiang Lotamua couldn’t be clearer. They have been living with the Murle from time immemorial and nobody would advise them to have a second look over the proposed closer union. Cattle raids, child abductions and other social ills characterised their relationship like with Anyuak, Nuer and Bor Dinka. They know full well that bringing them together with David’s people puts them at a disadvantage and more so in the current dispensation. So, nobody should be a better advisor than their conscience remembrance.
    The Kachipo or Suri is likely going to react the same way as Jie and Anyuak for the same reasons. The Murle have neighbours but hardly any friends. The Anyuak, Dinka, Nuer, Suri and Jie have been terrorised by David’s People for a long time and therefore, have no appetite for any cohabitation of any kind. If walls like those between Israel and Palestine were to be made elsewhere, then Jonglei is the right place.
    The other major stakeholder group that is against the GPAA are those in the current Jonglei administration. They would lose their current positions as soon the GPAA takes effect in Pibor. This is a consensus among Jonglei communities represented in Bor. Judy Jonglei who competed and trounced David in 2010 election made this announcement of possibility of losing their positions including that of a deputy governor. Several other MPs would follow suit.
    The people of GPAA would not be treated like Abyei people who are in Sudan and South Sudan governments and Abyei Area Administration making them a privileged few. Everyone courts them for a total future loyalty that never would be.
    Now that greater Pibor is granted self rule what about greater Bor, Akobo and Fangak? Why should they continue in a dysfunctional union left behind by greater Pibor? Should they take up arms in order to be granted their own administrative autonomies?
    South Sudan has 79 Counties and people who felt deprived and not inclusive enough demanded creation of more Counties to cater for own needs on top of which is development. Contrarily, the reaction from the Presidency was that no more creation of Counties without resources to sustain them. This assertion of no more Counties seems to have elapsed and the drive is for creation of more States within States for the sole reason of development. Wherever, the resources will be sourced is a different matter altogether.
    The GPAA agreement is so far not yet effective because it has not gone through one important step, ratification by parliament. Whether it will go through like other flawed documents is not clear at this stage. We are eager to watch the debate for ratification in the Council of States and see the parliamentarians from Jonglei take their stance against or for this preferential agreement.
    South Sudan is claimed to have sixty four tribes and if four (4) tribes are to be granted autonomy then the country shall have about sixteen (16) States. This is within our reach if it is what is going to solve our problems once and for all. The parliament should explore that particularly now in the wake of GPAA agreement. They do not have to wait for other underdeveloped areas to take up arms for bringing government and services closer to the people is a fundamental right enshrined in the constitution. The consequences for doing nothing are devastating just as now with Riek Machar war.
    David’s and Riek’s wars are both fought in former Upper Nile region. They are a result of quest for political power. David failed to be elected and Riek was dismissed from a high ranking position in the government and therefore, both felt cheated in politics of the country. Their fighters are derived primarily from where they come from, their tribesmen. They prefer regional politics as they have no wider political appeal beyond their regions. Both derive their major military support from Khartoum, the South Sudan archenemy. They are unlikely to win on the battle field but through agreements so that they can access government positions. Both are two time rebels, 1991 and 2013 for Riek and 2010 and 2012 for David. On the other hand, their differences are not as many. Riek is a PhD holder but David is somehow about there. Riek is fighting for South Sudan but David fought for Pibor autonomy.
    The GPAA agreement has a number of weaknesses that would render it un-implementable in the future. It excluded key stakeholders in the negotiation. The four tribes do not all feel part of the agreement as they were not part of the fight for self rule. They sensed future disagreements in the government of GPAA. The Murle as major stakeholder would likely perpetuate the same claims they are against in Jonglei administration. Secondly, where the agreement leave David depends on President Kiir either to appoint him to head the administration or consign him to the SPLA. Either way, the Cobra Faction has no power to reject.
    The agreement has set a precedent for other marginalised people in the country. They can now claim the same status as GPAA. It was only Abyei which has Abyei Administrative Area (AAA) in the context of both Sudan and South Sudan and was not regard as precedent. Therefore, with the advent of GPAA, the gate is now open for the rest to claim a special treatment like establishment of development fund in their favour. In this circumstance, the agreement is vulnerable and therefore, could be challenged in court by anyone because it is unconstitutional. The South Sudan Transitional Constitution (SSTC) recognises ten States and seventy nine (79) only.


  42. Malith Alier says:

    Hilde Johnson Was Simply Managing Her Exit
    Anyone who vacates a scene is a good person. On the same note, a deceased is highly talked about as a matter of remembrance. That is the reason why many South Sudanese adore the past liberation heroes whom they bitterly opposed while alive.
    Madam H. Johnson surely deserves a pat on the back and many South Sudanese have written to that effect. The peacekeeping job she ran was a difficult one in a difficult country like South Sudan where everything is demanded but nothing is appreciated. Therefore, she was blamed many times from the four corners for everything that transpires despite not being directly closer to her jurisdiction.
    At this stage, many can now pay tributes to her and UNMISS for the most difficult job on the African continent particularly after the December 15 coup which she however, failed to acknowledge. This was among many of several errors of judgment her leadership committed in the country.
    This author, like many other South Sudanese observers has written several articles demanding resignation, expulsion or sacking of Dr. Johnson as head of UNMISS. Her leadership continuation was untenable amid crippling conflict she indirectly or directly contributed to. The South Sudanese who demonstrated a couple of times were not that foolhardy to do so for no apparent reasons. A part from giving a lip service on protection of civilians and other obligations as mandated by the UN Security Council (UNSC), the UNMISS under her leadership performed poorly compared to the SPLA and the police in the security arena. The UN mission on several occasions noted security to be the primary responsibility of the SPLA and the police. That did not mean that the UN mission was to be on the back seat.
    I guess that the UN was an organ that promotes and supports democracy and human rights across the globe as a main core of its Charter (UN). Contrarily, the insistence of UN Chief, Ban Ki Moon to maintain Dr. Johnson in South Sudan after supervision over the crises angered all including the government who felt suspicious and claimed hidden intentions by the world body. If these claims were true, the UNMISS head or the UNSRG would have long bowed to pressure and resign over the mass demonstrations by South Sudanese against her not so unerring leadership. Therefore, Ban Ki Moon was contemptuous for not sacking UNSGSR. In the Western hemisphere where the UN works, a single death brings about departure of those in charge. The heads must roll.
    The major failures of UNMISS under Johnson are vivid to forget. The shooting down of a helicopter in Pibor County in unclear circumstances, the killing of UNMISS armed officers in Gumuruk, in the same Pibor County, the killing of vulnerable civilians in Akobo along with UNMISS soldiers, the weapons scandal in Rumbek and lastly, the killing of civilians in Bor under the watchful eye of UN mission won’t earn UNMISS accolades.
    During the long war of liberation for over twenty years, there was no UN mission carrying arms like what we witness today. We managed to go through despite that fact.
    It is mostly the African continent which entertains UN japes in their entirety. Rwanda, Somalia, DRC, South Sudan, CAR, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea have UN armed missions with little success stories. UN armed mission watched over genocide in Rwanda and the UN mission in Darfur, Sudan was last month levelled a failure by one of its former top officials.
    The UNMISS despite these failures has small achievements to acknowledged. Road construction, health care services, hosting internally displaced persons in camps, transport by air of those in need, promotion of democracy and human rights etcetera are some positive contributions that have assisted many.
    It is also fair to acknowledged the contribution by Norway, Dr. Johnson’s country made to the people of South sudan to date, the latest being the organisation of donors’ conference in May 2014. The pledges realised amounted to over 600 million. This will go a long way to assist victims of the current conflict to see another day.
    Dr. Johnson has said that South Sudan has a special place in her heart because she was part of peace negotiations and represented UN Secretary General for three years working for the country she loves. On this note we all wish her well on her next job.


  43. Malith Alier says:

    The December 15 Coup and Pagan’s Confession
    This country is awash with plenty to write about these days. The cholera menace, General Dau’s late term defection, negotiations in Addis, the rise of federalists, the creation of more States and Counties, endemic tribal feuds in Lakes State, Rizeigat and Miseriah entrance agreements in to South sudan, the Museveni’s unpalatable remarks about security in the country and the death sentence of a South Sudanese lady because of apostasy in Sudan.
    These topics seemed to have pushed the most important matters to the periphery. The border, Abyei, fight against corruption, elections due in 2015, constitutional amendment and the issues of development are apparently shoved in to the silhouette. There is a slightest chance that they will resurface in their original form. Therefore, the blame lays on the December’s attempted coup and the subsequent insurgency masterminded by people who corrupted the system right before 2011 emancipation from Khartoum regime.
    Pagan Amuom is not a simple politician by the standards of South Sudan politics. For somebody to hold a position of a Secretary General (SG) in a ruling party is not a simple feat. The party’s power strings for good or for worse lie with that particular person. He was only subordinate to the party’s Chairman. This made him a power broker not only in the party but also in the country.
    Pagan is a populist politician in the context of the whole country saved for the Shilluk kingdom. His oratory skills are unmatched. Fluent in both English and Arabic, he sways masses like no other on important occasions such as SPLA Day. On the other hand, what is not known are his organisational skills since he was accused of failing to transform the SPLM as a party rooted in the liberation struggle. He was taken to court at one point because of allegation of corruption.
    The December 15 coup exposed the dysfunction and malcontent masked in the SPLM party for so long. The implosion within the party has affected the whole country tremendously. The African political story has it that the party of liberation monopolise power for a long time as it becomes a force unto itself. It happened in many countries and this country is no exception. However, the unravelling came so quickly because the party miserably failed to whip in to line those with different ambitions other than that of the party. Few people imagine that opposition was going to would take this twist for the worse. The logical path would have been that those within the SPLM with different ideology would form a party of their own and sell themselves to the electorate. However, they chose a shortcut to the chagrin of us all.
    Pagan in his famous response to allegation that the group of 12 has not yet decided which way to go, join rebels or government argued that the group has decided neither to join the rebels nor the government for various reasons. He reckons that the rebellion is doomed and the country’s leadership has failed the nation. This is a welcome move by the suffering people of South Sudan despite the rebels’ belief to have secured their release by putting pressure to the government on the table in Ethiopia. This, they think implies automatic joint with the powerful former top government officials.
    The other interesting part of the famous letter is the confession that it was Pieng Deng and James Mai, the Police IGP and the SPLA Chief of general staff respectively who saved their lives (Pagan and the group) during the crisis. Therefore, they owe their lives to these two gentlemen. However, this actually ignores the fact that the country’s highest office did not sanction such. People like the IGP and Chief of staff would have not succeeded in their defence. more confessions are likely to follow not only from Pagan but also from other detainees. Confessions about stashed away cash is perhaps to least to surface after the SPLM government has been branded as a kleptocratic government.
    Let this author remind the former SPLM SG that many south Sudanese who are badly affected by the current conflict caused by misunderstanding in the SPLM party believed that it must be a crazy party which exports chaos but wholeheartedly takes care of the powerful culprits in its system. Despite lost of precious lives, destruction of property, displacement of millions; no single hair was lost on the real SPLM members in the government or outside it. This explains why they all want to cling to dear mother SPLM, the “all-caring.” Virtually, we have SPLM main, SPLM in Opposition, SPLM former detainees and SPLM DC, a total of four parties using the same name. a mutation indeed!
    The SPLM in government under Salva Kiir, the SPLM in Opposition under Riek Machar and the SPLM former detainees under Pagan or Rebecca Chol have one thing in common, clinging to power if given a chance. For those who cling to the SPLM name most likely developed insatiable appetite to access and remain in power beyond imagination.
    The reconciliation within the SPLM conceived in Juba and facilitated by the ANC and EPRDF in Addis Ababa is one of bizarre attempts to reconstitute the rats and mice of that party. It is a waste of precious resources that should be used somewhere else. Thank gods, the main Opposition members boycotted it. It was a white wash.
    In conclusion, the country is now in a lawless state because of the makings of a group out of touch with reality. After being in the government for years harvesting unlimited produce, this same group brought about misery and the country is now a laughing stock in the region. Within a couple of Christmases after independence, killings, destruction of cities and defections in the army characterise our existence. The SPLM as a ruling party bears responsibility for all this chaos.


  44. Malith Alier says:

    Whose head is this?
    By Malith Alier
    This is a folkloric song among the Bor Dinka, sang from time immemorial. The song is applicable even today and one can apply it in the current setting in the country. Here it goes,

    Whose head is this?
    It is the head of the greedy
    The greedy you already gone
    And our grains are ripe

    Whose head is this?
    It is the head of a killer
    The killer you already gone
    And peace is here after you

    Whose head is this?
    It is the head of a cattle rustler
    Cattle rustler you already dead
    And leave your children behind

    Whose head is this?
    It is the head of a child abductor
    Child abductor you already perished
    And leave your God given children

    Whose head is this?
    It is the head of a white army
    White army you already defeated
    And IGAD has brought peace to South Sudan
    Whose head is this…………………


  45. Malith Alier says:

    An unimaginable Animal cruelty in Juba
    Rights are not only confined to humans, they are also extended to animals, domestic and wild because animals and humans have a lot in common. Both are living things that is to say they both have life in them. Second, they are interdependent. Animals are used by humans for meat; milk and hide, payment of dowries, sports and prestige and above all they are a store of value, being wealth for the owner. Some animals are even used as gods. Surprised? Follow on. The author of this piece revered a lion as ancestral god. In return, animals depend on humans for protection from harm and abuse of any kind imaginable under the sun. This is a fundamental function given to a human being by the creator to look after all animals and the universe as a whole.
    As much as Human life needs sustenance through food, water, sleep, comfort, hygiene and protection from all kind of harm, the same can be said of those animals under our direct care, the domestic animals. Those animals in the wild on the other hand are taken care of by nature because their access to pasture and natural habitat is not as limited like that of domestic animals.
    Juba, the capital of South Sudan has seen influx of people from a bucolic background over the past 9 years. This is attributed to various reasons such as insecurity, seeking medical attention, trade and education. Those returning from exile prefer to settle in Juba where they can easily access social amenities available here. Rural urban migration is the single main reason for this influx.
    With this influx, the population of Juba is now about a million people. Therefore, trade and commerce flourish in Juba, the city of about a million people. The trade in animals is in focus.
    The animals, particularly cattle brought to Juba from without and within the country are kept under appalling conditions. These animals are kept in fences some of which have been there for over a hundred years without ground maintenance. An example is the one in Selekana near Juba sports stadium. This is the worse offending fence. It is an eyesore for those who happen to pass through that route.
    One often observes cattle standing with feet submerged deep in the muddy earth. The ground is muddy going down two feet. This makes animals to stand the whole night without rest because they can bodily get submerged in the muddy earth if they try to lie.
    The second problem there which is not only against the animals but also to humans is the filth and stench on and around that Selekana fence. The animal urine and dung have poisoned the environment in Selekana. The trees around there, the mango trees are dead for the same reason.
    Selekana is located in the oldest part of Juba city. This was the centre of the town at the infancy. Therefore, continued keeping of animals there is inconvenient to the animals, people and traffic right now. Taking animals through the suburbs to the outskirts for grazing proves a colossal problem. You won’t miss them cross the main Juba bridge across River Nile and fro morning and evening. In doing so under inconvenient conditions through traffic jam, the animals are cruelly beaten with long sticks and other instruments to the surprised of everybody on the streets. This is done to chase them faster than the traffic or to give way for the traffic. What happens to their hoofs is a different thing altogether. The cattle’s hoofs are not designed for hard surfaces like the asphalt road.
    In 1970s, cattle were not allowed on the roads in Juba. This was the time when the Town Council was very careful about the risks and inconveniences brought about by presence of animals in a build up area. Legend has it that the cattle owners were asked to use baskets to contain animals’ excreta. Everyone is aware that as the cattle go along the road; they release waste therefore, causing pollution of environment. Flies and other vectors are attracted by such wastes and this is why Juba is a fly City today! Urinating, defecating and throwing rubbish anyhow by intelligent human beings compounds this issue of pollution. Diseases like typhoid and diarrhoea are on the increase but nobody seems to care.
    Other animals like goats, dogs and cats continue to die or being maimed on our roads on daily basis. It is unfortunate that these animals are allowed to roam in the city at will. This is a recipe for what we witness on the roads.
    Yesterday a military vehicle hit a female dog on the Juba-Nimule Highway in Shirkat. As always, the female dog perhaps on heat has already attracted a good number of male dogs who pursued her across the road. No sooner had it been hit on the leg then it went rolling and howling on the top of her voice. It land on a muddy gutter on the other side of the road writhing in pain while still howling. This brown dog turned grey in the mud. Unexpectedly, the rest of the dogs watched in agony, not fully aware of what happened to their female lover.
    This is the fate of goats, dogs and cats in the streets of Juba. No single day passes without several of these innocent animals trample by motor vehicles driven by the craziest motorists who care less except their destination. However, should the motorists be the only people to carry blame? The animal owners along with local government officials are also culprits. The primary responsibility is with the animal owners and then come the local government councillors who fail to pass regulatory laws prohibiting astray animals on the street. More often than not, it is the motorists and other road users who get blame for causing harm to these animals instead of the real owners who refuse to take animals out of the city. This is a travesty in the face of modernisation through urbanisation. The indigenous people should know that times have change. Roads are constructed for vehicles but not for cattle. This means that as the urban approaches, the indigenous are pushed further away from cities to where they can conveniently harness their cattle without conflict.
    Note that this observation is not only confined to Juba, other cities and towns in South experience this conflict between cattle and urban life. Nearly every South Sudanese citizen owns cattle or had ancestors that owned cattle in the past. This is what complicates the matters. The strong association with cattle consistently conflict with modernisation and this is the message all should note.


  46. Malith Alier says:

    Is Federalism The Elusive Price for Peace in South Sudan?
    Peace is the absence of war and other upheavals that disturb tranquillity in a given setting, in this case South Sudan. Many of us cogitate that this country paid dearly to secure peace in 2005 going forward. The estimates of 2 to 2.5 million souls lost over a period of over twenty years still cause mental anxiety particularly if another war reignites.
    The December 15 bloody uprising is the mother of all wars of self-interest this country deserves not. It did not cross one’s mind that the joy of independence was going to be a vicious cycle of militia activity motivated by nothing short of having self a place on the high table on the land, in the government.
    In the Too Agreements Dishonoured, Abel Alier, the author stated that many South Sudanese after the 1972 Addis Ababa Peace Agreement (APA) refused to work in agriculture and commerce because of one thing, only to work in government. Today, though to some extent, this is the case with the violent militia backed by enemies of South Sudan independence.
    Once in the government, the self-interest groups or individuals take liberty to do as they wish to fulfil their long held ambition called acquisition of wealth. Being in the government is a carte blanche for acquisition of wealth which is a gateway to fame, many wives, many friends and multiple investments in the country and abroad. Is this one component of the elusive price for peace?
    The quarter century war of independence was justified on the pretext of oppression, slavery and lack of development in the southern part of the former Sudan. Ironically, war seemed to have completely entered some people’s veins and therefore, have no self worth except through war. For them, every problem is only solvable through guns. Your voices are heard after taking up arms against innocent people who have nothing to do with country’s wealth centred on Juba. The result is death, displacement and suffering. The goal is reintegration into the government where one will have a free hand on wealth and be part of the system forever. A home in a high class residential suburb, Hai Amarat crowns it all. Even a home in Amarat is enough. One along with his entire family, relatives and friends can choose to stay at exclusive hotels in Juba at taxpayers’ expense. Be mindful not to leave behind a cosy V8 and other fringe benefits like fully paid travels and healthcare abroad.
    A reward for waywardness is the order of the day in South Sudan politics in recent years. Further, bogus claims have developed of late like the autonomy on the ground of underdevelopment. Greater Pibor administrative area (GPAA) is one such example. However, this is not entirely a bad development because many likewise folks are likely to demand for similar treatment. The people in the union of what once was called Jonglei State are the first in line to directly benefit from this new development. Jonglei State has been inhabited by animals, not people who reason and understand together. Child abduction, cattle raids and wanton killings are medieval practices that went back several centuries and have no place in the current century. But they have found justification in various agreements signed and effected in the letter and spirit.
    To sell the Greater Pibor peace agreement to South Sudanese and their representatives in parliament, the President urged the Council of States to ratify that agreement and create and demarcate borders of new Counties in Central Equatoria so as to enhance peace. This is an example of how we South Sudanese have been searching for peace over the centuries.
    Peace was outright rejected in unity of former Sudan. We looked for peace in separation but it was not there. We looked for peace in decentralisation it was not there. We looked for peace in creation of more States and Counties however; it was nowhere to be found. Therefore, the last frontier to look for peace is federalism.
    The supporters of federalism argue that it is the only untried price for peace and development. It has been in demand since 1947 Juba round table. Federalism is deemed to be a panacea for all the ills and suffering people of this country went through. It will accelerate development; enhance equitable power sharing, ensure equitable resources sharing and everything good that comes with it.
    Contrarily, it is not the system that fails but the people who do not know how manage the system that makes it fail. A perfection of decentralisation is a precursor of unexplored federalism. The voices for federalism are increasingly becoming louder by the day. They are even joined by high profile politicians who have failed to implement the current decentralised system of government where power is devolved to the lowest level of government. Instead of pushing for full decentralisation, they are pulling for federation which they have little clue about. To them and on top of what they thought are the benefits of federalism, are the resources underground in some States e.g oil and other minerals. Land is also another contention where people from other States are branded “land grabbers” and therefore, denied a plot of land in a city.
    Everybody should understand that all resources underground, defence, foreign affairs, foreign trade including custom revenue collection are a preserve of a federal government as is the case in Australia, USA, India or Nigeria. In case your State has been eyeing such, it is now time to revise your thinking.
    Federalism is good by itself. What makes it unpredictable are the people behind it. They may be having other ideas that will ruin its implementation. In this case people are likely going to get bogged down in the detail in the absence of a clear roadmap and purpose for it. This implied that a rush to adopt and implement it will cause more problems than people think. The proponents have a strong case and so are the opponents. Therefore, in this scenario federalism must be put to test in a democratic way. Either way through referendum there will be no love lost. The President summed it up all that he alone cannot do it by his usual decrees.


  47. Malith Alier says:

    I was Once a Black Woman
    Susan, not her real name sits at the corner of Wonderful restaurant in Melekia. She shares a table with a male partner whom she constantly exchange looks amid smiles. Susan looks a modern woman like the types we see in cities and towns of South Sudan wearing different skin colour from the original black birth skin. Susan looks comfortable in her present skin in contrast to other women left behind and constantly criticise for failure to adapt to new way of life. Most likely, she seems to be on the date with a guy who is robust in physique. The plump fellow is dark skin in contrast. His teeth are yellow stained like a smoker’s. He constantly peers through the restaurant as if someone preys on their togetherness.
    In South Sudan it is unthinkable to take someone’s daughter to pubs or restaurants. This is courting the wrath of the girl’s relatives. Among many communities, girls are highly priced and are therefore, protected from guys who are out to spoil them. A girl remaining at home is a virtue in most of the Arab world including Sudan from were South Sudan separated from. Covering the face and the whole body is also adopted by non Muslims such as those who have been to Islamic nations.
    A demand for lighter skin has never been on the rise. The whole of East Africa is engulfed in a business of skin colouring. A dark skin lady is therefore, frown upon and many reasons may be imagined. Ignorance about use of chemicals, lack of funds for their purchase or a black skin is beautiful attitudes may be some reasons for not catching up with the rest of the world.
    The post modernism world has imposed itself on people in many unintended ways. The creams and injectables have revolutionised the way one would like to look. From celebrities to ordinary people, the ball is in your court whether to remain with black skin or it is time for change to take place.
    The late Michael Jackson was once asked whether he thought that he was still a black person like his fellow African Americans who remain proud of their birth skins. This was a question he opted not to respond to. Michael was once proud of his heritage. That change over years because of pressures to be fairer skin.
    Susan is among thousands of women who think that society today needs a fairer skin lady for employment and even attraction. A femme fatale attitude is also another reason why women apply body changing creams and lotions. This is an expensive endeavour. However, nothing of value comes cheap. The chemical world, motivated by profit has pushed the importance of its products to such a dangerous level where one spends almost three quarters of income on such products. This is usually done through ads and other promotions that are hard to resist. Fairer skin and slim body are highly commendable for the younger generation. This is one reason why anorexia nervosa is not uncommon among well known young ladies who are as well wealthy.
    The attitudes of those using skin changing products and those who do not use them, usually men are in great contrast. Those who use them have “an accept me” attitudes but those who do not use them have “a go away” attitudes. This is seen during a meeting of those opposites. The victim of chemical world would wish that you do not notice what they have done. However, in case you notice just accept it the way it is.
    Those who have not succumbed to creams use, have such negative ideas about them. They think that the creams are costly in the first place. Number two they come with a lot of sight effects like skin cancer, bad body odour and skin disharmony.
    Simon got married a couple of years back to a natural beautiful skin lady. Down the line she decided to change her skin colour to match with the modern woman usually the one in town. This happened at the time she went back to her parents’ home as a ritual to give birth for the first time. As a consequence, Simon contemplated divorcing her. But what about the huge bride price paid in double of money and cows? Who will be on the losing side, the parents of the bride or those of the bridegroom? Usually, among the bride price paying communities, some of the bride wealth is returned and children if any go with the man.
    The world of beautification is never on the same note. One’s own skin colour creates a desire of the one you do not have. The dark-skinned would like to be brown skin. The white-skinned would like to be brown-skin and verse versa. The white ladies tan their skins in that pursuit just like those dark-skinned people who are mad about light skin.


  48. Malith Alier says:

    Why the stupid comment will stick
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    This is not the first time for somebody in the region to publicly abuse or say unkind words toward South Sudan. It is at least the second time as far as I know for somebody to insult the intelligence of South Sudanese people entirely or through their leaders.
    Maboub Maalim is therefore, a second person after Beshir of Sudan who referred to South Sudanese as “asharat” or insects in Arabic!
    The Beshir outburst came as a result of a successful capture of Panthou/Higlig in April 2012. So, both comments came as a result of wars. We will come back to that point later.
    South Sudanese by nature are proud people. They based their pride on dignity and respect. Therefore, they always react to anything that demeans or unfairly challenge their intelligence no matter how slight it may be. Therefore, it sufficed to say that these insults taken on individual level would have been reacted to ferociously. Fist fight or insult for insult would have occurred immediately!
    Unexpectedly, the government of the day which represents us all opted to ignore the Beshir outburst but instead reacted to the Maalim one, years later. There may be two reasons for this selective reaction. One reason is that, the first insult was directed to all South Sudanese but the latter was directed at the leaders on top of which, is the president. Second reason is that, dealing with Sudan is a tricky business because of oil and other things. That is why the government ignored Mr. Beshir and his insect reference. Third reason is that the government respects big people or heads of states in the calibre of Mr. Beshir. Lower people like Maalim can easily get crucified as we have witnessed though for the same crime of attacking sovereignty of the country.
    South Sudanese themselves have not yet regarded their leaders as stupid out of respect for them and the dignity of this nation unlike Zambians during the time of Levy Mwanwasa. The late Zambian president was referred by some quarters, as “cabbage” meaning that he was in a vegetative state of mind. However, this cabbage tag did not arise out of nothing. Mwanwasa was involved in an accident prior to his ascendency to the president. None of the current South Sudanese leaders on both sides was involved in an accident causing brain damage. They are in their natural mind state.
    The selective reaction to a foreign interference in south Sudan means that the South Sudanese house is divided in to two, the leaders who deserve protection and the rest. Abraham Lincoln once upon a time declared that a house divided against it-self cannot stand. This is one reason why the stupid comment will stick. Many foreigners reason that any insult on the country would be ignored just like the Beshir one.
    So, the same government selectively opted to fight insults against its leaders but ignored those directed at the citizenry as a whole. The minister of Interior has taken it upon himself and went all the way to parliament, lecturing it on how to protect the president from such comments or abuses according to Sudantribune website. This is a clownish attempt. This very minister was in parliament at the time Beshir abused the whole nation but failed to react as one of the representatives of the people of South Sudan. What necessitates his reaction this time is any one’s guess.
    Another reason why the stupid tag will stick is based on social theory. During childhood, if a child is teased but he strongly reacts against it even to the fight, then that tease sticks because those who tease the child get maximum satisfaction from it. This is also true even with adults. There exist so many deviations and gratifications within human beings. There are those who derived gratification from inflicting pain on others. You know terms like masochism and the likes. Also note that, South Sudan is always referred to as a child of just two years or soon three by leaders to cover for their failures in the state. Therefore, it is teased by anyone who is older in the region and beyond. It is upon South to react appropriately to such teases and insults.
    Ignoring the insult like the one by Al Beshir would have been the best option; because it would have avoided gratification derived by those who at all cost try to inflict pain on others in such a way. Further, there was that tease by Museveni of Uganda about security which was also ignored.
    Coming back to the point in paragraph three, it is not only South Sudan which fighting a war in the region but many others including Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, Sudan, CAR among others. If fighting wars make a country stupid then these mentioned countries which are fighting meaningless wars are also stupid.
    Those who live in glass houses must not throw stones


  49. Malith Alier says:

    Food for fasting Muslims, flattery or good intention
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    First of all I welcome myself back on panluelwel blog since I have been off the stage for about three weeks. The year twenty fourteen is such a bad year as ushered in by the December power struggle in the SPLM. It is not out of place to call it annus horribilis or horrible year. War, predicted famine, cholera, sanctions, defections, named them have dented our resolve to progress peacefully like China.
    The UN predicts that this country is likely to experience famine in six months time right after the last year unfortunate events. For this reason, the very UN has intensified appeals for donations to counter the looming famine. This burden is the responsibility of all, beginning with South Sudanese themselves and not least their government.
    However, the government has other ideas. The president today, donated food to the fasting South Sudanese Muslims to break their month long fast. The donation was announced by the presidential advisor on religious affairs, Fr. Mark Lotada.
    However, He did not disclose why it was necessary for the president to donate food worth SSP 300,000 to the relatively affluent Muslim community in the country. The Muslims have investments in every sector in the country not to say the individual business each Muslim owns. They have large investments in property, schools, healthcare, agriculture, banking et cetera. Their per capita income is higher than anyone else, organisation or individual in South Sudan.
    It is not the first time for the president to do something marvellous for the Islamic community. Every year since CPA and every Ramadan, the president throws up breakfast for the community as it ends the fasting month. Despite the apparent glaring absurdity, the rest of the country turns a blind eye on the habit. It is not clear whether this is political or social endearment. Another thing which is not clear is whether the President’s contribution comes from his pocket or from public purse. This is what the religious advisor or the Bureau for Religious Affairs in the Office of the President should tell us.
    Critically, South Sudanese ought to look at the interaction of the government and religion in the context of the Interim Constitution. The Interim Constitution states that the country is a secular state that bears no association with any religious tenets and dogmas. It therefore, shouldn’t condone and promote any religion particularly in the public affairs like important gatherings such as Independence Day celebration and other important public functions. This seems not to be the case. More often than not, the two dominant religious leaders have been invited to grace government and public functions contrary to our conviction as enshrined in the constitution. This is one of the numerous violations of the constitution by the present government. Christianity and Islam are not the only two religions in the country. There are other religions that should be accorded the same treatment if it is acceptable to include religion in the functions of the state. The same government who was formed because of alleged discrimination should know better than this.
    Some of the reason for the exclusion of religion in the government and public affairs stems from the old Sudan where religion (Islam) and the state are part and parcel of the other. The issue of religion was therefore, used to exclude others from government. There was a mantra that no non-Muslim should rule Muslims. This is the concept of an infidel who should be converted to Islam by all means. This is the basis why south Sudanese in their protracted struggle and after the CPA decided it was time to exclude religion in State affairs. Religion is a private matter between god and individual and should be treated as such. If religion is regarded as a tool for discrimination then it is wise to place it outside public affairs so that individuals exercise it in private with whatever they believe in.
    The generosity of the President and the first family is unprecedented after the December fifteen crisis. Food has been donated to the SPLA wounded soldiers and even to the displaced people in camps. This is something that is commendable in all respect. However, a friend in need is a friend indeed. The Muslim community does not deserve the same treatment particularly if the funds donated come from the public coffers. At the time of crisis like this, generosity should be seen to target the deservedly needy and we have many of them in and outside the country.
    The Islamic community in south Sudan is affluent and influential minority group that has a grip on the country’s wealth. It has a skewed economic advantage based on neo-colonial era after 1956 Sudan independence. It was the Islamic community that was solely exploiting the country through commerce and other means not available to the indigenous people of South Sudan. Their endeavour started with slave trade which later commuted to commodity trade in the later part of 19 century. This is simply to say that the Islamic community in the former Sudan and the Muslim minority group in present day South Sudan have long association with wealth and influence over other communities in the regions.
    That influence many times is negatively antagonistic to the indigenous people of African descent. Enslavement, conquest, forced conversion, political hegemony and divide and rule are some of the negative aspects they brought along with them.
    The Islamic terrorism which is menacing the world awaits South Sudan as the Muslims amass in the country. Somalia is in chaos, Kenya is under attack from Al Shabab, Uganda was bombed in 2012, CAR is in disarray. Therefore, there is no cause to entertain Islam which is associated with terrorism. The South Sudan Islamic community which is the darling of the president is indeed a hydra with so many heads that make it capable of striking without notice. The examples above confirm this fact.
    Politics breeds strange bed fellows. The government should note that mediocre politics and softly approach has already landed the country in current abyss.
    A complete separation of religion and state is the best way forward for South Sudan. This helps the state to avoid unintended consequences as was the case in the old Sudan and other Islamic countries.
    Despite the fact that we have a constitution that separates religion and state, nobody has so far challenged the state for non-adherence to the constitution. The Constitution seems to have been taken for granted not only in reference to religion but also in many other respects. This must cease. Organisations or even individuals must come out to challenge the state in matters of the Constitution. This is a democratic right enshrined in the same Constitution. A nation that does not honour its Constitution goes adrift and may land in chaos. This is not an outlandish proclamation, it has already happened to us twice in the old Sudan and now.


  50. Malith Alier says:

    Duty of Care
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    I was going to the chemist’s shop this morning to purchase anti-malarial tablets for a sick relative. On the way, I found three individuals working on the road side trying to close a water pathway from a shower in their homestead. As I pass, one of the men at work lifts a heavy stone and hurls it on the water and therefore, splashed it on my body. I ask as to why he saw me passing and didn’t wait for me to go past before throwing that stone. As soon as I finished, a disabled big bellied man, apparently a landlord uttered something which shocked me. “de shokol” “this is work, if somebody is in the workshop and you happen to pass he doesn’t care, It is your responsibility to take care of yourself.”
    Instead, it is not my responsibility but his responsibility to make sure that anyone who passes there while him or his men at work must be made aware that some work is in progress and therefore, they have to proceed with vigil. This is what is known as “duty of care.” Anyone who does something in public place must seriously observe “duty of care.” Failure to do so may lead to prosecution in the law of torts. Damages may be awarded if proven that there was negligence on the side of the one such as in above example.
    Examples abound on how the duty of care may be exercised. One example is the road construction workers. They often place a sign with “slow down, men at work” or “road work ahead” a few metres away from the actual work site. This is extremely important because it alerts the road users that the conditions of the road are different and they have to approach with care. Usually, the road workers have heavy equipment and are numbered from tens to hundreds. They employ elaborate arrangements to direct traffic to safer side of the road under construction or maintenance. By alerting the road users, they have exonerated themselves of any unexpected occurrence. It is on the other hand, the responsibility of road users to decelerate and observe traffic flow as directed by the designated controller.
    Another instance where duty of care may be exercised is cleaning of public spaces in hospitals, supermarkets, hotels and so on. The cleaners erect a “wet floor” sign to alert the passersby that they may tip over and get hurt. This sign serves to enhance the responsibility of the one who is doing the cleaning. It is the equation changer. The ball is now in the passersby’s court. However, this does not completely exonerate the cleaner from all the responsibility. There are further instances whereby a court case may still be instituted against the organisation.
    Perhaps the one who carries the heaviest duty of care is the local government in form of City Council, County Council, Town Council, Payam Council and village as well as Boma Councils.
    The local government is the closest government to the people and therefore, bears responsibility of organising, directing and warning the public of all acceptable and unacceptable behaviour in a particular locality. The local government is in charge of roads, sanitation, estates, Parks and Reserves, sports and recreation facilities, environment and many more. The local government therefore, erects road signs, takes care of sanitation, plans estates, controls parks and forest reserves and runs sports and recreation facilities in the locality. Failure to properly manage these functions can result in serious consequences of which the local government may be sued. For example if the City Council fails to erect signs warning people against swimming in River Nile, it could be sued against negligence.
    River Nile is infested with crocodiles and other dangerous animals like hippopotamuses which can kill. Other dangerous objects may be under water and could harm swimmers e.g. shipwreck. It is therefore, the responsibility of Nimule Town Council, Juba City Council, Terkaka Town Council, Bor Municipal Council, Malakal City Council and Renk Town Council along the Nile to make sure that safe swimming sites are designated and nobody should swim anywhere else. The designated sites must have trained wardens who should be on site to warn when danger approaches. They can also provide assistance if needed during swimming period.
    Failure to observe the duty of care is called negligence. The concept of negligence is not confined to the above two examples but is wide ranging. The doctors who treat patients in hospitals can be sued for negligence or malpractice. Take an instance where a child is crippled after administration of injection on the wrong side of buttock by a nurse. This child can sue the hospital for negligence or malpractice and he can get damages for this reason if proved that the health institution failed to properly administer the injection.
    The above scenarios are slowly but surely coming to play in the lives of South Sudanese. As people migrate to cities and progress in knowledge, there is an increasing need to be mindful of the welfare of others. You and I are our brothers’ keepers!


  51. Malith Alier says:

    The Ruling SPLM and Party Internal Democracy
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The current war raging in the country is directly attributable to the SPLM internal struggles for leadership and democracy. The SPLM as a party has not come to terms with its new status as the ruling party in independent Republic of South Sudan. It continues to operate as in the years before CPA and independence. It unfortunately continues to wear past two faces, the bush and NCP faces. The NCP face was acquired through the interim period union.
    It is not hard to highlight a few instances that make it extremely hard for the SPLM to adapt to the new environment. Naturally, some changes happened to the party of liberation but it has altered little on the ground. Its late and former leader and many others who were the stalwarts of the movement are no more. However, the bunch who remained continues to stand steadfast to the bush ideals, something that is dearly destabilising and costing the country today.
    Democracy in the SPLM these days is like a verse from the bible. The devil can quote any biblical verse for his own ends. That is what is happening around the world, South Sudan under SPLM included. Democracy is a mobilisation catchphrase used to gain legitimacy and attraction of western aid to poor and least developed countries mostly in Africa. A poor country such as South Sudan has no choice but to feign democracy along with all imaginable conventions like human rights, child convention, gay rights and religious rights. These are but on the paper. The ground for implementation is lacking. The SPLM, the lead party has sadly failed democracy internally as under its various organs which exist by name only. The SPLM National Convention (NC), Political Bureau (PB), the National Liberation Council (NLC), the Youth League and the Women League are all democracy deficient. Two organs, the Political Bureau (PB) and the Youth League (SPLM YL) are in the close scrutiny of this article.
    The Political Bureau (PB) is the highest political organ of the party. It consists of 27 members representing regions of the country according to It’s chaired by the party Chairperson, and two deputies to the Chairperson. Its main function is to formulate policies, plans and programmes in according to the vision and mission of the SPLM. It also has the final say in party matters including selection of members for national election as was the case in 2010 elections. It was accused in this task of cherry picking members contrary to their popularity. This was the beginning of the SPLM woes.
    Another problem that afflicted the PB is the recycling of members in the government ministries. The PB members served at senior level officials in the government. Having been in the government for a long time made many officials developed a sense of entitlement. They didn’t prepare themselves for a day outside the government. This fact was shown by their coalescence around a less unify character immediately after dissolution of government in July 2013. They pretended to have woken up from their deep slumber and accused the same government they were a part for so long. Corruption, tribalism, economic collapse, foreign policy failure, dictatorship and party loss of vision and direction were some of their belated clarion calls. This late call prompted the government to brand them as disgruntled former officials who also imagined that if they are not in the government then it must be a bad government. “if I am not there, it must be a bad government” according to minister of Information and government spokesman.
    Clearly and according to the outburst of the former senior officials, it is easy to see well if one is outside the government. This is perhaps the very reason why people outside the government complain incessantly. The command a better view of the government while outside. On the other hand, the ones in the government see less clearly because they are part of the coalition of self-serving bunch of privileged few.
    The SPLM Youth League is simply a one man’s show since its inception. The current chairman has all characteristics of a strongman that democracy doesn’t need. The manner he assumed the Youth League office is obscured at best. The information available is that, he was handpicked by the SPLM Chairman in Nairobi in the 90s to serve for a definite period of time. He is apparently now a chairman of the Youth League for life. It is bad for democracy and the future of this country. The Youth League is the last nail on the coffin of democracy.
    It is always said that the future of the country is the youth. The youth of this country does not fit this proclamation based on the trend it exhibits. The youth is militarised, undemocratic and above lazy. The youth in form of white army kills, maims and loot civilian properties of neighbours. The Murle youth is engaged in child abduction and cattle raids of neighbours. The Lakes State’s youth is involved in revenge killings and intra cattle raids. This is happening under the watch of the SPLM YL which lost vision, mission and direction long time ago prior to CPA. It has lost vision, mission and direction because the undemocratic leadership which at one point mobilised Kenyan police to beat up its members in Nairobi who were calling for fresh elections in early 2000s.
    The despite the undemocratic nature, YL status quo seems maintainable even in 2014. The chairman continues to dominate every spectrum of the YL activities. He represents the YL on SPLM Political Bureau (PB) and parliament or NLA. Nobody wants to “educate” him on democracy and inclusivity in the affairs of the YL. Even the party leaders have come to accept this lack of democracy, lost of vision and mission in the YL as normal.
    The SPLM YL chairman is the Alpha and Omega full stop. This is the genesis of the problems of the party and by extension the country. They begin in the Youth League which resembles the defunct League of Nations.
    Hilde Johnson the former UNMISS chief sum up the problems facing the country as the responsibility of all the SPLM leaders. Corruption, rule of the gun with impunity and self-serving elites are in the heart of it all. That is an independent view from somebody outside the government. Until this is done, the country will still meet more trouble ahead.
    The SPLM dominance is hardly a blessing for this country. The events of last December confirm this view of the citizens who see through the SPLM party. Liberation alone does not pay bills and so is rewarding impunity. Liberation is not a source of satisfaction by its self. The tragedy of corruption, rule of gun and finally rule for the elites are killing this country in its entirety. It is up to the SPLM in which the people of South Sudan have put their trust in to revisers this unfortunate trend. it should endeavour to reverse the negative trend right away. It requires leadership, stupid!


  52. Malith Alier says:

    Lessons from the Formation of Greater Pibor Administration
    Malith Alier, Juba
    What started as an electoral dispute has taken a different turn. The President has decreed it in law on 30.07.2014 (SSTV). It is history in the making. The Greater Pibor Administrative Area (GPAA) which nobody contemplated is now a reality before all South Sudanese, thanks to a clerical figure in the person of David Yau Yau. All the Murle and others in the area were jubilant on the day it came to pass. There was dancing, ululations and merriment not only in Pibor area but also in Juba, the capital of South Sudan.
    The Murle has many reasons to celebrate including; autonomy, possible acceleration of development and that they have finally done away with marginalisation. Anything worth dying for is worth celebrating for. No doubt about that.
    Looking at it closely, the Murle’s war is everyone’s’ war at least in the heart. There are many people who crave for something called federalism. Federalism manifested itself as Kokora in the past. That is why some people are suspicious about it. However, people are coming to consensus that the country would better be governed through multiple states in form of former colonial districts in the former colonial Sudan. They number twenty three (23). The rebels who are battling the government forces proposed twenty one (21). Twenty one or twenty three, it is the same thing.
    Pibor has just taken the lead. The rest of the country will follow suit. This was a key recommendation by the law makers when they passed the GPAA peace agreement in the Council of States.
    The formation of Greater Pibor Administrative Area through war has taught us many lessons.
    Lesson 1
    War and impunity are rewarded in South Sudan
    The militias who took up weapons against the government for no apparent reasons were always rewarded through integration and high positions. This was usually done lock stock and barrel. Despite the fact that the SPLA law was enacted, nobody bothered its implementation. The law on many occasions went under the carpet in situations where it could be of great help.
    Lesson 2
    South Sudan is viewed in terms of positions, not what one does
    Who is who in South Sudan is what matters than what one does for the country? Those in the government are interested in their positions. There seemed to be a don’t touch my position attitude in the government. Those in the government want to maintain their positions at all cost and those outside the government want to access positions in the government with all the perks and privileges. The government created nonexistent or unconstitutional positions for the sake of accommodation like the position of deputy commander in chief or D. C-in-C. south sudan makes history.
    Lesson 3
    Everybody wants his/her ethnic state/ethnic federalism
    Give me my tribal formation and I will be happier. Tribal land, administration and other resources seem to generate enthusiasm in the regions. The catch is the tribal formation turns against the government in case of misinformation as was the case in the areas under the current rebellion. All the tribal and pro Yay Yau armed forces turned against the government in Boma. The made it possible for rebel forces to capture that town easily. Boma was once captured by the SPLA during liberation struggle. No enemy forces dare to invade it after that.
    Lesson 4
    Tribalism and nepotism are here to stay
    South Sudanese are like Pharisees. They say one thing but do the other. One often hears about talks against tribalism and nepotism but these are promoted privately. Blood is thicker than water kind of. Go and inspect the ministries and commissions and you will confirm this claim for yourself.
    Lesson 5
    The SPLM led government repeats same mistakes over and over again
    The SPLM led government received rebels and rewarded them with positions as long as they do not claim to be president. Any position can be given as demanded.
    Those who take up arms against the state should be subjected to the law according to Constitution. Charges like treason, sedition, murder and disturbing public tranquillity should have been levelled against the insurgents but these are ignored or swept under the carpet. The rebels used to demand for positions however, they now demand for own states as well as the usual reintegration.
    Lesson 6
    Individuals are more powerful than state institutions
    The failure of the state of South Sudan is attributed to weak institutions. However, what makes these institutions of governance weak is not defined. Perhaps self interest manifested by corruption, disregard for the law and tribalism are issues at hand. People have no appetite for doing good for the country because there are no incentives for doing that. One rewards himself/herself and this is what is glorified. Not acting in the best self interest is demonised. There are abundant instances where criminals are protected by their tribesmen when they come in conflict with the law.
    Lesson 7
    Foreign jolly ride
    What is the world saying about South Sudan? What about Sudan and oil? The UN, EU, AU and IGAD won’t allow a little more space for this country to grow. South Sudan as a young nation is also nervous about the way it might be perceived by the vigilant eyes of the superpowers. As such, the country shilly-shallies to satisfy everyone but ends up pleasing no one including the internal front.
    Lesson 8
    Belief in militarism
    This is called belief in the rule of a gun not rule of the law. Rule of the law is only a lip service. It is in the statutes book like other foreign concepts that have never been tested in this country.
    Lesson 9
    Parliament is a toothless watchdog
    All the two chambers of parliament are there for the sake of being there, meaning to receive salaries and being a formality. This view is common like common sense. Further, nobody outside the three arms of government doubts this assertion. The parliament is there to approve every agreement, military or otherwise for favours to continue to flow from the executive. Many of parliamentarians are in the parliament illegally. Those who returned from Khartoum and those who were appointed are only there to please their masters and not the electorate. They are accountable to none other than the one whom they serve. The original members of parliament elected in 2010 were about 250. This number is inflated to over 450 compatriots!


  53. Malith Alier says:

    What is “Rabeccadit” Doing in Nairobi, Kenya?
    The top liberation and political figures are for the first time outside the country in tens if not hundreds. This was due to last December upheaval created by them and them alone. It is worthless to mention them by names because everyone knows them by their three names as well as by their true colours. The South Sudanese masses also know the ones who have left us having accomplished their national duty; let their souls rest in peace.
    The SPLM warring factions were not only political figures, they were also entrepreneurs. They are ardent investors who have extensive investments in hotels, real state, transport, schools, banking industry among others. These investments are owned by some of these folks under the guise of foreigners. It is not clear why they have turned their back on South Sudan and its people despite this fact.
    Until recently, Mama Rabecca was thought to be the foremost mother of the nation. Her great achievements alongside those of her late husband were unmatched in the history of this nation. Don’t call it great nation or “beled azim” yet. This is because the rest of the world regards this country as failed or fragile state. There are reasons for that. In addition, it is always said that let you be praised by others but not by yourself. Self-praise is no recommendation.
    Back to our main topic of what is Rabeccadit doing in Nairobi? The SPLM government is now largely composed of factions who struggle over its name. The factions do not think that life exists outside SPLM. The SPLM main, DC, IO, detainees etc. it is the SPLM of wings and varied interests.
    What is very interesting is that some SPLM members who are also in the government but have left the country as rebels are still holding positions. Rabeccadit is an adviser to the president on gender and social affairs. The president is yet to decree her out of the government. Some South Sudanese like me would like to hear from anybody if this is not true.
    The SPLM factions as above go to Addis Ababa to talk peace but Rabeccadit is stuck in Nairobi. It’s not clear whether she has abandoned the rebellion altogether. “e rot la week Nairobi ci koor xon cam Acok” roughly translated as that lioness who isolated herself after consuming Acok. This is what Rabeccadit has done after escaping coup aftermath. South Sudanese have no idea on how to characterise her. She should tell us if she has abandoned her erstwhile political ambitions. It is always said that if one is not part of the solution one must be part of the problem. This fact however, does not stick in some circumstances. There may be neutral people or koc ke wun ci kuath. The former first lady, Rabeccadit should be unequivocal in this situation of death or life. She must stay true to her calling, to be part of solution or part of the problem. She was part of the problem for three reasons; she tasted power as mother of the first family, she is member of the SPLM, she wanted to be presidential candidate along with other ambitious comrades and finally she was pro coup as evidenced by her unequivocal statements after the coup. She put her words were her mouth belonged.
    Her actions have not only divided the country but also her very children. We know where they are and who supports what. What is not clear in the circumstances is whether Rabeccadit has finally passed the quest for political leadership to her eldest son. Keeping silent about this creates possibilities for rejoinder of the power protagonist in this case Rabeccadit.
    There exists some mystery between the SPLM and Rabecca’s family. The former first family has not managed to dissociate itself from the fond memories of the old SPLM. They do not even know how far the SPLM has come. To them, the SPLM has been hijacked. Rabeccadit spoke and continuously speak about it every moment she dares to make us believe it. It is not a creation of this author. It is in the public domain.
    This writer was once downgraded by someone who thought he was antagonising the former first family. This theory of antagonism rests squarely with Rabeccadit. Despite her position in the government, she continuously antagonises the same government that has greatly honoured her and hubby in many ways. There is no need to mention honours one by one here. All south Sudanese are well aware of them. One wonders whether that gentleman is unaware about the schemes by Rabeccadit to destabilise the current government and recreate the nation in her family image. The bush SPLM is not better than the current one on democracy and human rights records. Corruption is the other dimension added after CPA. It was not clear how Rabeccadit and the group intend to correct those anomalies.
    At this juncture, it is up to the government to delink itself from insatiable families or individuals who think that they are indispensable in the political dispensation. Change is there and nobody should stop it. It is your turn today and my turn tomorrow. There is no fuss about that.
    The SPLM led government should start winnowing the chaff from the grain. Those who have amassed wealth in the period between 2005 and 2013 should go and rest where they stashed that wealth. They process of making them return the loots has failed from the start. Those who have the interest of the country at heart should be allowed to oversee transition to democracy, good governance and the rule of law.


  54. Malith Alier says:

    The Great Humour and Conundrums of the Late Chol Biowei
    The late Chol was not only a politician but also a liberation hero who fought in the SPLA 21 year long war. The late Biowei served in former SSLA, representing Twic East constituency from 2005 to 2010. He was defeated by MP; honourable Deng Dau in 2010 disputed elections that saw the likes of George Athor Deng, David Yauyau and Peter Abdrahman Sule rebelled. Athor sadly lost his life under unclear circumstances and the other two survived and are back in politics today, thanks to dilly dallying with criminals.
    The late Biowei was truly a towering political figure during our time and it will be after a generation when someone might fill his shoes. His humour played out more during the 2010 election when he competed for that political space with other aspirants, opposition, independent or SPLM.
    It is always said that death is a poor reaper. It is further said that death is closer than old age. The late Biowei was still relatively young and strong during his passing. If people die by old age, this was not his time. He passed away together with his son within days of each other. May God rest their souls in eternal peace.
    This piece is not in any way meant to discredit, belittle or insult anyone who might have been involved in elections in the past particularly the 2010 elections.
    Some of the humorous comments involved his rivals in one way or another. Let everyone acknowledge it that each time his humour is narrated, laughter is generated. Rumour has it that he used to tell his supporters and entourage to stop at the border of Bor County and Twic East to tell them another political message encoded in his usual way. This is what this piece is all about and nothing else.
    Let the great humour begin;
    People of Twic East, this is why the folks from Bor County belittle you. You see they take their disabled (maokiin) to Pariak while you take yours to parliament!
    A dog hunted by a woman (jong yeepe tik) never catches a single animal (this is also a wise saying)
    Guess an animal with four eyes and two legs (conundrum)
    If some of these disables (maokiin) are given their past legs, they will reject them because their past legs are thinner than the remaining legs. The war combatants were emaciated in action but after the war, they all look chubby.
    The late Dr. John Garang was an individual with great sense of humour. This was played out on many occasions to anyone who came in contact with him. He was able to motivate, counsel and encourage his troops to continue them on to fight for many years, twenty two in fact without salary or other basic human needs. Everything was in short supply.
    How did he manage this? John Garang was a down to earth guy of his time – a man for all seasons. His approach to the liberation struggle was four or five fold; mass mobilisation, comradeship, commitment, discipline and consistency. John Garang was able to mobilise all South Sudanese and even other Sudanese people around the vision of new Sudan.
    The vision of new Sudan was such an appealing vision to everybody because of the ideals of equality, justice and freedom. Nobody rejects equality because people are borne equal. Man and woman, black and white, big or small are all borne equal. Therefore, God levels us all in death.
    Comrade, which simply means friend, was widely used by everybody in the movement including myself though I rarely use it these days because the only people called themselves comrades or Cde are the ones seated on the country’s oil wealth. Nevertheless, the term comrade was indeed a sign of cooperation and equality.
    The martyr John Garang was committed to a total liberation of South Sudan. He even went further to include other marginalised Sudanese who are also black Africans like us. To show his commitment to the liberation of South Sudan, he was once told by some of his colleagues to quit the movement because of apparent abuses of human rights. He replied to the famous “Garang must go” with a question, where do I go or ya no lou?
    John was also a disciplinarian who instilled strict discipline in the SPLA to letter. The SPLA soldiers were well trained and instructed to not to kill civilians and prisoners of war (POWs). In Dimma, Ethiopia in the nineties, we were jealous of an old Arab man who was running a cooperative shop ostensibly belonging to the movement. We at least wanted him discriminated of liquidated. We questioned the motive for fighting the Arabs while on the other hand treat some of them like kings.
    Unlike his peers, John was consistent in his approach to liberation of South Sudan. Some of his rivals wanted to catch up with him but failed miserably, Riek Machar, Lam Akol, Karbino, Nyuon name them. One of his feet was always a head of those rivals. He was unwavering in the struggle. How many wives did Nyuon and Karbino combined have? Many. Garang was a man of one wife. This was also possible because of discipline. Very few South Sudanese are husbands of one wife. There seem to be an indulgence by leaders who have acquired wealth through corruption to marry as many wives for reasons best known to them. The call for equality of both sexes is challenged by this practice. Take it the other way, what if one wife is shared by many husbands? How would you feel? Remember that this is called polyandry. This form of marriage is practised in some parts of the world.
    One great statement I thought humorous from Garang is about artillery and distribution of resources (food). You know full well that during the struggle everything was in short supply, food, water, medicine and other essentials of life.
    When Garang toured number of camps, he told a group of women that he has brought all sorts of weapons but there was something he did not find, a gun that shoots by itself and someone who can distribute wealth to the satisfaction of everybody. Simply put somebody who is not corrupt.
    Another humour lies in the “taking town to rural areas” which simply looks like a conundrum nobody is able to unlock. This is not new, Robert Gabriel Mugabe also suggested it but it did not take to date even though he is alive.
    Humour is better than beauty. People with great sense of humour have the world under their feet. Abraham Lincoln was not blessed with good looks but because of his great sense of humour, he was able to disarm people to accept what he had to say. He succeeded to become the President and win the civil war because of the powerful way of expressing ideas sometime in a humorous way.
    The late Chol Biowei was an icon because of that great sense of humour.


  55. Malith Alier says:

    South Sudan foreign policy: what the government expects of South Sudan as a nation
    The Centre for Peace and Development Studies of University of Juba organised a lecture by Dr. Barnaba Benjamin, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of South Sudan on the 29 July 2014 in Juba. The lecture was well attended by students of foreign policy and members of the public. This was so for two reasons; the students wanted to have further insights for their course and acquaint themselves with the dynamics of the country’s foreign policy in relations with the rest of the world. Second, the members of the public were attracted perhaps for curiosity and and the fact that the country is regarded as failing in the international arena.
    The country was sharply contradicted by the superpowers as was the case during the Panthou encounter and the December coup d’état.
    The two happenings of Panthou encounter and December coup attempt will be unforgettable in the history of this country. This was the time the young country was put on the spotlight and left without friends after the suffering of many years ended in 2005.
    The foreign policy of any country according to the Minister is a reflection of internal policy. Every country acts in its best interest inside and outside its international boundaries. Countries are like people!
    The government’s vision of South Sudan is embedded in seven pillars. These pillars also make the profile of south Sudan according the Minister. Here is the would be profile of South Sudan nation;
    1 Educated and informed nation
    2 Prosperous, productive and innovative nation
    3 Free, just and peaceful nation
    4 Democratic and accountable nation
    5 Safe and secure nation
    6 United and proud nation
    7 Compassionate and tolerant nation
    This is glowing indeed. This nation would like to process such attributes which ultimately may become its profile. Every civilised nation has all these attributes in its quiver and this country should not be an exception.
    The current wars and upheavals are but a teething problem and will come to an end and the country will be proud once again.
    South Sudan has what it takes to be a viable nation. It has vast land with agricultural potential. It has remarkable physical features like river Nile, the Sudd, the longest and biggest in the world respectively. It has mountains. It has enormous wildlife which attracts tourism. It has forests as vast as the land. It has untapped vast minerals underneath. These resources are unmatched in the region. Therefore, the country only needs peace and tranquillity in order to develop.
    What more can you say of this country? The talk of investment is futile without peace. South Sudanese are scattered all over the world. They have no confidence in their country, leave alone foreigners who know little about it. Only a peaceful and tolerant nation has the potential to advance in a lightning speed pace.


  56. Malith Alier says:

    Parliament, a toothless watchdog: a response to Thomas Wani Kundu of Information Committee in National Assembly, NA in Juba
    By: Malith Alier, Juba
    Please forward this article to Juba Monitor for Publication
    This article is in response to his article on 8 August which was written in response to my original article on the 6 of the same month.
    I first of all thank goodness that Members of Parliament (MPs) are listening to the general public about issues affecting this dear country at the moment. It is further appreciated that they even spare time to respond to some issues put forward by individuals like myself. This is commendable.
    Coming to the article as it were, it is not the exact numbers of members of Parliament that matter but rather, how they got there and what they do as their Constitutional mandate. It really doesn’t matter whether the number is just one or four hundred fifty. What I put forward were just approximations which were not the core issue. Now you said that according to Transitional Constitution MPs are categorised into three; 170 elected members of Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly, 96 members of from defunct National Assembly in Khartoum and finally the President’s appointees numbering 66.
    We all know that the Constitution you referred to is a document subject to manipulations and this happened on many occasions I will cite later. The document itself was also controversially passed in July 2011 as a matter of urgency. The reason was that it gave away to much power to one man to wield to the disadvantage of everybody.
    The formation of a huge government after 2010 elections was countered by a public demand for a lean government. This lean government was not only meant for the executive. It should have encompassed all arms of the government; the executive, Parliament and the judiciary. Instead, it was only the executive which was downsized in 2013 from over fifty ministers and their deputies.
    I do not see the reason why it stopped there. The current Parliaments should have been slashed by the same percentage. The bulk of Khartoum 96 and the appointed 66 are too many and a supernumerary. They really represent nobody in that House. The appointment of 66 MPs which amounted to 39 percent of the elected MPs is a testimony to the excesses granted to the President by the said Constitution. The appointing authority should have the power to appoint just 12 MPs to balance the power equation. However, this number should not exceed 20 appointees. The appointment of about 40% of the elected House is not in place because the same House is predominantly SPLM. So the President does not need extra MPs to be able to pass bills and govern effectively.
    The existence of the Council of State is another controversy planted in the State of South Sudan. This is a cut and paste from the Sudan we left and for good reasons. The extra chamber of 50 members serves no meaningful purpose for the people of this Country. The States do not need another parliament because they already have their own parliaments on the ground. If anyone wants to make it meaningful, he/she should transform it to be a Senate so as to scrutinise and approve laws made by the National Assembly. In doing that, South Sudan will be different from Khartoum and its bad policies that made us separate. Nevertheless, to make the matters worse unfortunately, the Council of States makes collaboration agreements with that in Khartoum before our very eyes. Wonders will never cease!
    Everyone knows that there are consequences for not limiting the House to only elected MPs. One of these is the strain on the country’s budget. The huge size of the government included the accommodated ones is the reason why over eighty per cent of the budget goes to salaries of Constitutional post holders and civil servants. Another issue is that of Constituency Development Fund (CDF). The information we have is that the MPs voted to share CDF funds among themselves equally. Where do the 96 from Khartoum and the 66 appointed MPs take their CDF monies? The CDF money that goes to this extra number of MPs amounts to (96+ 66)* 700,000 which is equals to SSP 113,400,000 (SSP one hundred thirteen million four hundred thousand). If you have any information about this please let us know.
    We know that honourable members from Khartoum were legitimately elected in 2010. There is no question about that. The question is why are they included in the current Parliament without fresh elections? You are well aware that their former Constituencies are no longer on the map of this country. They served in Khartoum for five years from 2005 to 2011. This time is long enough for them to have accomplished the task and impart their expertise to the young generation.
    Nobody denies that while in Khartoum, the MPs served this country to the best of their ability but is it a justification to continue in a representative House where they represent on one except themselves?
    All of us contributed for the liberation and betterment of this country in one way or another. There are those who fought in the bush, those who contributed while inside Sudan, those who contributed in materials during the struggle and even those who contributed through the word of mouth. I wonder whether you have compensated them all. There are those who died before those MPs in Khartoum in the service of this nation, those who perished in the thick of it. Be reminded that the ones who died in Khartoum died of natural causes and do not need special status in the country.
    Therefore, moving from Khartoum to Juba as Parliamentarians is akin to clinging on to power. They should have been given their retirement dues and send to their villages for good.
    The reasons why this Parliament is a toothless watchdog are many. However, this is not today’s observation only. Many independent observers documented this since 2005. The defunct Parliament of Southern Sudan under Igga and the current Parliament under Rundial are the same peas of the same mother. Their only function is to pass anything in a conveyer belt manner. Tell me anything else they did not pass through a “conveyer belt” except Telar Deng, the 2013 nominated minister of Justice.
    Mr. Kundu your Parliament has been branded a rubber stamp Parliament. You watched the President removing elected governors unconstitutionally. The 60 day time limit to conduct by-elections elapsed but you kept mum.
    The President wrote letters to 75 corrupt government officials to return the stolen money to the government coffers. You tried to move to suspend them but the executive silenced you.
    Your House was intimidated during the elections of House Speaker by the very President who is supposed to uphold the doctrine of separation of powers as in the Constitution. The current Speaker was imposed on the House against the conduct of business regulations. You as the legislative arm of the government were attacked on your backyard but you went underground. One would imagine that this was the rare opportunity for you to bite if you had any teeth.
    The various militias continued to be reintegrated against the SPLA Act but the Parliament is always there to just approve.
    New States are being created outside the Constitutional framework like the Greater Pibor Administrative Area. You just ratify!
    The foreign currency crisis in November 2013 saw all MPs rising against the Central Bank of South Sudan (BSS). This was a clear attack on the independence of an institution like BSS for no good reasons. The mere rise of the exchange rate from 3.16 to 4.50 per Dollar was a sole responsibility of the said Bank. Now the Dollar is trading at 5.00 Pounds per Dollar but you’re no were to intervene.
    The local government Act of 2012 is dormant to date. The County Commissioners and assemblies continue to be appointed instead of being directly elected as stipulated by the Act. What is your take on this? The claim that there is no money to run elections is bogus and absurd. Why is it that there is no money for elections while millions are siphoned to foreign bank accounts by corrupt officials in the same government?
    Every South Sudanese wonders why you people continue to partially cite this document called South Sudan Transitional Constitution?
    Asking me to apologise for stating the fact is not a good start. I have not misinformed or intended to mislead the public in this regard. If anything, it is you people in Parliament who should apologise to the people who sent you to represent them but you chose to sit on the job. A question still lingers what have you done to improve the livelihoods of the people of this country? Under your watch corruption thrives, rule of gun rather than rule of law is the order of the day. The current civil war should have been averted but you failed to just act. The country is failing diplomatically and many more. There are many questions than answers in this country.


  57. Malith Alier says:

    Rebecca Is Finally Off To the Road and Running
    By: Malith Alier, Juba
    Eight months in the stomach of the rebellion and on the payroll for doing nothing? Welcome to South Sudan, the land of the “slow to react.”
    Finally, today, the 19th of August 2014 AD after long and internecine eight months has seen the removal of the rebellious Presidential Advisor on Gender, Child and Religious Affairs along with other seven Legal Counsels from the Ministry of Justice. The fact that this was long overdue cannot be overemphasised. Eight months into the conflict that has killed tens of thousands is a long time in politics. A revolution like the failed coup can take just hours. Killing a million can take hours with the introduction of machine guns.
    The saying that there are no permanent enemies or friends in politics has lastly become a reality at least in the context of South Sudan. Alternatively, the “sacred cows” are no longer sacred. Further, the voice of reason has prevailed.
    Nyandengdit truly took a deadly and controversial approach in the current conflict. Those who have the audacity to back her up have no understanding of the damage the tongue does. The tongue is like a bushfire that consumes the whole bush including anything along its way like homes. Further, the Bible says that it is not what goes in that is harmful but it is what goes out from inside that caused more harm.
    Rebecca stoked up the fire by what came out from inside her to the whole world from sixteenth December 2013 immediately after the eruption of violence in the country. Talking to the BBC carelessly about what one has no complete grasp contributed to the current stalemate by at least 50%.
    The bush mentality where everyone including Nyandeng was awarded a military rank without training is killing this country along with politico-military mixture as a modus operandi. It is too bad to allow some politician to talk military matters in the way Rebecca did to the BBC. If South Sudan is still learning then this is a lesson it will never forget.
    The fact that Rebecca was married to late Garang should never again deceive anyone in this country. She was let scot-free on many occasions in the same belief that she will turn over a new leaf but to no avail. The December 6 conference and the BBC interview were unforgivable but forgiven inequities against her position in the government. On the other hand, being a Presidential Advisor and on payroll long after rebellion did not persuade her to look back and say eh I belonged here. Both the efforts of the President and the patience of the citizens were also in vain.
    It is the government to blame for all this. The eruption of the conflict is a sole responsibility of the government in power. The government of the day has all the resources at her disposal to utilise to develop, protect and maintain peace internally and externally. The government has the oil money to develop the country, it has the constitution and the armed forces to protect and maintain peace within and without.
    Now and after the utter failure of the government of the day to utilise all the available capacity, it should act with speed to bring certain matters under control. Many rebels in the bush are still on active list in the military and civil service. Their dues continue to flow to them or their relatives without scrutiny. The same government under attack should not continue to aid rebels through meagre resources.
    This author in the past recommended that the government;
     Remove all rebels from active service
     Freeze rebel assets within the country with no exceptions
    This is slowly taking place because South Sudan is a land of the “slow.”
    Two days ago, a woman who camps in UNMISS compound in Juba but on the same time remained on the government payroll was denied her salary not because she is away from work but because she ran there with her child from a previous marriage. She was coerced to return the child to the father and later allowed to receive her pay for doing nothing.
    Rebecca Nyandeng as well as the G7 from Ministry was on the payroll and active service after eight months into the conflict.
    These are just but a few. There are thousands perhaps millions who are ghost workers on the list in the government. They were once employees of the government but have rebelled. They must be detached from the government which has to them, became a foe.
    President George W. Bush once said that a war cannot be a campaign of half measures. This should be the motto for South Sudanese who remain in the country.


  58. Malith Alier says:

    Rizik’s Invitation of Capital is a Gesture of Patriotism – Goodwill
    What more can a patriotic citizen do in this country than to right a dysfunctional situation. Juba, Wau and Malakal are former headquarters of the former three southern provinces of the then Sudan. Every South Sudanese have an idea of what they look like and at least are informed about them in the past and present.
    Juba, Wau and Malakal were also used as garrison towns during the wars of liberation, both the Anya nya and the SPLA wars.
    Juba, in the former Equatoria province has its fair share of controversies. It is the birthplace of Kokora. It is inhabited by the most selfish and enigmatic tribes in form of the Bari speakers.
    This author is not sure why Juba was chosen in 1972 after APA to host the headquarters of the Southern Region (SR) when it was not suitable for the purpose. The same mistake reoccurred in 2005 after the CPA. The entrenched selfishness characterised by hostility of the Bari speakers is what made patriotic citizens of Western Bhar El Ghazal to invite the capital for Wau nahr!
    On the 16 July 2014, Mr. Rizik Zachariah Hassan suggested that the capital be transferred from Juba to Wau in a rare gesture of goodwill never seen or heard of from anybody in this country. He went on to defend the suggestion on the 16 August exactly one month later on many grounds among them is the issue of “land grabbing” supposedly prevalent in Juba.
    Land grabbing is the single important issue cited by the Jubans or the host community year in year out. This is such that people who come from elsewhere outside Equatoria region are all land grabbers.
    On the other hand, Wau is unlikely to dwell so much on the land grabbing because it has a master plan lacking for Juba as explained by the Governor. Another advantage of Wau over Juba is that, people there are more peaceful and hospitable compared to Juba. This means that people allow proper processing of plots and issuance of title deeds in a transparent way which is not the case in Juba. The Bari speakers and other Equatorians are the ones who connive to issue themselves and foreign magnates with land titles exclusively. This is how low nationalism has become in Equatoria.
    Wau has learned from the shenanigans of Juba. Juba is a place of shifting sands. The 1980s Kokora and the post CPA contention of central and state governments over a piece of land called Juba. A scenario where every government wants to outmanoeuvre the other over land without regard to the law is surely untenable. It is therefore; fair to say that this stalemate over Juba is a result of lack of leadership in a strong personality at both levels of the government.
    Governor Rizik is there to correct this misunderstanding over Juba. He has what it takes to move beyond Juba crisis. First of all, he is the first Governor to sequestrate the State headquarters from the County headquarters. He managed to move two County headquarters which were in Wau to Bagari and Nyinakok, something impossible anywhere in the whole of South Sudan. He overcame both procrastination and protest in the County headquarters.
    Based on this, Governor Rizik may be in a position to move the State headquarters away from Wau as soon as the proposal is accepted by the government and the people of South Sudan.
    Benefits of hosting the Capital (main)
     Provides ready market for local goods and services
     Many services to citizens in the area e.g. security
     Employment of local people in public and private sectors
    The myopic people of Juba and by extension of Equatoria failed to see these advantages over the rest of the country.
    Viability of the proposal
    Juba was not at the level it is now before 2005. It was at the level of Wau and Malakal by the virtue of being one of provincial capitals in the Southern Region. However, its status was greatly elevated after 2005 because it not only became headquarters of semi-autonomous region but also became the capital for independent South Sudan. More or less the same applies to the other cities in the country.
    Governor Rizik’s proposal is in line with taking development to other less developed areas in South Sudan. The development we see in Juba today can be taken to Wau in the form of capital transfer from Juba-to-Wau-to-Ramciel.
    The issue of resources can easily be addressed in many ways. The petrodollars are there to assist the transfer. There are also the donor funds for development as well as that of the business community. There is nothing to lose in this scenario because it all goes for one thing, development of South Sudan.
    It is not only South Sudan that moved its capital from one region to another. It happens all over the world for reasons such as ours. The issues of limited land, strategy and other risks are the reasons for doing so. In many cases, the transfer is but for the benefit of the whole nation.
    The proposal governor Rizik put forward and taken at the face value is a gesture of patriotism. He saw that the government and people of South Sudan were stuck over Juba for simple solvable thing called land. South Sudan has abundant land with relatively low population compared to other countries in the region. The quarrel over land should only be heard from East Africa but not South Sudan. South Sudan’s population density is only 13 people per square kilometre. The countries of East Africa have over a hundred people per square kilometre. It is therefore, advisable for people of this country to share all the resources including land amicably without segregation. This is what the people of Western Bhar El Ghazal espoused.


  59. Malith Alier says:

    John Nyuon Must Act to Remove GPAA Officials and MPs in Jonglei
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The creation of Greater Pibor Administration last Month spells that the status quo in Bor cannot be maintained. The local people are nervous about this very issue.
    Indeed one of the consequences of making Pibor and Pochalla Counties a single state meant that the high ranking officials as well as other representatives in Jonglei State Government be allowed to join the new administration in Pibor. Failure to do so for Nyuon is a vote of no confidence in his capacity as Governor.
    The high ranking officials like the Deputy Governor and Minister of Information along with other members of parliament should be axed and transferred to the new administration for fairness sake. The era of having more than one mouth at more than one level is long gone.
    The day before, saw some officials from unaffected Akobo County visit their counterparts in the central government in Juba. They include Dhano Obango, the State Minister of Finance. The purpose of the visit was to reiterate their objection to the new administration.
    The Akobo Anyuak is fairly consisted in regard to the formation of the new administration in Pibor area. The same position is taken by Jie of Boma and Kessengor. Both communities were not included in the talks leading to formation of that administration. Also they were not part of the rebellion.
    The State Government must act in collaboration with the Central Government to transfer the said officials and representatives to the new administration where they rightly belong. In lieu of this, the people of remaining portion of Jonglei have a right to demand their removal forthwith. This is because the government is a representative democratic entity with jurisdiction over a definite area.
    The Central Government in Juba should not be neutral in this circumstance. It has sole responsibility to see to it that all the necessary arrangements including transfer of officials and representatives from the precursor state. It has at least two options; transfer them to Juba or to the new administration. It has already transferred the former Commission of Pibor back to the SPLA. The SPLA is a third option for the Officials and MPs of greater Pibor origin.
    There must be no procrastination to allow the Greater Pibor officials and representatives to continue illegally in Jonglei. Their term in Jonglei State Government expires with the creation of the new administration in Pibor. It is not the responsibility of John Nyuon to continue to accommodate them. Rather, it is the responsibility of Government of South Sudan in Juba to bring them to Juba or take them to where they rightly belong, Pibor State. Time and patience are running out, please act.


  60. Morris’s “Doctrine” and the Situation in Jonglei State
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    What afflicts South Sudan is lack of swift responsiveness to events and occurrences of national importance. This is one of the appalling issues that bring together all levels of government, national or state.
    The insecurity situation in Northern Bahr el Ghazel is a manmade one. NBGS used to be one of the most peaceful states until recently. What has gone wrong is a policy or appointment devoid of reality on the ground. Let everyone take it that way.
    This is also the case in Jonglei State, the first to experience partitioning among equals. Jonglei is the first State in the country not to reconcile itself from the onset. Blood was spilt, animosity brooded and division sawed.
    The current political heat under which Pibor officials in Jonglei are sweating from was created by their brethren from the east. They should take it as a revolution against them. Which means if they can’t beat it they should join it? Simply join the “ngeny-cho” table.
    The relative lull created by formation of GPAA should not deceive even a monkey. The old dragon may rear its head again sooner or later. This is a result of new inequities that are currently running and may be overlooked by people in authority.
    The appointment of John Koang and his subsequent appointment of Deputy Governor are devoid of reality on the ground. This is also the case on the paper, the constitution.
    The Morris Yel “doctrine” is an eye opener throughout the country. Morris Yel Akol was a former Deputy Governor in Western Bahr el Ghazel State, who was later appointed Education Minister in that State in a subsequent reshuffle.
    During his time as minister of education, some MPs and others from the State rose against him on condition that he did not come from WBGS. His real constituency was from Warrap State.
    Finally and after the hullaballoo, the voices of the political opponents were heeded and Morris Yel was relieved and is now either in Warrap State or in oblivion.
    This is exactly the case in Jonglei. The Deputy Governor and the Minister of Information along with other representatives are rendered outsiders by the creation of the new state in the east. On the light of this, their continued stay in Jonglei administration looks like a colonial conspiracy in the making. The understanding is that, they are just waiting for the word “go” and will surely be gone.
    There are good reasons for them to do so. In the old Sudan, government officials were assigned whenever and to wherever central government would like them to be. It worked during that time. However, with the advent of democracy today it is no longer the case. The current government is solely a representative entity that is only subordinate to the people perhaps at least on the paper. If this is the case, no one should lose sight about that.
    Secondly, the new entity created in Pibor bears no linkages to that in Jonglei. It is headed by somebody equal to the Governor in Jonglei. On this basis, it neither contributes taxes nor pays allegiance to Jonglei.
    Thirdly, the constitutional and representative posts come directly from the masses. This means that these posts are not assigned from one state to another. May be the civil service posts are subject to roster. The very Jonglei tried it but it did not work as planned. The ones assigned to Counties other then where they come from were slaughtered on first day of the conflict. The most affected were the Executive Directors (EDs) and Civil Administrators (CAs).
    Failure to act in time whenever an opportunity arises is a worse thing a human being can do. Many misfortunes on their infant stages can be avoided if only people in authority are vigilant. The current situation created by the state division does not need logorrhoea. It is in the interest of Jonglei and GPAA as well as South Sudan to call a spade a spade and not the other way round. I hope the case is hammered home.


  61. Malith Alier says:

    Why I love presidential and gubernatorial decrees
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    President Kiir once jokingly said that when “I remove officials they complain but no one complains when I appoint the same officials in to the government.” This was after the time he dissolved the entire government including the Vice President who is now a rebel leader fighting the government he once was a VP.
    The president has been using decrees to appoint and remove government officials, even members of parliament since 2005. What is a decree then?
    A decree is a command by the president in the context of South Sudan which must be complied with. It is an order or law which is embedded in the Constitution of the Republic of South sudan. There is no single instance where these decrees were not implemented no matter how they were viewed. They were simply implemented without fail.
    On this point, there is something interesting about the presidential decrees that we have so far witnessed. They are both mysterious and dogmatic in a sense and the way they’re presented. They remain a mystery because they are not subject to interpretations. Further, the president is not obliged to give reasons for any decree.
    Section 101 of the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South sudan accorded the President enabling power to appoint and remove the appointed government officials as he wishes. Whether he should explain grounds for such removals or appointments is another thing altogether. The sackings/dismissals are often referred to as relieve (relief) of Mr. so and so. This is political correctness at the highest order.
    There seems to be developing a decree “blood” in the country. This is so at the many levels of the government. The use of decrees is an extraordinary practice. It has been ingrained in the government and now seems normal.
    The state governors are the second after the President then the County Commissioners and the Payam administrators. Even church pastors recently joined the queue of decree holders. What is there to observe in all this is that the degree of implementation of those decrees at various levels of the government diminishes downwardly.
    The Juba County Commissioner announced several decrees since ascension to office but most of them are deemed unimplementable from day one. Of the particular interest here is that of helmet for bodaboda or motorcycle riders and their passengers.
    The Commissioner decreed that all those who ride motorbikes in Juba County must have helmets for protection on the road. The decree is as good as is on the paper.
    The dogmatic presidential decrees, particularly the ones used to sack officials conceal the circumstances of wrongdoing. They leave speculation over the government or the workplace. Perhaps it is only the affected that is fully aware of what transpired between his/her workplace and the president or the appointing authority.
    In some instances, the decrees are used as a means to transfer officials from one post to another. The president can remove an undersecretary and reappoint them as minister either in the same ministry or to another ministry. We have also witnessed officials being relieved from the states to appoint in the national government. However, this is one of the controversial parts especially if the official was elected by the people in that state.
    The elected governors of Unity and Lakes were relieved and are now in the rebellion. The other two former governors of Jonglei and Northern Bahr el Ghazel were relieved to be reappointed in the national government.
    Of course there were instances where the presidential appointment decrees were revoked or altered overnight. A period of twenty hours of appointment was the shortest time in the appointment for some officials. Something must have gone wrong somewhere but nobody needed to make fuss about for same reasons of the aboveboard the decrees are.
    Both the presidential decrees may be used to correct an anomaly in the system. In some instances, they’re used to create nonexistent institutions like the Greater Pibor Administrative Area. They have been used to reintegrate militias into the army. They are sometimes used to appointment members who should have been subject to elections such as members of parliament. So they simply have wide ranging application in the republic.


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  63. Malith Alier says:

    Another Twist in the formation of Greater Pibor Administrative Area
    By Malith Alier
    The formation of GPAA no longer makes headlines in the country. However, today, 3 September 2014 has seen another decree appointing two deputies to Hon. David Yauyau, the Administrator of the newly formed quasi Pibor State, quasi in the sense that, the head of that State is equal to a governor of a state but under the Office of the President.
    For reference purposes, the President of the Republic decreed the formation of GPAA on 30 July 2014 while its head was appointed after consultations a few days later.
    The formation of GPAA is not necessarily a bad thing; it may be a blessing in disguise not only to Jonglei but also to the entire country. The three Counties of Bor, Twic East and Duk are experiencing a relative peace like never before as a result. This is a firm belief of this author.
    The formation of GPAA is a blue print for those who are calling for ethnic federalism in the country. These groups include the rebels and those who are giving pressure to the government within its ranks.
    To the critics of this move, be informed that GPAA was negotiated by the church leaders under intense circumstances as exerted by the current Riek Machar rebellion. The government couldn’t manage two rebellions simultaneously. It was only apparent something had to be done to avoid that scenario. The possibility of the two rebel groups merging a reality.
    This writer has written about five journals on the topic of formation GPAA under David Yauyau, the theologian turned rebel leader and now politician. Perhaps it is time to write a volume for posterity on the same.
    Coming back to the story, if your guess is as good as mine, the officials appointed as deputies to the new Administrator are one Anyuak and one Jie to assist a Murle in the person of that Administrator. The assistants appointed will head administration and finance on the one hand and “services” on the other hand. This is good because it is power sharing among the communities who were hitherto reluctant to form one cohesive unit in Pibor area. The Jie and one section of Anyuak voiced concern for the same administration under Murle.
    The twist in the formation of GPAA is that, as much as it was envisaged to be like a state of its own, it is now like a University of Juba administration. This is so, because the two deputies are like the two Deputy Vice Chancellors assisting the University Vice Chancellor as under administrative and finance and that of academic affairs. There is hardly any difference at all between the administration of the Universities and that of GPAA.
    The first twist was that, the peace deal was negotiated and inked by church leaders but not directly by the government. The agreement was handed to the government on a silver plate for endorsement. This helps explain why the sons of Greater Pibor Area are marooned in Bor in the former uniting State. They are now in a political limbo where they can easily be challenged by anybody for political prostitution. It has never happened anywhere in this country to exchange politicians between states. Even that of civil servants is nonexistent.
    The problems of Greater Pibor Area are numerous, not only in the current context but also in the past. Greater Pibor is inhabited by pastoralists, mainly the Murle who do not get on well or give breath to neighbours because of cattle. The issue of cattle was later expanded to include child abduction perhaps because of barrenness among the Murle.
    A simple understanding of existing States as enshrined in Constitution of South sudan is that, they’re headed by a Governor and Council of Ministers as the executive body on the one hand and State Legislative Assembly on the other hand. There is also a State judiciary to interpret laws of the State.
    The agreement with South Sudan Democratic Movement, Cobra Faction of 2014 in Addis Ababa stipulated that the head of GPAA has a status similar to a state Governor. It therefore, goes without saying that the nascent state in the east should have the same structures like other states in the country. However, it may be a matter of time before this is done.
    Greater Pibor area is vast and requires full administration like other states in the country. Any other than that is insufficient. The reports coming from the area is that, the area lacks qualified personnel which partly explain its underdevelopment. Doctors, teachers and other specialised skills are direly in short supply.
    It simply means that the marooned sons and daughters of GPAA in Jonglei State Government have a major role to play in the new administration. They can either continue in politics in Pibor or be of any other service to Greater Pibor Administrative Area.
    It is not wise to completely entrust the entire GPAA to the inexperienced young rebels leaving out the most experienced in another state that does not need them. The remaining nine Counties in the State have highly qualified sons who can filled in the posts current manned by people who have opted out of the extant State.
    In short, the creation of Pibor Administrative Area is a blue print for the future federal State in the Republic of South Sudan. The current trend in quest for federalism is unstoppable not event by the SPLM. This is evidenced in the creation of GPAA albeit under rebellion. The Government of South Sudan and the head of GPAA should be bold enough to incorporate their citizens without favour or fear.


  64. Malith Alier says:

    The Fragmented Political Opposition Takes its quarrels to the Addis Ababa Peace Talks
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The seventeen (17) political parties which are in the Addis peace talks as part of a multi-stakeholder approach to those talks are at it again. Their political nature in the country can’t be more wanting. They accused each other, replaced their leader, dissolved the first committee to the talks and finally replaced someone who represented them on the government side.
    A brief history of the current conflict and the ongoing peace talks in Ethiopia is necessary to understand the dynamics of the peace negotiations.
    It all began as a power struggle in the ruling SPLM party. The three contenders; Riek, Pagan and Rebecca for the chairmanship later united and formed the December 6 opposition.
    The December six opposition, planned a rally for December 14 which was however, abandoned because of SPLM National Liberation Council (NLC) meeting tentatively planned for the same day. The 14th December event went in the NLC way. However, the temperatures boiled over on the following day and therefore, resulted in the gun violence.
    Violence is what many generations of South Sudanese have known for close to a hundred years. The current conflict is just an extension of the past violence, something some people said caused great trauma to the affected people.
    The main topic of this piece is the weakness and fragmentation of the opposition parties in South Sudan political arena.
    The fragmented and divisive political opposition is also characterised as weak perhaps because of the existence of the almighty SPLM. The opposition parties struggled together for a slot on the Addis talks but they now seem not to agree and stay together after incorporation into the talks. They now hold new conference after news conference to address the nonexistence political ghosts.
    “We have closed the gap and we have washed our faces” said Dr. Martin Elia Lomoro of the seventeen political parties in Juba on 12 Sep. 14. How clean they have washed their faces remains to be seen by the people of this country. What is clearly apparent is the division and fragmentation of the opposition in the face of SPLM dominance and manipulation. Martin Elia Lomoro is the Minister of cabinet affairs in the SPLM dominated government. This is one way the SPLM manipulates the opposition by incorporating influential leaders like the said minister.
    A mere statement to the media by the political opposition while standing behind one another does not mean that they have closed the gap leave alone having washed their faces. It should instead be more than that. Dissolving the seventeen opposition parties to form one strong opposition is a strong indication to address the current mess the opposition is in. this also goes a long with resignation of those in the current government like Dr. Lomoro himself.
    At the early stages of the peace talks, the role of the other stakeholders was not yet clear. The government and the SPLM/SPLA in Opposition were the main protagonists in those talks. However, the SPLM/A in Opposition pushed for a multi-stakeholder process to include all South Sudanese people inside and outside the country. Also on the internal front, the political parties, religious groups, civil society alliance and other stakeholders pressed IGAD to be allowed to take part in the talks. Their prayers were eventually answered and the IGAD mediators accepted this argument.
    Prior to this Dr. Lam Akol of the SPLM-DC and Joseph Ukel of USAP were parts of the government delegation to the talks. However, the new arrangement saw Joseph Ukel moving to the opposition political parties and Dr. Lam Akol remaining in the government delegation in addition to being head of the opposition political parties’ delegation.
    This new dispensation was later affected by the same divisive opposition politics in the country. The good Dr. Lam was accused by the opposition delegates of having met Riek Machar without their knowledge. He was finally replaced the din by someone else ahead of the next round of talks schedule for the second half of September 2014.
    The suitability of Opposition Delegation to the Addis peace talks is seriously now in question. During the meeting of the political parties Council in the State House, Juba, about seven of those opposition political parties elected not to attend that meeting. They included the SPLM-DC which is the largest opposition party in South Sudan. The reasons for that are many; replacement of Lam Akol and lack of unity among those parties are in the forefront.
    The South Sudan opposition parties have image problem as evidenced by the way they appeared after the fall out in Addis Ababa. This spelt their doom politics and the constant manipulation by the majority party whose structures are seriously dented by the infighting for power but people are not joining other parties because of the fear of the unknown.
    By the examination of individual delegates of the opposition, one would conclude that they appear to be naïve and less knowledgeable about the country they would like to talk about on the negotiation table. You would often hear during news conferences that they called “South Sudan” as Southern Sudan, a name abandoned since 2011. The further, called people of South Sudan as “people of Southern Sudan.” They simply look like those Ugandans or Kenyans who ask South Sudanese “when did you come from Southern Sudan?” Mind you dear that this author on many occasions, reminded them that the former half country known as Southern Sudan is now called South Sudan.
    The reasons why some people are oblivious of the changes that had taken place in former “Southern Sudan” is that most of them were in Khartoum during the war and are permanently used to “Southern Sudan.” Another possible reason is that some of them have poor memory and are like the proverbial zebra that only retained “Z” as the only letter in the alphabet. There is also the language problem. Some of them are fluent in Arabic and learning English is a hell of a problem to them.
    The relevance of the opposition delegates to the peace talks is therefore, seriously damaged by infighting caused by image problem. Furthermore, the top individuals in the opposition delegation seem to lack requisite information about the country on their fingertips. “Southern Sudan” is first Addis Ababa Peace Agreement (APA) and Comprehensive peace Agreement (CPA) era designation. It should only be used when dealing or referring to those agreements and not in the matters that do not relate to APA and CPA. Simply put, it is a relic of APA and CPA.
    And finally the opposition is only fooling itself by displaying their failure at home in Addis peace talks.


  65. Malith Alier says:

    The Village Constitution in a State of Sudan
    A constitution is a legal charter by which the modern state derives its legal framework. The existence of a modern state could be meaningless without a “source” that guides and gives it a direction to follow. A constitution is what mitigates the chaotic environment under which the modern state exists. This definition is author’s attempt with no reference elsewhere. Note also that the author is not a legal expert.
    Candidly speaking, a constitution is a big volume with many parts on many subjects such as power, internal and external rules, how to allocation resources, how to deal with crime and any other issue a particular state may adopt.
    There are two types of constitutions, written and unwritten constitutions. Great Britain has unwritten constitution and South Sudan has a written one.
    Prior to independence of the Sudan in 1956, a country called Southern Sudan was forcefully united with Sudan to become one country as the British prepared to leave. The Sudan became one country under one constitution on the above date.
    The Constitution of the Sudan was not well known because people in the southern part were largely illiterate and were oblivious of the national happenings. This illiteracy resulted in people interpreting the constitution in their own way. They came up with what may be referred to as a village constitution.
    A constitution of my village could have been a two page document if it were written. That constitution could also have been full of facts mixed with anecdotes and hearsay. Either way, the constitution guided the people of my village who were and are still the backbone of the country’s economy. At the same time they offer unwavering support to the political establishment in the state.
    In my village where I grew up from, the constitution is unwritten like the British one. It was however, maintained in the psyche of the elders as custodians of it form of customary law.
    That constitution is precise. It has no clauses on women rights, child rights, gay rights and many other mushrooming rights of today. However, this does not mean that there were no specific rights for the above groups except gays.
    I remember the following assertions from the unwritten constitution of my village;
    1* that if you don’t pay taxes you will not be compensated if killed
    2* you won’t be given a leadership position if unmarried
    3* Pay taxes to the government in towns and cities but expect no services in return
    4* election should be by consensus
    Now let’s examine these assertions in light of today’s South Sudan Transitional Constitution.
    1* in the TCSS there is a clause that requires individuals to pay taxes in form of Personal Income Tax (PIT). In the same way, businesses as legal entities pay Business Profit Tax (BPT) or simply corporate tax.
    There is no connection between paying or not paying taxes with criminal murder or manslaughter. What is in the law is that an individual or corporation may be charged for tax evasion. Note the difference between tax evasion and tax avoidance. It is illegal to evade taxes. Note also that people claim that there are two things one won’t avoid in life; taxes and death are “must meet phenomena.”
    2* Condoleezza Rice of the USA was appointed a Secretary of State though unmarried. Being unmarried in my village constitution may be equated to being an underage. In the current TCSS, one can vote or hold certain positions at the age of 21. You can even become president at forty (40) years. There is no requirement for a marriage certificate here.
    3* I think the issue of taxation was misunderstood by then. Some people thought that taxes are used as a form of punishment for certain crimes. It nearly happened in Jonglei when the youth were accused of sloth. The governor there wanted to reintroduce taxes so that the idle youth may be induced to work because taxes are coming their way. Forcing people to work in order to pay taxes has no basis and at the same time may be unconstitutional. Taxes are simply paid in order for the government of the day to deliver services like health, education, maintain security and the likes.
    In the past, everybody was required to pay taxes willy nilly. In the old Sudan taxes were determined by your age. Anybody from 18yrs and above must pay taxes full stop. The poor farmers (traditional farmers) were required to pay from their produce in forms of grains or livestock. At the later time, the same farmers were able to pay in money. What was very interesting was that nobody expected services in return of taxes paid. It was like what Jesus said “give Caesar what belongs to Caesar”
    4* the elections of those days were really messy. I remember voting at the age of seven for someone whose name or office to be elected to I didn’t know. This occurred on a village school in the late 1970s. Simply, everybody including children used to vote in the old Sudan.
    Another issue which is still in existence today is the consensus around one candidate. You would often hear that Mr. so and so should be allowed an opposed. The last election in 2010 saw this drive for consensus and preferred candidates. This is a tool used to bar opposition candidates who may also have sizeable support in a constituency. It was used by parties and by certain communities but it came with consequences. Some candidates broke away in the last election and contested as independents. This is a direct result of the bias consensus expectation.
    The current TCSS of South Sudan is at odds with some aspects of customary law. This is also true of international conventions that South Sudan already ratified. Majority of UN conventions had been ratified in their entirety.


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  67. Malith Alier says:

    Disaster Funds under the Care of Suspicious Jonglei Administration
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    I first of all salute esteemed readers of my articles on the blog. I have been off view for over two weeks because of some reasons including an unfortunate accident on the 23rd of September that landed me in conflict with the law. However, God is great, the accident with the potential to kill didn’t cause great bodily harm and I am greatly thankful to almighty God for saving the situation.
    That aside, the political events in Jonglei leading to the sacking of the minister of cabinet affairs, Mr. Gai Riem did not come as a surprise. Many of my articles about Jonglei foretold such events like this corruption on a grand scale never witnessed before in that embattled State. For what do you expect of the composition of an administration devoid of reality on the ground.
    Some important changes that no one seems to heed included the current running rebellion. The second most important other reason is the creation of Greater Pibor Administrative Area (GPAA) which virtually partitioned the South Sudan largest State into two independent States ending the designation. The theft of SSP 3 million is just a tip of iceberg. More will surely come. of 4th October reported that the State Acting or Caretaker Governor failed to take proper care of State affairs leading to loss of recovery funds to the tune of the above mentioned sum. Let it be recalled that Jonglei State Council of Ministers approached the central government in Juba to borrow money to pay former MPs allowances and pensions from 2005 to 2010. Those MPs included the current serving MPs like Judi Jonglei and colleagues. The amount requested is just shy of SSP 2 million on top of the squandered sum.
    There was a church quarrel about twelve years ago when one clergyman who was sent to solve the dispute told everyone involved that they must all shut up because no one among those involved has any truth in them.
    This is the same message one would like to tell John Koang who presided over the scandal. There is a conga line of those who stand to benefit from this scandal. On top is the acting governor, don’t even call him a State caretaker governor because he shown that he takes care of himself and some ministers. Next in line is the deputy governor, minister of finance, minister of cabinet affairs who is Gai Riem and finally minister of information. The list of colluders may be long.
    To help Jonglei as early as now it needs intervention of the Kiir led government in Juba. The following is the possible solution;
    1. Sack the whole administration of Jonglei and appoint a fresh Caretaker Governor
    2. Send those who belong to GPAA to Pibor as they are warming the seats in Bor for nothing
    3. Arrest Gai Riem if he has not yet joined the rebels to fully account for misappropriated recovery funds.
    The above steps are crucial in order to putting back Jonglei on the right track. No one in their right mind expects jackals and hyenas to take care of remnants of goats and sheep left behind by other hyenas.


  68. Malith Alier says:

    Breaking News: Lologo Paralysed by Transport Lockdown
    By Malith Alier
    This has been coming albeit slowly. Since coming to Juba by rebels of the SPLM/A was made possible by the CPA, the road network development was uneven in the capital of the autonomous region and by extension the-would-be Republic. The main roads to various suburbs of Juba like the road to Newsite and Bilpham, the one going to Gudele 1 & 2, Jebel Dinka and Luri, the road to Mauna, Nyakuron west, Rock city, and the road to Jebel market that joins Yei Highway road are fully maintained unlike the poorly planned informal Lologo road.
    Facts about Lologo
    Lologo, located about eight kilometres from Juba City centre (Juba City is from KCB Juba branch) is part of Rajaf Payam. It comprises Lologo 1 & 2 just like sisterly sprawling suburbs of Juba with duplicate names 1 & 2. This is because of informal settlement with unclear demarcation and separation of suburbs leading to confusion on possible naming of these areas of settlement. Lologo as part of Rajaf Payam, Juba County is outside the jurisdiction of Juba City Council (JCC). Juba City encompasses Kator, Juba and Munuki which are referred to as town blocks with some administrative structures called Quarter Councils.
    Lologo 1 & 2 is inhabited by poor people with lowest income in the whole of Juba. The private car ownership comes down to just ten or slightly over that figure as a personal estimate by this writer. This means that about nine tenth of the population is reliant on public transport to and from the main market of Konyokonyo about 6 kilometres away. The difference in transport fare between boda boda and a van popularly known as “bus” is eight South Sudanese Pounds (SSP8). Travelling by bus, costs SSP1 to Lologo 1 and SSP2 to number 2. Many people do not afford the huge gap between boda boda and the van.
    Lologo transport woes came to a head today the 13th October 2014 when the motorists or precisely the transport operators decided that enough is enough. The reading of this decision is that Lologo has been neglected for a long time and something has to be done about it. Reps have been elected to the two parliaments of South Sudan and Central Equatoria but do not live in the area and have no firsthand knowledge of what affects those who live in this area. It seems that their contact with Lologo was in 2010 elections and may possibly be in 2015 campaigns when they are again ready to churn out lies about taking towns to people and vote for the “star” which is far away from humanity.
    Where is the SPLM, the mother and father of taking towns to people initiative? Ironically, the area reps including one called Duku in CES Parliament and all SPLM as usual seemed to have a nice slumber on the job. The commitment simply evaporated with inauguration to parliaments.
    The transport operators are to be congratulated for letting the suffering of people of Lologo be known to the complacent CES SPLM government which is preoccupied with land grabbing mantra. The people who live in Lologo are not land grabbers but simple citizens who need gravelled road like the rest of Juba. Some lucky suburbs have seen asphalt roads however, what Lologo requires is a simple levelled road in order to alleviate the great suffering the area has been in since Adam.
    Perhaps due to wrong policies by the government, a tragic miscalculation in June this year saw the demolition of houses in Lologo for all the wrong reasons. The Central Government thought that the pervasive crime in Juba City could be solved through paving internal roads throughout the City. However, instead of paving the main road to Lologo the Kator Town Block when deeper to residential areas as if they were more important than the trunk road to the area.
    The damage in the process caused to the several households during rainy season is anyone’s guess. The true explanation of additional suffering lies with the affected people.
    Another anomaly is that the internal roads in Lologo were made wider than is normal. All the roads are six lanes with no cars! This country is soon going to be a Disney land, whatever it means.
    The true mother of Lologo neglect, created a tarmac road which ended just past Kator St. Theresa Cathedral. During its construction in twenty twelve, many Lologo residents thought that the asphalt would proceed to prisons training camp located right at the end of Lologo 2. That was never to be. It just ended where people of authority come and pray to the god in Kator. Many in the government would have called this taking town to the people. But people of Lologo called it taking towns to Catholic Church.
    Had it not been because of the current mayhem brought by Riek Machar and his waywardness, Lologo was soon closer to being an important suburb of Juba. The new bridge road bisects Lologo 2 raising the profile of the neglected north west of Rajaf Payam. The new bridge christened Freedom Bridge is located about six kilometres upstream from the old bridge constructed in the sixties or seventies. This old bridge is no longer strong enough to facilitate heavy truck passage to Western Equatoria and former Bhar el Ghazel region.
    The decision by transport operators to lockdown the Lologo route was long overdue. Where the government is silent needs somebody to speak up for the down trodden. The area of Lologo is down trodden and therefore, this course of action should be supported by the inhabitants of Lologo 1 & 2. Every morning and even is a nightmare for the travelling to the market and transport point in Konyokonyo. Time has come to call upon all the politicians representing Lologo or Rajaf Payam to stopp sleeping on the job. They should be requested to come and explain what happened to the vision of taking towns to rural areas. It is not only the road which is dilapidated, the main bridge connecting the two Lologo 1 & 2 is a major risk to travellers. Nobody should wait up to the last minute to speak. Bravo bus operators. You truly speak for the voiceless.


  69. Malith Alier says:

    Traffic Lights are Unnecessary Evil in Juba City
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    Malith who lives and works in Juba since 2009 is not sure whether to laugh or cry as a gesture to receiving the good news of the advent of traffic lights or stop light as known in USA.
    In late 2007, Malith arrived in Juba for the first time from a western country where technological things like stop light is part and parcel of everyday life of a motorist. The rate of motor accidents is a major hazard that kills nearly as many people as cancer. Both are major killers of people in the developed world.
    To reduce the risk of accidents occurring and perhaps lessen the work the traffic police, the city councils continuously device new rules and regulations to control the ever increasing motor vehicles. This is mostly the case in build-up areas like CBD or Central Business District. The CBD is controlled not only by concentration of traffic lights but also by speed limits of as low as 50 kph. The speed limit in school zones are labelled with 40 kph at certain times of the day. The maximum limit on a free way is a hundred (100) kph. What is very important about the speed limits is the adherence by the motorists. None adherence on the other hand attracts penalties in form of pecuniary or cancellation of one’s licence.
    The Juba before you was like a ghost town under revival in 2007. The population was rapidly growing exponentially by the world standard. The displaced by war and bunches of foreigners arrived by the hour to see for themselves the capital of the semi-autonomous region of the Sudan. The immediate returned of the displaced signalled eagerness to rebuild their lives in the motherland. No doubt about that in every ones’ mind.
    Juba is described as a city of sunshine. The weather is hot throughout the year. The summer temperature is particularly unbearable. Juba is situated on the banks of river Nile. The eastern and western parts of joined by viaduct built around sixties or seventies. It is the lifeline to the western side and up particularly western Equatoria and Bhar el Ghazel states.
    South Sudan is a nation of grumblers say observers in the government. The educated and people of interest mostly in towns lead this pack. This may be the opposite of the unsuspecting rural folks who rely on second information most of the time.
    Kiir Mayar is the overall leader of the country. They also know about the SPLA and the SPLM. These are the only things known by rustics who are in the majority. They have no hint or whisk about the mammoth corruption. Nothing about dysfunctional street lights often knock down by drunken over speeding motorists. Nothing about durra saga or the 75 wanted officials. This is the reality that will also live with us in the towns for the foreseeable future.
    At the speed the country is moving by erecting street traffic lights, we may be sure there is more to come. Our neighbouring countries of Uganda and Kenya are still struggling with two or three stop lights in terms of managing them. Kenya and Uganda have at least stable power supply unlike south Sudan. Uganda supply Kenya with excess power from Jinja. This means that there are numerous questions than we have answers for the project of the city stop lights. The questions may be framed such as: Where is the source of power to run the lights? Does Juba city which is poorly planned need such lights? Will the motorists who are not in a position to interpret the different light colours like red, green and yellow obey the erected stop lights? Have the traffic department made the traffic control centre? Will the traffic control centre manage the many lights erected at a go? Will the stop lights have surveillance cameras to take photos of violators? Will the armed forces who are always flouting traffic rules be turned around?
    It is mesmerising how the asphalted kilometres of roads are getting depleted by clogged water in many parts of Juba City. However, no one seems to bother about that. ABMC South Sudan and Thailand, the company that constructed the road stretches is nowhere to undo this damage that is not only an eyesore but also a risk to road users, motor vehicles and pedestrians alike. The roads in the city constructed by the poor engineers won’t serve the motorists for long.
    The writer passes the roundabout of University of Juba and saw some interesting observations about the traffic lights. The roundabout is at the intersection of University road and Unity road. The old roundabout is still intact. Nobody made an attempt to modify it to a full functional cross section fully controlled by traffic light. The traffic lights are placed at the invisible corners such that the approaching motorists can’t see until they are within 1 metre of the lights. The lights have four bulbs indicators but only two were functional. The two are just arrows pointing in different directions. Both are on the yellow background. They are powered by flat solar panels measuring about 1 metre by half a metre. This is indeed a modification of the normal traffic lights seen around the globe.
    Many people have come to accept the fact that new projects come with new possibilities. This is a trend that may be difficult to circumvent. Many institutions including the City Council would like to make an attempt at it. The traffic lights are a temporary measure which no one will make an effort to maintain just likes the disappearing road sections commandeered by flood water.
    The drivers for the Lologo route are still on strike because of bad roads. They parked their vans on the 13th this month until the authorities who are executing new projects come to their senses. The authorities include the Juba City Council (JCC) which busy with new projects and the administration of Rajaf Payam full of self serving officials.
    No level of government got policies and priorities right since CPA. Even if they are got right, there is a ghost called corruption in over projects in form of kickbacks. A company cannot get a contract until it does speak the language we speak. This is the dead end of doing business the way it is. The traffic lights under construction will be abandoned like the roads that nobody maintains to date.


  70. Malith Alier says:

    The Trouble with Handshake (Greeting)
    By Malith Alier, Juba

    In South Sudan, one can encounter tens or even a hundreds of handshakes in a good day like Sunday or SPLA Day celebrations.
    Greeting through handshake is an induced affair among family, friends and colleagues as a gesture of social “meeting of the minds.” It goes beyond acceptance and understanding across humanity.
    Greeting as a social tool for communication can be done in various ways. It can be through hand wave, signal, verbal or handshake.
    It happened that handshake is preferable to all these other mode of passing good wishes. Handshake and bodily contact are very common among close friends and family members who have stayed apart without seeing each other for quite some time. It is not uncommon to see a couple patting their backs with their chests in complete contact. Seen at this portrait, the ones in such contact are in complete meeting of minds as in business agreement. Some people kiss one another as is the case with Ethiopians. Other people or societies have the habit to tapping their fingers in unison to show rhythm.
    This writer went to a courtship one day in Juba and was mesmerised by ladies from Ngok Lual Yak who insisted that we should tap our thumbs in the way they do it in that community. This style of greeting made us refresh our traditional handshake to something worth remembering for life.
    The handshake we have come to cherish so much has its dangers as exhibited by the recent outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa. Specifically, the countries of Liberia, sera Leone, guinea among others have known that the virus is spread through body fluid like sweat, saliva and other fluids.
    The Ebola outbreak reverberates throughout the world and many people originating from West Africa, the epicentre of the virus carry it to far away nations like Belgium, USA and France. This has prompted many countries, South Sudan included, to take precautionary measures against the deadly super virus.
    Last Tuesday, the government of South Sudan through a Council of Ministers resolution, banned handshake as a precaution against Ebola virus. Whether the ban will be observed by anyone is another matter altogether considering the fact that the masses have come to live with handshake for very long. For South Sudanese society, refusal to shake hands is considered mean.
    This year, the country experienced the outbreak of cholera for the first time since CPA. Cholera is another contagious disease just like Ebola. It can be spread through contact with a patient and kills within a short period if not treated.
    Shaking hands further comes with other nuisances like waste of time as well as being an obstacle to other people in public places. On many occasions, individuals who bump into each other would stand just where they met to shake hand and exchange a few words about everything though trivial.
    The West African nations are well aware of those dangers associated with shaking hands. Particular individuals who have no custom of using hankies or serviettes blow and rub their noses and swipe the fluid on their clothes. This category of people is the one quick to offer “free” handshake with anyone without warning.
    Stories abound about some people who have fore knowledge of the dangers of handshake and decided to use gloves or handkerchiefs to protect themselves from the people above. These self conscious people are often ridiculed for being aware of the unintended consequences of shaking dirty hands. To them, their motto is caveat emptor or simply let the buyer beware. However, this approach is absentmindedly used against them by complacent traditional supporters of handshake.
    Perhaps it is now time to consider further measures beyond handshake. Some people have already decided not to share beds with partners until their country is totally declared free of Ebola.
    Final precaution; don’t drink too much, you might forget yourself and unknowingly come in to contact with Ebola carrier travellers in the pubs!



  71. Malith Alier says:

    The Jonglei Conflict is slowly on the Revival
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    Jonglei State shall never be stable as long as the cattle keepers do not change their old habits. The Murle, Dinka Bor, Nuer and Mandari communities are the worst enemies of each other. Each time there is a lull in the conflict, it is short lived as is the case yesterday.
    Yesterday morning 21st October 20014, saw the slaying of a victim known as Aguto Makol (R.I.P) at Gere located between Paanwel and Bangachorot. The news of the killing reached Juba in a matter of minutes because of the telephone message that travels faster than sound. The shooting information was received by relatives, family, friends and all people of Bor County with great sadness. The implication about this killing in cold blood concerns everybody in Bor County and other travellers on the Juba-Bor Highway.
    In mid December to January 2013, Juba-Bor Highway was a no go territory except for the military and other security operatives because of the activities of the white army. However, when Bor was liberated, the said highway continues to pose challenges to travellers on end. Remember that after the white and SPLA conflict this Highway was awash with arms and munitions which put lives in danger. Some cluster bombs were reported by Non Governmental organisations along that road.
    Many commentators and observers on Jonglei State peace and conflict reported that the signing and subsequent creation of Greater Pibor Administrative Area (GPAA) was a major determinant of peace in the embattled State.
    My measured view however is that, this is just a lull that should deceive nobody. The old habits will spring back in the face of everybody as long as there is lawlessness on the side of both governments of the two States. The vastly roaming cattle is the property of everybody to grab. Child abduction by any means continues to be more lucrative like never before. Anyone out there should tell us why peace should reign one more time.
    Road motor accidents are augmented by such killings as that of the late Aguto. Two pastors of the Episcopal Church of the Sudan of Bor Diocese were killed in the same way between March and April this year by unknown gunmen. The accusing fingers point at Murle, Mandari or other criminals that waylay travellers on the Highway. Unsurprisingly, the killings are usually near Bor County particularly the Paanwel-Bangachorot-Sudan Safari stretch. Child abduction in the same stretch happened on many occasions prompting the former Bor County Commissioner to request the army to create a permanent post in the area. All this arrangement was affected by the present conflict with Riek Machar.
    A colleague of mind whose abduction rendition happened on the vehicle he was travelling in 2012 narrated that they abductors came from Pibor County now self-autonomous under Yauyau.
    All the atrocities and abductions are set to resume. Eight months is a long time for professional killers and child abductors. The Highwaymen are back in full swing!


  72. Malith Alier says:

    The SPLM Shenanigans: Reuniting or Reinventing Won’t “Angelise” It
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The fact that the SPLM is a sole player in our political landscape with no formidable foe makes it complacent at every angle. East or west, south or north, the ruling SPLM spends the petrodollars on matters that have no value to the South Sudanese nation.
    The recent trip to Arusha, Tanzania is a case in point. Hadn’t the SPLMs’ members been to Ethiopia under the invitation of both the Ethiopian and the South African ruling parties? Had not Ramaphosa, both deputy President and chairman of ANC come to South Sudan to assist the struggling SPLM in its death throes?
    The outcome of the previous intra-SPLMs meetings in Addis has not been made public by anyone among the three tentacles of the famous soon to be infamous party. Even the term intra-SPLM does not make meaning to the suffering masses in the country. If the mutant SPLMs were genuine in the endeavour to reorganise or work for reunion as envisaged, then they should have included the SPLM-DC led by Lam Akol in the “trialogue.” The three SPLMs of Kiir, Riek and Pagan are already like oil and water.
    It is said that the SPLMs, it is no longer a single SPLM, signed a declaration for reunion. The reunion roadmap was also meant for safeguarding the territorial integrity of the country.
    On the other, the appended signatures of Adwok, Pagan and Awet to an obscure document won’t be honoured now or in the future. If the “original” SPLM, original in the sense that it formed a single entity on the assumption of power through the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) in 2005 did not honour its party documents in forms of party Constitution, Code of Conduct and finally its Manifesto, who in their right mind think that it will respect the Arusha document. The signed document belongs to Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and will therefore, be in the archives of that party only in Arusha.
    Further, it’s common knowledge that the country’s Constitution has been violated multiple times under the watch of the very SPLM. The complacent party wrote, passed and promulgated the Transitional Constitution only as a smoke screen.
    It is surprising that some quarters in the country including some civil society organisations have welcome the prospect of SPLMs reunion. Mm, they will be in for a shock.
    The best thing the neighbouring countries can do which I believed will be supported by all south Sudanese is to recommend the SPLMs proceed to form four parties as follow:
    SPLM-Pagan and finally,
    This is because nobody won’t let go the tag called SPLM and its Oyee slogan.


  73. Malith Alier says:

    An Assessment of the so-called Governors’ Forum
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The Office of the President (OP) spends millions of money each year on a forum known as the Governors’ Forum. The Governors’ Forum is a gathering of the ten States Governors to discuss “relevant” matters that affect their respective states and in relation to the central government in Juba. The OP organises this forum since 2011.The fourth Governors’ Forum in a row kicked off yesterday at Freedom Hall in Juba.
    The roads leading to Freedom Hall were littered with soldiers from the army and the police to protect VIPs attending the gathering. It is like previous gatherings were some main roads are temporarily closed for security reasons. This is usually done as a matter of precaution because South Sudan is not a haven for terrorists like al Qaeda or Boko Haram. The nearest to home terror group is al Shabab which mostly operates in Somalia and Kenya. That is just a side ditch for your consumption.
    The Governors’ Forum was and continues to be a well intentioned forum for this country with a decentralised regime. The existence of National, State and County Governments meant that a forum such as this, acts to bring those levels of government together to discuss matters of governance in a single arena. This is also the case in other nations with such arrangements such as federal systems of governance. It is therefore, appropriate for South Sudan to have such forum.
    The OP was right to initiate such a forum. However, there are concerns with the phrase “Governors Forum” and also with what is under discussion since 2011.
    The phrase “Governors Forum” does not bring out clearly the meaning and the arrangement in which various levels of government participate. It’s not only the Governors of the ten states who participate in that forum but also the OP and other national ministers and even some county Commissioners and parliamentarians from states and National Legislative Assembly. There participate also the other areas Administrators like the Pibor and Abyei. This is where the problem lies and therefore, makes the discussion a talkfest.
    Some of the governors expressed lack of follow up on the past forums. Governor of Warrap in particular expressed to the media non compliance to the previous resolutions. This is true. The citizens witnessed the past forum but nothing tangible was so far achieved in the history of such forum. If my memory failed me, anyone can correct it.
    There exists a presidential advisor on decentralisation and intergovernmental linkages. This is where the so-called “Governors’ Forum” should have been modelled on. Simply put, the forum should be renamed “Inter-Governmental Forum/Board” because it involves all levels of the decentralised government. The gathering should be upgraded from its parochial to broader perspective that includes every. The ten Governors feel that the forum is solely theirs and tend to think in narrow way.
    The other thing is, what has the forum achieved in its four year history? Evidence suggests that nothing this country should be proud of for putting money on the forum. The Governors, because of their narrow approach tend to push for their state interests to leaving the rest of the country behind. They mostly dwelled on further budgetary allocations even in 2014 where war is raging in many parts of the country. Over the past two days, no governor or other participants talked about federalism, power sharing or the predicted famine. These are the pressing issues under the spotlight. Don’t tell me that the theme for this year’s forum is “National Reconciliation to Restore Peace, Unity and Reconstruction.” Reconciliation and reconstruction are far way like cupids in the sky.
    The Governors’ Forum will continue to be a talkfest if not renamed Inter-Governmental Forum or Board. The Forum is broader than just governors of the ten states. It includes other emerging administrations and even the central government. So, the OP should be open-minded.


  74. Malith Alier says:

    Why Relieve Bor County Commissioner?
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The news coming from Bor County that its commissioner was dismissed is indeed one of unpalatable sackings this country has ever witnessed. John koang, the irate governor was in Juba during the crisis while the ever-patriotic Bor County commissioner was on the shores of Nile River suffering with his people there. This is one reason why this author believed that the commissioner is still the best for that war-devastated county.
    Bor County deserves better and this cannot come from people like john koang whose agendum is to deprive the very people of every opportunity to be better. If john koang has, any sword in his hands he should instead use it to axe the remnants of GPAA officials stuck in Bor, notably the deputy governor and minister of information who is lulling us to sleep on the issue.
    Overall, it is worse to be a County commissioner in this country. The job turnover of county commissioners is 90% since 2005. Bor County alone has four commissioners from 2005 to 2014 a period of about ten years. That means that a commissioner has ruled for less than three years on average in that embattled County.
    According to Local Government Act 2009 section 48, a county commissioner’s term is 4 years renewable only once. Further and more importantly, a County commissioner is support to be directly elected by people of the County in a general election. This provision is shelved as if the Act was in vain.
    The relieved Commissioner was trying to be nice when pressed on his removal. According to the Citizen Newspaper of 21 November, he was quoted as saying that nobody should take the law on to their own hand on his behalf. That is good, good Doctor Agoot. Your patriotic and long service to your people is unquestionable but remember that people who kill in this country are always rewarded for their bravery. Many names are now big because of that notoriety.
    One of big stories coming from Bor, which we believe, caused the sacking of the Commissioner is the issue of land and many others like the teachers strike, business people closing shops because of diversion of US Dollars and the “stoning” of IDPs in UNMISS compound earlier in the year.
    None of this should be blamed on the Commissioner, if at all the Governor and the entire Jonglei Administration is severally liable.
    Jonglei is in bad shape as a result of the war. This situation would be rectified by other officials in the absence of John Koang and his dysfunctional administration in the near future. Indeed, let federalism come for this to be a reality.


  75. Malith Alier says:

    Which Side Will Honour the December 15 Anniversary?
    By Malith Alier, Bor
    The clock is ticking. We are left with about twenty two days to the said date.
    Something this generation will not forget occurred on December 2013 in Juba and quickly spread to three States of Upper Nile region, the mother of all rebellions.
    At about 10:00 pm, a sound of opening firing shots were heard at a distance of three kilometres from my residence. Pa, pa, pa goes the Kalashnikov machine gun. Everyone was scared including young children. They knew that this was going to be different from previous shootings they were accustomed to. My two year old son always repeats what he heard that night like this; “tap, tap, tap they are afraid” meaning the tap, tap, tap shooting that made them afraid.
    The debates about what happened are still causing controversy nationally and worldwide. Some called it coup d’état, others called it mutiny or just misunderstanding among the presidential guards in Juba. The explanation of this matter depends on whoever is narrating it. The rebels referred to it as Nuer soldiers’ disarmament while the government called it coup d’état. The international community led by USA thinks it was a mutiny or misunderstanding.
    Coup d’état or not, the event has its authors who continue to pursue it to today. The SPLM IO claimed responsibility and victimhood at the same time for the December crisis.
    The rebels were defeated in Juba within hours and the following morning was only mopping up operations in the city. Scores of ring leaders were arrested and categorised into groups of A, B and C depending on severity of their crime.
    As Juba operations came to an end, other rebel leaders who echoed the fight captured Bor, Malakal and Bentiu within a short time possible. This was a war laden with zeal and hatred of one another. Some rebel generals who are fond of switching sides took it upon themselves to bring the regime to an end once and forever. How wrong they were! The government arm is long. The poorly equipped and perhaps polarised SPLA sought support from the region and got it in no time.
    Nobody wanted Juba, the seat of the government to be overrun by the irate and ingrate white army. This would have been an embarrassment to the government and this country as a whole. A government overthrown by demonstrators would have been honourable.
    A mixture of superstition and hunger for power should be tamed if South Sudan is to be on a firm democratic path. Don’t give power to power hungry lots.
    Who will celebrate the 15 December anniversary? It is anyone’s guess.


  76. A Dangerous Infusion of State and Religion in South Sudan
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The tintinnabulation interaction of politics and religion which are supposed to be separate is a matter that deafens the ears that dare to listen. A country where anything and everything is not delimited can be quite chaotic. Politics, religion and sex are the three issues that have a potential to cause controversy in everyday life.
    One wonders whether the Constitution of this country speaks two languages on every issue above and addressed therein. The very Constitution speaks of separation of State and religion but the authorities who are supposed to interpret and uphold the country’s foundation document are keeping quiet and violating it on daily basis. Both the disjointed, not separated, judiciary and the executive treat the issue of relationship of state and religion as a normal matter.
    The fact that the Office of the President has a Bureau for religious affairs does not mean deeper incursion in to the dynamics of religions. They are Religions because the country has several religious sects with different beliefs and doctrines separate and distinct from one another. Further, the country is multi-religious, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-cultural. This means that all this should be treated with consideration and care they deserve.
    Two disturbing events are announced on South Sudan T.V to night. One of them is the announcement of a decree issued by Central Equatoria State Governor (CES), relieving the secretary General of CES Islamic Council from his post. The other is the reconsideration by President Kiir Mayardit who earlier around rejected the request by rebels to use UNMISS choppers to ferry their commanders to Pagak in Nyirol County for a meeting on the peace process in Addis Ababa.
    The former shows that by rejecting the request, the Head of State was right because this is not the first time the rebels conducted a conference since they rebelled. They held a conference in June in Nasir where they organised leadership line up for the first time. Who then facilitated their gathering in and travel to Nasir in June? Was it the UNMISS or government of South Sudan? The quest for peace shouldn’t be based on desperate moves.
    This UNMISS you have given a go ahead has charges on it from the people of this country. It has also been accused elsewhere of negligence, incompetence and negative involvement in conflicts around the world. It happened in Bosnia, Rwanda, DR Congo and even in Darfur next door. The single most important question to ask is, will you have authority to stop UNMISS from dealing with rebels after it all happened and the rebel commanders rejected peace? Peace is the single most important thing everyone needs. It therefore, shouldn’t be imposed on anyone by external actors.
    The latter shows such a level of confusion this country is in. clearly the CES Governor has no authority to appoint or fire a religious figure in the State. If the State Constitution is made in such a way to incorporate religion in the State affairs, then it immediately needs amendment because it is not in line with South Sudan Transitional Constitution. The State Islamic Council is not an organ of the State government so as to be treated like other government organs. This is not even about the separation of powers among the arms of the State Government. They are totally unrelated. Religion is a private matter between an individual and the State, something clearly set out in the Constitution.
    A piece of advice to the government of the day, Second thoughts are dangerous. Stick to your guns once a decision is made no matter what. A government that changes decisions frequently all the time is a floppy one indeed. This has been the case on many occasions in the past. You need to change the cause. Secondly, upholding of the Constitutions is not negotiable. The central and State Constitutions should be upheld regardless.


  77. Malith Alier says:

    South Sudan Civil Society Alliance: When an Apology is no Apology
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The current South Sudan Civil Society Alliance under the leadership of honourable Deng Athuai Mawiir is a vanguard for the rights of those who do not speak for themselves.
    The trade union is nonexistent. The church, together with other religious bodies is not vocal enough on the rights of the silent majority. The human Rights Commission is a government functionary. This has left us with the now besieged alliance to articulate issues on the suffering of the people in this sharply divided nation.
    Honourable Deng Mawiir has been the Alliance Chairman for quite a long time now. He has endured for the sake of vulnerable people of South Sudan. He endured unspeakable suffering under unknown foes for years. Abducted at gunpoint, beaten and left for dead and shot and wounded in the middle of this year here in Juba is he. All this has not dampened his spirit and love to serve this nation in his chosen field.
    The daggers are now drawn for the final assault on Mawiir for his courage to fight the invisible and visible wars on behalf of civil society. The current civil society under Deng is a coalition of angels and demons. The demons are there to spoil the good fight by angels.
    Those who are now baying for his blood won’t do a better job as he will surely cave in under their pressure.
    The statement by Mr. Mawiir that the war Protagonists, Riek and Kiir have no children on the front line has been taken by some people as enough reason to dislodge him from power. They first but ostensibly asked him to apologise to Kiir which he did. However, it didn’t please them. They want more as if they are Kiir and Riek families who might have accepted the apology.
    This writer has never seen a country where an apology is no apology. Wonders will never cease in this country. Nobody from the government has formally apologised to those who suffered the most during the long Sudan civil war. This is one reason why corruption thrives. Those with guns think that they owe everything unto themselves and no one else deserves anything. The categories of people who the government owe an apology are the thousands of innocent civilians who were killed for revenge attacks at various times during the conflict. Older people who are now past their prime also owe an apology for other hosts of war related atrocities and suffering. Even the red army or child soldiers are owed the same apology for cutting their educational opportunities short.
    Deng Athuai Mawiir has done more than enough and deserves rest. The question is, will those who are all out for his removal fill his shoes? As per now, they are acting like government agents. The role of the civil society alliance is not to sing praises to the government for not doing enough. The parliament has failed to hold the executive accountable. The trade unions are weak and can’t fight for the rights of workers. The only body that seemed to be effective is now on the way out and be replaced by those who will comply.
    Deng Athuai Mawiir is a hero whose shoes will never be filled by those who are making noise. He is a later day Dr. John Garang to many underdog people. Everybody should give him a hero’s farewell.


  78. Malith Alier says:

    Our Worst Ever Fuel Crisis in 2014
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    This is neither the first worst fuel shortage year nor shall it be the last. It happened before in 2012 and 2013 and the event of this year is just a recurrence. An interesting part of it is that nobody seems to take responsibility for the shortages. The authorities responsible always look further away to apportion blame on far countries and the invisible forces unrelated to them.
    The government units directly responsible for energy include Ministry of Petroleum and Mining, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Petroleum and Gas Commission and to some extend the Central Bank of South Sudan (BSS). If any out there wants to apportioned blame, then he/she should look no further than these institutions.
    The shortage of fuel and US Dollar usually go hand in hand. Talk of shortage of fuel and you will be reminded of the scarcity of Dollars or some called it shortage of “hard Currency.” The fuel and Dollar scarcity shared another trait; they both caused long queues in Dollar stations and fuel stations. At the time of apparent or perceived scarcity of these two important items, something called hoarding occurs. Those who handle them divert them to the so-called “black markets.” Black market is a parallel market were one alternatively finds both in abundance to satisfy needs albeit at a higher cost.
    The major media outlets in form of BBC and Aljezeera reported about the indifference of South Sudanese in the face of suffering like during fuel crises. The people on the Dollar and fuel queues expressed no emotions which is the real expression of what people in the part of this planet had gone through; suffering after another.
    The time is at hand to make this unnecessary suffering history. This means that the people responsible must be made to account for their failures. The failure to act must be directly traced to responsible institutions of government and therefore, the responsible individuals should be forced out of office. Heads must start rolling!


  79. Malith Alier says:

    Bor Town: The City of Great Wrestlers
    By: Malith Alier, Juba
    Traditional wrestling is a multilateral cultural event popular among cattle owning communities of South Sudan. It is the most popular event among the Dinka on the eastern and western banks of the Nile. The Dinka and Mundari in Jonglei, Lakes and Central Equatoria States practice it all the time.
    Traditional wrestling is truly a multilateral event accompanied by dancing, singing as well as courtship among young people. It is the test through which young people assert their strength and fame that comes with it. The up and coming potential wrestler(s) invite the well known existing wrestler(s) so that the contest decides who the next top wrestler is. If the existing wrestler still has some steam, he continues until next time.
    In a period of one week I was in Bor, I saw more than five contests organised among several sub clans as preseason rehearsals. The coming dry season will see tens of contests organise going forward to 2015.
    Wrestling among the promoting communities is a sport like no other. The modern sports like football and other games are just an addition to this traditional muscle sport.
    Many wrestling sports activities were organised in Juba from 2011 and the attendance was phenomenal. The wrestling triangle of Jonglei, Lakes and CES showcased their wrestling talents to the whole nation before and after the Southern referendum of 2011. A few names of wrestling greats are still in memory. Majok Jok, Ajang Garang, Deng Adol, Muor ci Kueng, Jada, Gore Mapak and many more still generate interest in wrestling.
    Wrestling as a sport has many benefits. It is where people meet with friends. The wrestlers can also meet new friends and acquaintances.
    What is very interesting with wrestling is that many songs are composed against opponents on the one hand and for self praise on the other. The hit song for the year 2014 in light of Riek’s rebellion goes like this………………. ( ran de abi dhuk ror ci Riek Machar) meaning another gentleman will go back to the bush like Riek Machar………….
    Though Riek and forces have caused so much destruction they were forced out to the bush just like in 1991. The power of Riek forces cannot match that of the government just like the power of one wrestler against another is not the same.


  80. Malith Alier says:

    Potent Environmental Disaster Underway in Jonglei State
    By: Malith Alier, Bor
    Our environment is the single most important surrounding everyone should all cherish and protect at all cost. The environment for anybody, who is not yet acquainted self with, is the natural world that exists around us. It includes plants, animals, water and even fellow human beings in the vicinity!
    It is the external environment that helps shape us to be what we are. Your immediate environment provides you with food and other needs like trees for construction, firewood; charcoal and medicinal plants.
    There is a growing concern around the globe that the natural environment is under threat by the man himself. Vast swathes of forests are being cleared for farming, logging and are also used as a source of energy particularly in the third world. In recent years you might have heard of the destruction of Amazon rain forest through logging by faceless multinational companies.
    The sustained and continued destruction of natural environment around the world through the above means is the subject of disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes, ice melting that result in rise on sea levels and others. In general it is called climate change by scientists.

    Azadirachta indica (Neemtree)
    At the local level, our very environment is severely under attack by foreign hands in acquiescence by local authorities and folks. The Juba city was surrounded by thick forests in the sixties and seventies according to those who were here at the times. This is hardly the case today because of charcoal. The demand for energy in form of charcoal outweighs the supply particularly in towns and big cities in the country. Alternative sources of energy like natural gas are nonexistent despite South Sudan being a petroleum exporting country.
    On a visit to Bor on several occasions, this writer witnessed two threats to our only reliable source of everything, the forest. The forest once again and as far as I remember is a source of energy, food, shelter and rain. The forest is further a purifier of oxygen for your own breath. It is the habitat for abundant animals. Fauna and flora coexist!
    One of the real threats to our indigenous trees is the tree called neem, scientifically named Andirachta indica. The white people who did not have the interests of South Sudanese at heart introduced this poisonous plant to eliminate our indigenous forest in the long run. This is abundantly clear right now by the look of the City of Bor. The indigenous plants are no more in town. The marauding neem trees are advancing to the heart of our forests by speed of thousand miles per day! The irony is that no one seems to notice it. A lot of people take slight notice about it but take no action even those in authority seem to be oblivious about it. Note as well that it is not only Bor which is under invasion by neem trees, other twons and cities are also affected in the same way.
    The number two threat is the usual clearing of forests with impunity by foreigners who have no knowledge about important indigenous plants that the locals can’t dare to cut. These include lalop or thou, acuil, lang, cum, luta and many more. These foreign folks have nothing to lose because by the end of it all they will go back to their countries after exhausting our God given green forests.
    These foreigners in question include Ugandans, Sudanese from Darfur and others. These people have rules in place in their countries about where, when and what kind of trees to fell for charcoal. The Sudanese from Darfur are however, people of the desert and therefore, have no regard to forests whatsoever. It is therefore, inconceivable to entrust them with invaluable forests like ours.
    It is only in South Sudan where foreigners do as they wish. They bring seeds of unknown plants and introduce them at any place as they please. They fell, indigenous and sacred trees mercilessly without planting replacement. This is to say that the basics of environmental sustainability are swept under the care in the dormancy of environmental protection agencies.
    The world of the environmental protection agencies is a dormant universe. The Ministry of environment is doing no meaningful work just like the ministry of Interior which allows foreigners to enter and do anything at will.
    The inaction of both ministries puts the country at the mercy of foreign hands all the time. We haven’t realised that missed opportunities are difficult to reverse. The foreign nationals will take as a right to be in South Sudan. The Arabs of the north were hard to dislodge from the country. Much bloodshed was the result that eventually forced them out paving the way for 2011 independence. Event after independence similar problems of foreign influx continue to dog this country.
    The East African boda boda operators caused headache between South Sudan and Uganda. Last year, the labour ministerial order barring foreigners from holding certain positions in the country was another example of this kind. Foreigners have taken it upon themselves not to be bound by rules and regulations of the sovereign South Sudan. It the same mentality since colonisation and it is we who continue to suffer.
    Besides the above problems the environment faces is the usual pollution by plastic carriers banned during the Kuol Manyang’s term as governor of Jonglei. Everything plastic carrier is now back to the State’s capital after the takeover by another Caretaker Governor. Though banning of plastic containers was not the right solution it however helped in a city where garbage collection is rudimentary at best.
    A proactive approach needs to be devised right away if the current disaster is to be totally reversed. Those who are actively involved in clearing bushes should be licensed and be educated on what trees to chop and at what time. Not only that, they should be required to plant replacement trees in a certain period. This should be a condition for licensing. Desertification as a result of random clearance of forests is not an option here. A country with green forests is blessed.
    Imagine a situation where South Sudan is a desert. Our past liberation wars would have been disastrous like the case in Darfur. The bushes of our forests provided cover for the Anya nya and the SPLA fighters. The wild fruits provided food for all of us during those difficult times of the two wars. The forests provide protection against erosion of soil through rain or wind. The southern forests attract timely rains every year on end. These are some of the reasons that should compel us to protect our forests.
    All hope is not lost in the fight against environmental destruction. There are people who have realised the importance of preserving our environment. Although there are no credible environmental activists like the late Wangari Mathaai of Kenya, everybody who have realised the poor state of our environment plant a tree or two on their home fronts. This will in the long run alter the situation for better. Please plant mango, guava, lemon and other edible plants at home or in your gardens if you can. The end result will be amazing and South Sudan will remember you for that.
    There is one farmer in Bor who is always in the news for making the difference. He started planting the above trees since arrival of the liberation forces in 2005. He is earning big in the fruit market monopolised by him alone. He is called Paul Alim Amol. He is known in the whole country.
    Happy the new year 2015 to all of you who will take the message of environmental protection as one of your New Year resolutions. Plant at least one tree for the New Year.


  81. Malith Alier says:

    The Essence of 2015 General Elections
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The announcement by National Election Commission (NEC) late last December that the general elections will take place mid 2015 has generated mixed responses from those for and against. The opposition political parties are the most vocal among those against. They cited why by-elections for four state governors are not held if the Constitution is to be followed as indicated by the government.
    The 2011 Transitional Constitution stipulated that general elections should be held after four years, exactly due in twenty fifteen. This stipulation would only be affected by an amendment of that particular clause so that elections are rescheduled to a later period. However, in the absence of this, the elections should take place as enshrined in the constitution.
    Many arguments advanced against holding elections as stipulated; in my view have no basis. The current rebellion is no reason for elections not to take place.
    No other election of any kind was held post 2010 despite the fact that many changes had taken place on the political stage. Four elected governors were removed without by-elections after 60 day period allowed to organise by-elections. Numerous County Commissioners are now in place albeit by decrees contrary to local government Act 2012 that stipulates that all local government positions should be filled through direct elections. The ten or so cities in the country are now headed by unelected mayors with councillors who are handpicked by governors on unclear terms.
    The major argument by the government and supporters seems to be the issue of legitimacy after July 9 2015. The other subtle reason is to coerce the rebels to think again in carrying on with the unwinnable warfare. These two reasons are valid arguments because wars do not stop elections in peaceful parts of a given country.
    The Sudan, this country separated from carried out elections two times amid war. Sadig El Mahdi and Omar Beshir were elected amid the conflict. The elections were a quest for legitimacy and a new mandate to continue the war or bring peace. Those are not the only reasons for the upcoming elections. Other pertinent reasons abound.
    The upcoming election is a cleanup exercise. Not to mention again the tenure of unelected governors, many MPs in both Houses of parliament are hanging by the thread. The Abel Alier era septuagenarians or centenarians need retirement through this upcoming plebiscite. You have heard of late that many vacancies are left unfilled because of demise of many MPs some of who were old and were warming the seats blocking the boisterous young people who can steer this country forward. The other vacancies are a result of rebellion. Four parliaments in Juba, Malakal, Bentiu and Bor are greatly affected by defections.
    One meaning of democracy, which we all talk about, is the conduct of supervised elections. A viable democracy must held periodic elections even if they are not perfect. Perfection will only be attained in practice.
    We should celebrate if these planned elections take place. The senile will give way for the mentally agile folks in their thirties and the result would be commendable.
    The sporadically appointed local government officials will be replaced by a truly representative one after the June 30th elections. The current local government in its entirety is a section of ruling elites and could not function as a representative one.
    In recap, elections should take place to test the viability of this nation on the democratic front. The nation has waited for too long the carry out this exercise to bring confidence in the country’s administration.


  82. Malith Alier says:

    Greater Pibor Administrative Area: No High Committee for June Election
    By: Malith Alier, Juba
    Listening to South Sudan Radio this evening, one could only hear about formation of ten States High Election Committees excluding the two Administrative Areas of Abyei and Pibor. What does this really imply?
    Greater Pibor Administrative Area or GPAA was created through peace agreement last year so that it is self governing away from Jonglei and under the Office of the President. The Chief Administrator status is equal to that of a governor of any other State in the country.
    On the other hand, the Abyei Administrative Area or AAA came about as a result of dispute between South Sudan and Sudan over the area. Many analysts referred to it as the Kashmir of Africa.
    The two administrative areas are clearly on the wrong footing when it comes to national issues like the planned elections. While AAA is predominantly SPLM, GPAA has switched to SSDM-Cobra Faction if that name is still cherished by David Yauyau.
    Towards the end of 2014, an important question was asked by a delegate of Jonglei State Liberation Council in a meeting of the State Liberation Council (SLC) whether the SPLM Party was still in existence in GPAA. The delegates agreed to refer the question to the SPLM Chairman, Salva Kiir Mayardit. However, some delegates were not sure while others asserted that the mighty SPLM was still there in that wilderness.
    The most important test whether the SPLM and other parties are still there in GPAA is the upcoming general election. Surely GPAA is firmly under the control of Cobra Faction led by David Yauyau. The area has been chipped away from the SPLM and those who still daydream that the SPLM is still supreme there should be ready for a shock. In fact, a showdown is likely as a result of the formation of High Election Committees that exclude GPAA and AAA.
    The GPAA has been made a state of its own through the Addis Ababa agreement of 2014. It has seven Counties, a governor, ministers, parliament and local government structures.
    The fact that some of its members are still ruling in Jonglei is an anomaly that needs redressing politically. It has never happened anywhere in this country that people from different States are allowed to hold high level positions in another state. Likewise, GPAA does not employ other people from other states in its administration headed by Yauyau.
    The upcoming election is therefore, incomplete based on the designation structures of GPAA. It needs its own high committee to be like the rest of states of the country. Without this, the chances are that another, revolt is likely in GPAA.


  83. Deng Bul says:


    In my own analysis, the calls for elections in south Sudan is unwanted one and unacceptable in term of our current situation in the country.The country is now desperately devastated by the current war and there is no need for elections to be hold before the peace has restored to the normal sanity.

    For me, I know there are some people who might claiming that it was a constitution right to allow general elections to be held this year but I would like to assure these people that we cannot follow the constituion to its mandate but to based our constitution to the situations we are facing now that’s why we have created the position of prime minister which was not there in our constitution. It’s because of numerous challenges that facing us at the moment.

    As I say it was unwanted one and unacceptable,
    First, The census was supposed to be conduct so that the government of South Sudan may know the number of population living the country or those who are going to cast their votes in forthcoming general elections.
    Second,The electoral commission should been given ample time to conduct civil education and others election materials so that they could have register the voters within a framing time but not in a hurry situations like now.
    Third, As we all know the majority of the population is now refuge in neighboring countries such as Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia and it will be very hard for electoral commission to go through these countries for registration processes.Thereafter we can also remember that we cannot be allow again to vote in diaspora like what we did during the referendum we are now an independent state so we can conduct our election in our country.
    Fourth, The delay of peace agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and this is the one that denied the general elections to be held this year.Without peace, I don’t see any moods of elections among these three groups, the government, the opposition and the former political detainees when they are not reconcile and healings.
    Lastly,I oppose the general elections now in South Sudan because of the following I have stated above. it should been extended to 2017 so that we can take time for the preparations of peaceful elections.It was posted as a personal opinion and the author should been reached at



    I want to concur with the report of my brother Makuei Kuir says that Bol Ajak has been relieve on his duties as an advisor to Chairman Mading Kuol on political affairs docket.When I received the news,the decision was premature, harsh and baseless before the community.Because before the formation of South Sudanese Community in Nakuru leadership, Bol was given full mandate by the community elders living here in Nakuru to work hand in hand with the Kenya authorities when there is any problem concerning South sudanese,and he discharged his duties effectively either the host community (Kenyans) nor South Sudanese living here in Nakuru lived in a peaceful manner.

    After the inception of the south Sudanese Community in Nakuru leadership,There is a lot of messes arise in the community between the church leaders and the entire community due to manic behavior of the new leadership that took over power.
    As Bol was joined by his colleagues to ran the community affairs together in good faith,There is a litle bit differences that occur in 2014 among January this year there were some propaganda which were formulated by few individuals that Bol had a plan to overthrow Mading Kuol’s government any time! I am not in this government but I know these are an unjustified and concoctions rumours that does not have place to track was just to harsh the popularity of Mr Bol whom he was the most trusted man by the community.

    As far now I don’t see the reasons for the relieve of Bol Ajak on his duties let him continues serving his people because there is no misconduct he had utterance before the community at large.

    In my conclusion I want to tell the community bases organizations in Nakuru that let us not dragged our community again into contemplative moods they face recently.We are here for purpose of education and not creating many problems which will still exist even when we go to our home country.
    Once again I urge you all let’s stopped talk about negative things which does not add values in our future instead of doing productive things like education and many others.
    There is a saying that I have used for a number of years.
    “The less you know, the more you think you know. The more you know, the more you realise that you don’t know”Things has change nowadays and we have experiences them.So for now let’s kept our future record clean instead of destroyed it now.


  85. Malith Alier says:

    Jonglei Government on a Conflagration
    By: Malith Alier, Bor
    After the political and military disaster of 2013, the current Jonglei Governor in the name of John Koang Nyuon was appointed acting governor for the embattled state. Mr. John Koang served as advisor to the President and also held a defence portfolio until July 2013 reshuffle.
    Many observers voiced their frustration with the appointment of John as nobody deemed it appropriate considering the prior circumstances to his appointment. Even the 60 day period for organising by-election did not assist the concerned parties who were against the said appointment.
    Mr. John Koang administration now experiences upheaval with a peaceful constituency of the State. There are many failures that have led to the peaceful constituency to voice their concern in a peaceful but ominous way. Today, 22 January 2015 a group of ladies organise a mini-demonstration against what they thought are inconsistencies by John and cronies. One of their demo placards read, “John is a rebel within” among other concerns.
    This author on separate occasion in the past thought that it was unfair for Jonglei State Governor to sidelined a peaceful constituency of greater Bor where the seat of State government is located. What is the use of maintaining members of a constituency that has separated from the state? The members of greater Pibor administration who seemed to be stranded are still clinging to their posts by threads.
    The administration of John Koang is indeed a strange one compared to other states in this country. No other state in the country where members from a separate state become valued rulers in another State.
    Other reasons why John administration is on fire concern their IDPs in UNMISS compound. It is alleged that John forwards their monthly salaries in contravention of the public service rules and regulations. Secondly, John appoints IDPs straight from the camp to the State government while laying off those who held those positions. A case is the recent retrenchment in the State Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning where directors are replaced for the above reason. This shows that John is less in the service of those who support the government but is clearly in the service of those who opposed it in the form of those in UNMISS.
    The voice of women demonstrators is fully supported against the governor by many street people who I talked to, particularly in Marol Market located a few kilometres from where demo took place. They pledged to nominate one of the ladies to become governor of Jonglei State after the departure of John Koang. Voice of women oyee he chanted.
    John has lost legitimacy according to constitution along with public confidence and support as well because of being adamant in maintaining Greater Pibor officials to continue on the laurels of the state they don’t call their own.


  86. Deng Bul says:


    I am wondering whether rebels will honor the peace agreement that was signed last week in Arusha Tanzania on the reunification of the SPLM warring factions or not?It seems the peace is going to be dishonored like Addis Ababa peace agreement in 1972 that was dishonor by Khartoum government.

    Yesterday I went to Sudan tribune website and I read the article titled ‘President Kiir must step down’ and when you through Arusha peace agreement,you may seen the processes were to reunited the SPLM warring factions and restated of old structures of the party that is Kiir will remained as the chairman of the party, Riek will be 1st vice chairman and Pagan as Secretary general of the party respectively and it was agreed by both parties.

    As far now I don’t know the reasons why rebels are still insisted on the calls for the President to step down?Is it because the entire rebel groups were not told about what Riek sign in Arusha? I think this calls is a premature and unacceptable if the rebels mind about peace.
    It seemed the rebels are contradicted themselves and in particular Riek who sign the peace in deal in Arusha, Tanzania and he allowed his groups to continued giving pressure on government side.

    In my own understanding I believed the calls for President Kiir to step down, would dragged us back to square one, accelerated tensions in the country and our civil population would continues with unstoppable suffering in the country but when the peace was signed in Arusha,the vulnerable people of South Sudan and the world as a whole were very optimistic for peace to yearning to the country.

    In my conclusion I urge rebels faction let us all be patriotic to our country and not have a mindset to destroyed it this country belongs to all of us.We fought for her, we suffered from her and eventually we vote for her for our independent.Let’s not forget our extremely struggle for this nation.
    To rebel leader Riek Machar I know you are hungry for power but let me tell you that the way you love to be in power that’s how the citizens of South Sudan love peace.
    Once again, advised your groups to accept peace and let’s rebuilt love, trust and confident in our hearts.

    The written is a peace loving and you reach him through his email: Deng Bul Riak


  87. Malith Alier says:

    Twenty Women “Liberators” Arrested in Bor
    By: Malith Alier, Juba
    News is coming from Bor that the fight against John Koang regime is taking an ugly turn. Last Saturday saw five women picked up at their homes and arrested by police. They are charged with incitement and disturbing peace in the State. Today, another fifteen are arrested for demanding the release of their colleagues. This has been disclosed by a reliable source on the scene. Shops in Marol Market are locked down in fear that this struggle against maladministration by Nyuon and cohorts may escalate.
    Chronology of Jonglei crisis under John Koang
    2013: elected Jonglei Governor Kuol Manyang relieved and appointed defence minister in the national government
    2014: John Koang appointed acting governor of Jonglei to prepare election of new governor in 60 days
    2014: Bor exchanged hands between rebels and government forces four times and John Koang escaped to UNMISS and then to Juba. He only returned to Bor well after march, same year.
    He dissolved his cabinet and appointed Baba Medan as his deputy leaving and sidelining politicians from the area. He also brought his friends to the administration.
    The two counties of Pibor and Pochalla broke away through a peace agreement in May to create what is now known as Greater Pibor Administrative Area (GPAA). John Koang did not act according to the new agreement. He maintained sons and daughters of the new administrative area in his government. It is suspected that the former governor is the one who would want the greater Pibor officials to continue in their post in Jonglei. This is one contentious area where the locals from the three Counties of greater Bor won’t agree.
    2015: Women demonstrators demanded resignation of the Governor because of several accusations. They branded him “rebel within.” They claimed that if he is truly our leader, then he should have visited us in a displaced camp like he has always done to his fellow Nuers in UNMISS camp in Bor. They advanced that he month after month pays them salaries in the camps and other locations outside the government control areas.
    The demonstrations also demand that no election in Jonglei if Kiir does not act to remove John Koang before June.


  88. Malith Alier says:

    The High Life of Juba Hai Amarat Politicians
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    Hai Amarat or “suburb of skyscrapers” is where the life of the government officials is modelled. Since time of great Abel Alier, which no one acknowledges, the important suburb of Juba has spacious compounds with lush vegetation. It adorns paved roads for the smooth running of the SUVs and V8s which are symbols of power and opulence. In South Sudan the few other people who drive V8s besides government officials are admired for hard work or other techniques in acquiring for themselves are their families this machines of comfort.
    I have visited Hai Amarat on a number of occasions however; many can be forgiven for not living there. Even some women of politicians who stay there have been heard denouncing other parts of Juba City as mere villages inhabited by the less educated and less civilised. To them, an ideal life starts and ends in Amarat!
    Hai Amarat has everything that makes life comfortable in the modern sense of living. It has running water, electricity and of cause permanent houses surrounded by block fencing with razor wire to keep away intruders or fence jumpers. Great but was this privileged area made what it is by whom and on whose expense?
    It is rumoured that the High executive Council (HEC) under Abel Alier had no budget like Government of Southern Sudan instituted after CPA. In those days there were no petrodollars in the Sudan. The discovery of oil around 1978 by an American company called Chevron changed that forever. The current multimillion super rich politicians are the true beneficiaries of that god’s gift.
    That aside, the HEC managed to build so much with so little and the current Amarat is that so much constructed with so little. At that time corruption is was simply unheard of or missing in the lexicon of the primitive South.
    Hai Amarat has become an area of choice for everyone who happened to be accommodated there. Those accommodated guys have forgotten the free houses there are meant for the serving government officials and whoever happens to have been accommodate should vacate once removed from the position he/she held. Perhaps it is the same government who does not instruct those would be residents of Amarat that they leave once the term of service in the government is over. As we speak, those in the bush fighting the government still have their accommodation intact on their names except the rebel leader whose residence is purported to have been destroyed during the wee hours of the rebellion.
    One very important observation about Amarat is that those politicians who are there seem to adorn young faces. However, a stark contrast emerged on the behest of the crisis. Within few days after running away from Juba, the rebel leader Riek Machar looked a ghost of his former young self. He looked grey and wrinkled and so was Pagan Amuom and the list is long. Many people agreed with this observation. This also observation speaks more about others remaining there who are well-groomed but are past the age of black hair and baby face.
    The secret to all this is what is called impression management. People go to greater lengths to over apply make ups like hair dye and wrinkle reducers like botox. The sad fact is that it is all on the public expense since nobody accounts for anything in South Sudan. Corruption has so many faces. One of those faces is as small as using little government assets for personal good. Corruption further has so many colours and one of those colours is painting your hair black which is otherwise too grey to deceive people so that one continues to receive favours like youth. Example is to continue in the art of seducing young girls otherwise your great grand children.
    In short Hai Amarat is a treasure trove for South Sudan politicians. It has everything that makes life worth living in a country where everything is scarce. Water, food, spacious houses and paved roads are the features of the suburb for the all powerful. Symbols of opulence like V8s and SUVs are everywhere in Hai Amarat.


  89. Malith Alier says:

    The Puppet Government in Bor
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    The purported democracy in south Sudan is now a thing of the past. It was a pretext used to enlist the international community to believe that the young nation is indeed a young democracy to add to the list of democracies in the east African region. That said, it unravelled within a short period of time. Some governors were removed without elections as stated in the constitution. The 60 day limit was exceeded and the leadership defended the non-adherence to the constitution in a way that left many baffled.
    One of the governors who benefited from this illegal continuation of the term of service is the current governor of Jonglei, John Koang Nyuon. Some people would like us to keep quiet about it but strangely it keeps coming up until it is addressed.
    Even if it is threatening, truth must be told whenever necessary. In everything we do, there is an inherent danger but we do not shy away simply because it is dangerous. The soldiers carry guns despite the danger associated with them. People of opinion continue to express their views within what is acceptable and for the common good. Sometimes these opinions may be misconstrued and misinterpreted under unhealthy perceptions. We have known individuals or groups that faced these dangers in the past and today. This country has its own people who suffer under these circumstances.
    This author wrote an article about a situation in Jonglei after the division in to two of the erstwhile largest state in the country. The said article queried why Greater Pibor officials still subsist in Bor while they have decided to have their own home. That article solicited angry reactions in the quarters of the beneficiaries a long with godfathers.
    Last January, a group of women decided that enough was enough with the puppet government that continue to oppress them longer after the disentanglement of the State. Though they were labelled names, arrested and abused they have many supporters in the crowd of the silent majority. The fact that they are now temporarily off the radar does not mean that the grievances they expressed are abandoned. There is a saying that nobody will release the bull if it does not by itself. That is the situation these women and others are in. they must release themselves because no one else will do it.
    A puppet government has the following Characteristics;
    1. It has no real connection with the people it governs
    2. It only receives orders from above and has no power of its own
    3. It is afraid of the people it governs and as such, it has a huge armed force for protection
    One of the reasons expressed by striking ladies was the fact that this government does not represent them in anyway and has no real connection with the people who remained under the government after 2013 fallout. Both the governor and his deputy have never visited the displaced in the camps and cannot travel freely in Bor.
    Some people might think that it is good to maintain this government intact to score points against the rebels but they should think of losing points with the constituency of the area. One of the chiefs of the area (name withheld) refused to attend a meeting called by the governor on condition that the Jonglei government lacks moral authority to call such meetings. He said that someone who has no cows (abuur) cannot be made a cattle camp leader. That summarises the feeling of some people about the Jonglei government.
    The government has no power even to reshuffle ministers. Many States have reshuffled their ministers many times but our puppet administration cannot do so. Western Bhar el Ghazel and Central Equatoria have reshuffled ministers more than three times.
    If the June elections are indeed postponed, then the people of Jonglei will endure the next two to three years under this government that is imposed on them. The option is for them to take the bull adage and release themselves once and for all.


  90. Malith Alier says:

    Finance Minister on the Economy: No Gain without Pain
    By Malith Alier
    Deng Athorbei is now a little over three months after reappointment as minister of finances and economy. It is his second stint at the portfolio, which has prompted some analysts to refer to his appointment as that of the old-guard.
    The finance ministry has seen more downs than ups ever since the interim period with various ill-suited ministers beginning with Arthur Akuen Chol. The other ministers were Kuol Athian, Deng Athorbei, Kosti Manibe and Aggrey Tisa Sabuni and now Deng Athorbei once again.
    Their tenures have witnessed mega financial scandals like infamous Dura saga at the time of Kuol Athian, illegal transfer of eight million US Dollars at the time of Kosti Manibe. It looked like one scandal was replaced with another. Even Deng Athorbei’s period was not spared of irregularities.
    Many commentators already heaved praises on the newly appointed minister in contrast, he is more aware of the herculean task before him. It is not going to be a plain sailing and therefore, it is too early to sing undue praises because the minister has not even settled in and began to chart a new course of action to put this vital docket on the right path to success.
    This author can’t start by praising the incoming minister but would like to caution those who are overzealous about the prospects of achieving economic success to be prepared for possible shocks as a result. Although not economic experts but we know what sound economic management entails.
    It is always a popular demand here in Juba and over the country that the Pound must remain strong against the Dollar. This is not supported by facts on the ground. The Pound now exchanges at 7.20 per Dollar in the parallel or black market as opposed to the official rate fixed at 2.9623 per Dollar.
    Conversely, it is encouraging that the incoming minister is set to address this issue along with other pertinent matters to stimulate the dormant economy.
    In a meeting last week with donors, the minister offered two bowls on his hand; the donor and the loan bowls. The learnt minister will have an audience if this is in return to fix the ailing economy. The donors had poured large sums and the creditors did the same in the past with little results. Now the minister learnt through experience therefore, is ready to address workforce issues like retirement of senior civil servants, long overdue. He is ready to address exchange rate regime from fixed to flexible regime. Deng Athorbei is ready to retrench the excess workforce. A particular mess is in the armed forces like the SPLA, Police, Prisons, wildlife and Fire Brigade. A chunk of the budget goes to the salaries of these forces.
    The minister realises that the government overspend the monthly budget in the wake of declining oil revenues. The oil revenues are the mainstay of the economy. In words of the one South Sudanese MP, we have to seal our leaking basket before the exchange rate deregulation. The time to do so is overdue.
    In summary, it is encouraging that the incoming national Minister of Finance and Economic Planning has immediately embarked on the revival of the economy before total collapse. This task can’t be done by the country alone. It needs involvement of international donors and credit institutions to fill the widening gap. A true stimulation of the economy needs development of a meaningful private sector. Therefore, the country must get prepared to face the components of the restructuring exercise. Retirement, retrenchment and exchange rate regime (the three Rs) must be the consequences of economic recovery.


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  92. Malith Alier says:

    Store away South Sudanese Pound in Favour of US Dollar
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    South Sudan’s independence in July 2011 arrived while the country was unprepared in many fronts. The controversial transitional Constitution was rushed in at the last minute so as to allow the swearing-in of the first president of the Republic. On the economic front, the country was at the horns of dilemma whether to use local currency or US Dollar instead. Perhaps the level of unpreparedness was a result of the bickering over sticking CPA issues like the border demarcation, share of assets and liabilities as well as the explosive share of petroleum revenues.
    Most of these issues continue to dog South Sudan today in a bad way. The convertibility of Pound to other major and regional currencies is the case this author weighs in through this piece. The architects of the South Sudan economy most likely envisaged that using US Dollar was not a good start but the realities on the ground proved this otherwise. The fact that this country continues to be a net importer of everything is the antithesis in the whole argument.
    Many economists in this country believed that the South Sudanese Pound is simply overvalued against other currencies and therefore, nobody, country or individual is ready to trade on it. Also refer to article authored by Garang Atem Ayiik on the Pound and its convertibility on this blog.
    A scan of neighbouring countries currencies shows that our pound is the strongest against all; Ugandan Sh2800/1, Kenyan Sh90/1, Sudanese SDG8/1, compared to South Sudanese Pound officially at SSP3.16/1. However, the black market in South Sudan is precisely reliable than you think. The South Sudanese is SSP9.00 per Dollar as we speak. It is only at this rate one can find willing buyers and sellers. The official rate cited above is the rate at which the government supplies Dollars to banks and other financial institutions.
    Faced with this economic despair, the government attempted to unify the two parallel rates i.e. the black market and official into one in November 2013 something vehemently opposed by the lawmakers arguing that the country can’t afford it. The reverse to the status quo thus far prove unsustainable. Therefore, the government is once again preparing to convene an economic conference involving economists from the country and the region to discuss this pervasive unification of the parallel markets. Most likely, some recommendations will emerge among them; I think is the adoption of USA currency, the Dollar as the official currency for South Sudan.
    This proposition is not farfetched. Many countries had done so in the past and it helped their economies weather the challenges they faced. According to Wikipedia, countries like Panama, Ecuador, Es Salvador, East Timor or Timor Leste, Zimbabwe, Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshal Islands, British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands have successfully adopted the US Dollar as home currencies and are comfortable using it to transact day to day business with ease. Some of these countries have accustomed its use simultaneously with their home currencies.
    Zimbabwe on the African continent, adopted the US Dollar in recent years at the time when its ZimDollar was affected by hyperinflation. Zimbabwe printed trillions of its valueless Dollars to be carried in bags and counting became a major problem along with storage.
    South Sudan is facing similar situation as Zimbabwe. The country’s pound is losing value very fast and it was revealed that the country is contemplating printing more many. Its reserves to last for five years mentioned in 2011 have dried. There is the shortage of foreign currency as oilfields are rundown by the raging conflict. The military expenditure is billion Dollars overnight.
    The way out is to adopt the US Dollar as the country’s official currency to stop the headache around the ill-fated Pound. The adoption of the US Dollar does not affect the country’s sovereignty. The adopted currency will only act as the medium of exchange, store of value, unit of measurement or simply a legal tender full stop.


  93. Malith Alier says:

    In the SPLM and the SPLA are Slow Learners
    By Malith Alier
    Once a rebel, always a rebel – anonymous
    Q: What does the SPLM and the SPLA have in common?
    A: Forgetfulness and gullibility
    Q: What do Peter Gatdet, Johnson Olony and David Yauyau have in common?
    A: Rebellion multiple times
    The latest “friendly” fire in Malakal and the environs is a result of forgetfulness and gullibility of the SPLA to trust a militia leader who ascended in to the military through dubious means. We only wait until time is opportune to pass judgment on situations in the country as is the case now.
    That is our view as ordinary citizens who have nothing to do with power and its games. The power games have not been played appropriately in the past and will continue to be so deeper into the future as long as the current slow learners in the SPLM and the SPLA persist.
    Peter Gatdet rebelled 10 times, Johnson Olony and David Yauyau two times each. However and because of the party and the military wing gullibility these rebels continue to roam and cause mayhem to the country at will.
    Questions are still unanswered why Gatdet was allowed to go back to Panpandiar Division 8 headquarters after having been accused of actively planning and organising rebellion in the state of Jonglei? Why was David Yauyau allowed to snick out of the country to travel to Khartoum via Nairobi in 2012? And finally why was Johnson Olony trusted, promoted armed to the teeth only to capture very important towns and killed thousands of people in the destruction. Seeing is believing. It is often said that these people never hear through the ear but through the eye. This is the assumption from now onward.
    The SPLA is a true risk taker. It had been doing it since 1983. Millions of people, military and civilians had died from preventable causes. Some of them were just collateral. Nobody can accuse the military strategists because they are not in the office.
    On the other note the generals are marrying more wives, building new schools, procuring latest weaponary, studying for higher degrees, checking damned records for promotions all while investing their 40 percent pension surpluses in Bonga buses and tractors.
    And the SPLM? You know it has signed Arusha Reunification agreement and is following up in Dar El Salam, Abuja, Pretoria and Addis Ababa. It has unfrozen bank accounts of Pagan and group on second hand and Riek and group on the third hand. Peace has to come at all cost to avoid total collapse. All criminal charges are forgiven. Come home, SPLM and reunite!


  94. Malith Alier says:

    Do You Need a Foreign Protection in Your Own Country G-10?
    By Malith Alier
    News is coming from the SPLM acting SG, Comrade Ann Itto that an advance team of G-10 returnees arrives in Juba on first of June to prepare for reunification. This was disclosed by the acting SG on Monday may 25 during a news conference in the capital.
    The SPLM seems to have given in to pressure from many quarters including AU, UN, IGAD to reunite for a new lease of life for it and the country it helped create and destroy shortly after realisation of independence.
    The G-10 of Comrade Pagan has set a precedent by inviting a security contingent from the Republic of South Africa to come and protect them in Juba as they reintegrate in to the system that has bankrupted the country.
    Many analysts consider the reunification of mother SPLM as something that will open a new chapter for the country to breathe once again. This view is hardly shared by others since the very SPLM factions are reluctant and even fearful of one another.
    The three factions of SPLM in Government, SPLM In Opposition and the SPLM Former Detainees are well aware that the fall out is not just skin deep, it had caused immense pain, suffering and resentment in the people of this country which will take some time to heal. The fall out of 2013 came about after gross poor governance over and after the 2011 independence referendum.
    These past neglected issues of party and government are supposed to be addressed by the intra-SPLM Arusha declaration of 2015. The declaration or best known as SPLM Reunification Agreement (SPLM RA) brokered by CCM or Chama Cha Mapinduzi of Tanzania, EPRDF of Ethiopia and ANC of South Africa is a document like other accords that may not have been implemented in the past. The SPLM had its constitution, manifesto and code of conduct on paper only. That is on the pessimistic note as opposed to the optimistic one.
    The G-10 joining the government of president Kiir to implement the Arusha accord in the absence of the other faction is something that remains to be seen. One analyst from Sudd Institute the other day regarded it as small step in the whole thing. The SPLM IO seems to have turned its back on the Arusha accord as it presses ahead with its original object of toppling the government. This mentality is hard to change considering the fact that many of Nuer white army members perished in the early stages of the war. This also coupled with the Nuer pride which is sometime suicidal.
    The sixty security personnel from South Africa are reported to work alongside their south Sudanese counterparts for security of the G-10 returnees. What is not known which this author also yearns to know is who pays for their stay in the country and how long are they going to be here. Both the SPLM and the government are silent about the above questions so far. It is worth noting that the group of ten was reluctant to return despite guarantees from the government that they will be safe in this country.
    The G-10 seemed to have forgotten that the SPLM lead government is credited with ensuring their survival even during the mayhem of December and during their arrest. Had the government been brutal, all of those arrested would be no more today. This is what they have completely forgotten.


  95. Malith Alier says:

    South Sudan Ideological Economy
    By Malith Alier
    For a country that just emerges from war, everything is a necessity. Everything is a priority i.e. basic and secondary needs fall in one category. This situation has never been helped by acute shortage of experts in various fields in the country. It is really worse in the area of economic management where everybody professes to know something about South Sudan economy herein modelled on the US Dollar.
    In 2005 the people in the bush, refugee camps and all over the globe just walked in and found the black gold flowing. The agreement currency, the Sudanese Pound also known SDG was just 2/1 or two per Dollar. Everybody thought that the economy functions like that only to be shocked by 2011 devaluation of the new Pound for South Sudan.
    It was during this period that some South Sudanese began to boast of how strong is their currency in the region. They did not know that the Pound was “pegged” against other currencies especially the US Dollar. And there were good reasons for this; the country is a net importer of everything even to date. Also, the petrodollars were flowing in at a comfortable rate when crude prices were rising.
    What the people in the new country did not contemplate was that the economic is not something that stays in one posture. Many issues can deflect the economy like inflation/ deflation, energy crisis, strikes and even at worse war.
    What South Sudan is having now is the war economy and war economies are highly volatile as we witness. Who in their right mind thinks that we should maintain pre 2013 economy or revert to it at ease? It is time to forget about your two bottles of coke you used to take a day. Forget about three plates of spaghetti at Juba Grand Hotel and other meals in other five star Hotels in Juba.
    You will affirm that everything we used to have is disappearing very fast. This shows that the pre 2013 lifestyle is no longer sustainable even if war stops today. It will take us more years and a hell of sweat to come back to that time of self sufficiency.
    For those who think that government intervention will make a great difference, they should tighten their belts as stated by David Deng, the Finance and Economic Planning Minister immediately after the failed economic conference held in Juba in April. The country was rebuked for not producing anything but only wish to maintain strong Pound against other currencies in the region.
    Proper economists long ago learned that government intervention never achieve anything good in the short and long run. Nobody else should educate south Sudanese on that. We are well aware that the government controlled the rate of US Dollar against Pound, something that has cause shortage and skyrocketing of the exchange rate in the market today.
    The Parliamentary Committee on industry and commerce goes around instructing bottled water companies to maintain the unsustainable price per bottle at 1 Pound. It is the same cry by the Mayor of Juba City. Last week the new Undersecretary in the Ministry of Trade, Commerce and Industry did the same but what do you expect shortage and further shortage of bottled water in Juba and beyond.
    However, some small advice is in order. Recently a lot of people thought that replacing Mr. so and so will do wonders by itself. No, changing key people frequently alone will not do anything if alternative systems are not instituted and tried.
    The Letter of Credit (LC) Instituted by Central Bank was a good initiative conceived with best intentions. However, because people were not well instructed of its operations they tended to misuse and ultimately abuse for their own interest. The LC attracted opportunists as well as middlemen ultimately increasing the bank rate to what was in the parallel market. The final importer will not relax but recoup all the lost money to the middlemen and that is why Nido milk is SSP 250 in the market now. Further, the people who were entrusted with execution of the LC were not honest brokers. They put their interest above those of the others. They started granting the LCs to their relatives and friends, their companies and those in authority. Who expected them to be different? Past scandals tell us that put your self-interests first before everyone else.
    The accusing fingers were pointed to the Ministry of Trade, Commerce and Industry, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning for failing to disburse LCs as perceived.
    All in all, the Letter of Credit is good but it needs strong regulation. Those who handle LCs along with those who receive it must ensure that they delivery. Failure to strictly adhere to regulations of LCs must be punishable to deter violation. Good in theory is not good enough.


  96. Guor Kiir says:

    ( Memorandum of Mutual Understanding).

    1st Press Release Resolution.

    Date: September 1st, 2015.

    The Ruweng Communities in Diaspora are the combination of Biemnom and Panrieng Counties of Jieeng ethnic groups in Unity State. The two Jieeng communities of Aloor (Biemnom) and Panaruu ( Panrieng) had held a joint-intercontinental teleconference in diaspora to reach the anonymous-general consensus to accept and welcome the signing of the foreign-imposed peace agreement by the regional & international mediators/observers accorded last week between the rebels and the government.

    Cognitive, mindful, considerate, merciful of our own suffering civil populace who are internally and externally affected, displaced and tormenting in their own localities across South Sudan and other neighboring countries, the people of Ruweng Communities in Diaspora felt sympathetic and compassionate to accept, welcome and acknowledge the accorded peace cordially with tolerance, compromise and conditions.

    The Ruweng Communities in Diaspora had taken this rare and solemn opportunity to gratefully congratulates both His Excellency Salva Kiir de Miyardit and Dr. Riek de Micar for inking the foreign-imposed peace upon them and against the wills and interests of South Sudanese citizens generally.

    However, having acknowledged and welcomed the foreign-imposed peace on South Sudan by the regional and international forces does not necessarily mean that the Ruweng Communities in particular have no grievance to object to this biased peace, which appears to overshadow the survivability and security of their indigenous people & territorial integrity under the upcoming interim-transitional government of Salva Kiir-Riek Micar.

    The misrepresentation and disproportionate distributions of the power and resource-sharing-formula during the short period of the IGAD-PLUS peace proposal was quite alienating and provocative to the bystanders, particularly to the political constituencies of Jieeng De Ruweng and Bul-Nuer in Unity State as well as the Maban & Padang Jieeng of the Upper Nile State respectively, given the fact that their indigenous States are categorically and selectively awarded to Dr. Riek Micar and Taban Deng Gai.

    This miscalculation by either the South Sudan, regional, international, and rebel camps had prompted the minority communities in Unity State and Upper Nile State to react negatively to the call for the creation of their own States exclusive of Riek-Taban’s gubernatorial powers and resource-control over their territorial jurisdictions.

    There are many factors leading to the Ruweng Communities to demand for the Statehood of their own self-rule, free of Riek-Taban and Nuer Counterparts for the following reasons:

    1. Ruweng Communities reject and denounce to be ruled under the government of Unity State led by Riek-Taban and his Nuer Counterparts.

    2. Chronic victimization of Ruweng Jieeng Minorities in the State had reached the climax of zero-tolerance so far. Political and socioeconomic oppression of the Ruweng Jieeng Minorities.

    3. The Nuerization of the Unity State is institutionalized with bullying Stigma.
    Systematic Tribal Massacre of Ruweng Jieeng is an adopted Nuer-doctrine in Unity State in case of national political crisis and whenever there is a war.

    4. Discriminatory institutionalization of the Nuer-Tribalism against Ruweng Jieeng in Unity State in the workforce of the gubernatorial employment system.

    5. General insecurity deterioration and systematic territorial incursion by Nuer neighboring Counties over the Ruweng indigenous territories in Unity State.

    Summarily speaking, the legendary People of Ruweng Jieeng in Unity State had suffered, endured and persevered for four decades, facing and confronting the traditional warfare with Nuer counterparts historically in Unity State in the past until traditional war treaties were signed peaceful resolutions to all those conflicts settled by our legendary paramount Chiefs and senior councils of Elders from both the Ruweng-Nuer by then.

    Our heroic chiefs and councils of Elders were more peaceful and reconciliatory to reach a mutual pacts of peace accords which had enhanced & strengthened the harmonious coexistence and Stability between Ruweng Jieeng and Nuer counterpart in the historic State of Upper Nile region.

    Despite the fact that those binding peace-pacts were sincerely honored and observed by the Ruweng Jieeng in the interests of appeasing and condoning the lasting peace and stability with neighbors, Nuer counterparts bordering Ruweng Jieeng along their traditional borders were hasty to violate sporadically the terms of the traditional peace-treaties reached mutually by the legendary Chiefs and councils of Elders on both sides of Jieeng and Nuer.

    Nuer would not hesitate to invade into Jieeng lands and raid the cattle and loot whatever commodities with a valuable values by then. In spite of many agreed peace pacts, Nuer never back down from carrying out criminal raids and aggressive incursions to loot & kill.

    It was all these provocative aggression and incursion which had become a chronic nightmare for the Ruweng people to choose to determine decisively the future destiny and fate for their own people to live side by side in peaceful isolation from Nuer dominance in Unity State. This chronic aggression didn’t ceased there but it continues to be a perpetual habit till then.

    In the second phase of chronic-violent agitation of Ruweng Jieeng, the Nuer of the contemporary society and civilization adopted the similar systematic behavior of the past traditional Nuer-lifestyle of chronic agitation and harassment of their neighbors.
    During the Civil war in Sudan when many marginalized Sudanese/South Sudanese flocked to Ethiopia to smuggle arms to fight for the liberation war or get guns to come and defend their people and territorial integrity from the aggressive neighbors in the early 1980s, both Nuer and Jieeng of Unity State did not hesitated to join the revolutionary armed struggle movement (SPLA/M) in their large number. The likes of Dr. Riek Micar and Taban Deng Gai later joined the people’s movement.

    Long before the commencement of the SPLA Operation Bright Star Military Campaigns in 1980s and 1990s, Dr. John Garang was able to delegate and assign each high echelons of the SPLA military brass commands to the zonal command based on the respective regions or States of the SPLA strategic deployment, Dr. Riek was categorically deployed to the Western Upper Nile ( presently Unity State) as the SPLA Zonal Command, with late three-star Captain Simon Ngor Choc as his overall operational commander from Bentiu to Nuba Mountain areas until late Usif Kuwa later took control of the entire Nuba Mountain.

    The gallant sons of Ruweng fought fiercely under the general command of Dr Riek Micar, until Ngor Choc who was the dearest son of Ruweng earned him the sweet legacy of the successful records and achievement in the SPLA ranks and files. Dr Riek Micar was hailed as the most successful zonal command due to the military successful operations conducted by late Simon Ngor Choc against the Sudan military garrison by then.

    When the SPLA mainstream central command under the leadership of late Dr. John Garang decided to promote the most successful operational officers who earned and promoted Dr Riek as the most successful zonal commander of the western Upper Nile, Dr Riek later declined to promote late Ngor Choc, his successful operational officer in his zone and other junior officers under him.

    Dr. Riek Micar refused to promote Ngor choc and other Panaruu heroic officers because his cynical motivation was to keep all Ruweng Jieeng SPLA officers under his demotion. It was a blunt policy of exclusion while maintaining the status quo ruling them.

    And instead of promoting these Jieeng officers to the higher ranks based on their unique, exceptional-military performance, and excellent success in many fronts in Unity State against the enemy, he went ahead and diverted those ranks and files toward the promotion his tribal/clannish Nuer officers.

    This was the beginning of Dr Riek Micar’s engineered and adopted institutionalization of Nuerism versus the Ruweng Jieeng minority.

    In 1985, Riek continues to perpetuate his chronic, discriminatory policy against the Ruweng Jieeng over the distribution of the SRRA Humanitarian relief supplies evenly to the people of Unity State who were collectively under his military authority and civil administration when he was the SPLA western Upper Nile Zonal Command by then.

    As the result of his discriminatory policies toward Ruweng Jieeng, he decided to order all the medical clinics and mobile health centers to be concentrated and built in his hometown of Leer and Duar, which are remote and far away from the Counties of Ruweng Jieeng.

    All Nuer patients were able to have an abundant accessibility to Leer and Duar while the two counties of Ruweng Jieeng were left to fend off and combat the epidemic disease of Kalazaar on their own.

    Despite the fact that the UN supervising over the humanitarian medical supplies to Unity State in 1986 did advised Riek Micar to permit the construction of at least one mobile clinics in Ruweng Counties, Riek refused blatantly never to allow any relocation of the mobile medical dispensaries to Ruweng areas by then.

    So the UN medical team decided to abide by his biased policy against Ruweng and to obey his order to concentrate the medical services in Leer and Duar exclusively.

    Given the surging deaths of the Kalazaar and its epidemic increment in Ruweng Counties, the caravans of Kalazaar patients began to make a massive exodus to Nuerland of Leer and Duar to seek emergency medical cares.

    Some of these patients died while trekking to Duar, while some of them were denied access to equal medical attention and treatments upon their arrival in Nuerland of Leer and Duar. Others were reported to have been massacred in cold-blooded just because they were Jieeng in that regard.

    This was the mayhem of the Ruweng initial silent-massacre in cold-blooded style by Dr. Riek Micar from 1986-1990s. Thousands of Ruweng patients died mercilessly in Nuerland seeking medical cares while their accompanies were killed.

    Then in 1991, when the factional splits between Dr Riek Micar and John Garang occurred on August 28th, 2015, Riek initially launched his preliminary waves of rebel forces and White Army against the Ruweng Jieeng of Unity State and massacred thousands of innocent civilians in cold-blooded including blinds, cripples, elders, kids, women and other vulnerable handicapped disabled persons.

    When you look at these sequential waves of the tribal massacre against Ruweng Jieeng, it was indeed an embedded tribal hatred which led to the intentional crime of this systematic-ethnic cleansing against Ruweng Jieeng.

    During the 1997, when the likes of Taban Deng Gai and Nguen Monytuil were successive governors of the Western Upper Nile under the regime of the National Islamic Front of the Sudan government, political assassinations of the Ruweng Jieeng politicians and scholastic intellectuals who were working under the Sudan regime in Bentiu in 1990s was Alarming.

    Great politicians and intellectuals like those of Choc de Kiir Juach who was the education minister of the Unity State by then killed by Paulino Matip Nhial’ s militias inside Bentiu during the governorship tenure of Dr. Nguen Monytuil and Taban Deng Gai over his attempt to relocate the educational resources to all the State counties including Ruweng counties. Senior politician by name Arop Dudi, whose her daughter is a minister of sport today under Salva Kiir Miyardit was also another victim of the Nuer-systematic political assassinations against Ruweng Jieeng in Bentiu.

    The son of the retired SPLA veteran, Lieutenant General Michael Char Chol, by name Mijak de Char who was a former ex-SPLA soldier and skilled mechanic, was also killed in cold-blooded simply because he was Jieeng de Panaruu.

    The systematic assassinations was sporadic and was not confined to the victims cited above, but many others who were vulnerable were victimized mercilessly and culled from 1980s-1990s. Many lives are not accounted for. Some Ruweng were lynched in darkness.

    In 2000s to the present time, which is the term of Taban Deng Gai’s Governorship tenure following the CPA implementation-era, and post-independence secession of South Sudan, Taban Deng Gai started his term of governor with an enthusiastic momentum and greater expectations of the people of Unity State, but such an enthusiastic optimism later resulted in a disappointing dismay and upset, especially when Taban resumed the same old mentality of imposing the impulsive-Nuer-reckless bullying and coercive attitudes and prejudice of superiority and Nuerism Supremacy against the wills of Ruweng Jieeng in Unity State.

    Specific illustrations of Taban Deng Gai having promoted the institutionalized Nuerism Superiority and supremacy were manifested in his gubernatorial occupation and territorial annexation of Ruweng County Payam of Manga (Wanh-danluel in Jieeng) to his Guit county of Jikeny-Nuer.

    Manga aka Wanh-danluel was an indigenous swamp land of Panaruu which is seasonally used by the clans of Ngeer-Buga-Ngau-Miocigiu to graze their cattle annually. This swamp is a fertile ground feasible for commercial farmlands as well as it is also harboring an oil field.

    Taban intention was maliciously driven to occupy, annex and own this indigenous land for his own personal mansion, future real estate, and commercial purposes ( mechanized agricultural projects).

    The indigenous natives of the grabbed land by the gubernatorial decree of Taban decided to protest against the occupation and illegal land grabbing by Taban Deng, accusing him of an abuse of his governor powers against the local natives of Manga.

    Taban bullied the county commissioner when he questioned his illegal occupation and residency without holding the notarized issuance of the title-deed of the land from the Panrieng County authorities.

    Having noticed that his illegal occupation of Manga had angered the Ruweng People, Taban later decided to recruit and train local White Army militias from his Guit County, and encouraged his Guit-Leek Nuer to come and settle in Manga as a systematic strategy to gradually occupy and annex Manga of Ruweng natives to his Guit County.

    Prior to his removal, Taban was also believed to have been behind the brutal assassination of the Biemnom Commissioner County in front of his brother and wife in Juba when the security force of death squad raided his home and mercilessly ransacked his house.

    Before his removal by Salva Kiir in early 2013, Taban decided to tactically deploy his Guit-White-Army in Manga to intimidate, harass, repel, and deter Ruweng Jieeng natives who try to settle there.

    Following his termination in early 2013, and was summoned to Juba and put under house arrest, Taban began to instruct and order his Guit-White-Army to begin the tribal terrorism operation against Ruweng natives in Manga and Agarak Payam respectively.

    His militias sponsored via his county commissioner of Guit went on to pronounce and proclaim Manga as an officially-annexed Payam to Guit, prompting an angry outrage from the natives of Ruweng as an empty blunder and ploy rhetoric emanating from Taban Deng.

    Ruweng paused for some months, until when the militias began to attack Manga and Agarak villages of Ruweng County, killing innocent civilians in cold-blooded in their sleep. Biu Payam youths challenged the county acting commissioner of Ruweng and State Governor to deter the terroristic Guit-White-Army before they responded in kind by taking laws into their own hands.

    The second attack was launched against the villages of Agarak and more dozen were killed again, which triggered Biu Payam youths to launch a similar raid into the territory of Guit-White-Army in Guit.

    The tension almost escalated to a major invasion until Governor Nguen Monytuil exercised his leadership swiftly to deter further escalation of the confrontation between Guit and Biu.

    The atrocious massacre of Ruweng civilians did not ceased there, but it continues from late December 2013 to 2014 as the war raged on in Unity State.

    The first casualties of Ruweng civilians occurred in Tharjath where the intellectual engineers and teachers mainly from Ruweng Counties were selectively singled out and summarily executed by Nuer forces in Tharjath and Bentiu by fire squads.

    Following the intensive fight in Juba, Taban Deng Gai ordered his Guit-White-Army to resume the tribal attack against the innocent civilians of Agarak-Manga villages, massacred 38 civilians including the pregnant woman whose stomach/womb was cut-open and the fetus-infant baby taken out of her womb and cut into piece mercilessly by this Guit-White-Army, which was recruited and trained and equipped heavily by Taban Deng long before he was removed by Salva Kiir.

    In April 2014, among the massacred thousands of civilians of various tribal, ethnic, clannish and national backgrounds were Jieeng of Ruweng who were residing there as either State residents or government employees.

    Many lost lives while others sustained severe life-threatening wound and injuries. The office of the State Governor had lost the staff members who were formal employees. They were executed summarily on tribal lines.

    An institutional discrimination and oppression of the Ruweng Jieeng is categorically minced and manifested in many different ways or forms in Unity State. It had developed with an embedded, chronic disenfranchisement versus the ethnic Jieeng in the predominantly-Nuer State.

    This chronic tribalism had instilled the Nuer counterparts in the State with the set of attitudes, beliefs, and practice which justify the habitual characteristics that Unity State is where all the Nuer descendants originated, and so they have to rule over Jieeng minority of Ruweng with self-actualization and realization to imposing Nuer-superiority and supremacy to massacre-violently and systematically downtrodden the minorities at will whenever there is a national or state crisis.

    The manifestation of Nuerism can also be seen in regard to the prospective quest and demand and stereotypical-prejudice overwhelmed-call by Nuer populace to change the Unity State name to the Liech State ( meaning cradle land of Nuer origin). This negative tribalism is overwhelmingly alarming with zero-tolerance.

    In an employment gubernatorial workforce public sector, discriminatory hiring policies are appalling against Ruweng Jieeng despite the fair-standard human resource management and administration policies and regulatory laws which stipulate the hiring and vetting process of the job applicants without discriminating them on the basis of tribes. In Unity State, only Nuer applicant is given a first priority even though he or she may be less qualified and competent to fill the vacancy. Qualified minorities are discriminated against in favor of the least qualified Nuer-applicants.

    During the Taban Deng Gai’s tenure, Ruweng Jieeng best students who had done excessively with an academic excellence in critical standard examination in overall performance in the State of Unity were deprived the hard-earned privileges of attaining the scholastic scholarship programs which was funded and sponsored by the State government under the tenure of Taban Deng Gai.

    In the educational sector, the scholarship programs were not awarded to the State best students on the merit of academic excellence or exceptional and outstanding ovation-performance, but it was purely done on the merits of tribal majority, which justifies that Nuer were awarded the undeserved scholarships even when they do not qualify and perform academically to meet the required grade percent of the expected mark.

    Many Nuer students were awarded the scholarship programs to secondary schools,colleges and universities in Uganda, Kenya, Egypt, Malaysia including funding some Nuer individuals educations in Diaspora for their further education.

    All these scholarships were funded and sponsored by Taban Deng Gai without awarding a single Ruweng student to a higher education of institute in Unity State.

    The state-sponsored university or college in Bentiu was also privatized as Nuer college and was named as prospective Liech University which was an insult to Ruweng Jieeng minority because it was funded by the unity State 2% oil revenue share.

    Taban Deng Gai had gone as far as financially and economically privatizing the spending of 2% State oil share to award scholarships to Nuer Students in various countries worldwide but he went as far as spending the millions of dollars to purchase the mechanized farm equipment such as bulldozers and ploughing tractors to be utilized for the State cultivation of agricultural/arable extensive projects, which in fact would had created the statewide job opportunities and enhanced food security in Unity State, unfortunately, these State farm commercial equipment later disappeared or might had been privatized and distributed among his loyal and supportive Nuer clans.


    In summary of the aforementioned grievances, most triangling griefs had caused tribal mistrust, insecurity, disharmony, disunity which had then generated more hurt feelings and created polarized, divisive, fragmented dissension between Ruweng Jieeng and Nuer Counterparts in Unity State.

    The following are the summarized recommendations and resolutions that Ruweng Communities in Diaspora would like to see put into considerations prior to the implementation of the of CPA-2.

    1.Ruweng Diaspora Communities anonymously endorsed the Padang recent letter position paper demanding the separate secession of Ruweng and Padang people from the incumbent Unity State and Upper Nile State respectively.

    2.Ruweng Communities in Diaspora resolved and recommended that creation of Ruweng State ( which shall consists of Panrieng/Biemnom) should be approved and ratified prior to the effective deadline of the peace.

    3.Ruweng Diaspora Communities also endorsed the exclusive creation of the Central State which shall consist of Renk, Meluth, Akoka, Paloc, Pigi, Baliet, Maban counties respectively.

    4.Ruweng & Padang Counties had reached the mutual consensus in a common solidarity that their territories will no longer be subjected to the rule and governance of Dr Riek-Taban’s transitional state governments of Unity State and Upper Nile State in the upcoming transitional administration.

    5.Ruweng Communities in Diaspora resolved and recommended that they would exclusively declare the unilateral self-determination to self-rule in case President Salva Kiir declines and fails to fulfill and guarantee the general security and Survivability of our people of Ruweng.

    6.Ruweng Diaspora Communities resolved that they should be left alone to rule and govern their own people within their territories should Kiir fails to approve their tentative popular consultation demands.

    All the cited grievances above are the reasonable causes behind the exclusive demands for the constituencies of Ruweng people and Padang Counterparts.

    Therefore, having provided the substantial justifications for the causes of Ruweng counties to secede from the Liech State (a soon-to-be former Unity State), Ruweng Diaspora Communities believe that they have the constitutional rights to the self-determination to decide the fateful future over the security uncertainty which often threaten the livelihood and survival of our people. Nobody shall infringes and alienates the constitutional rights of others, and deprives them to determine for themselves the security and peace for their people.

    Granting of the self-rule State for the Ruweng Counties is critically vital for the smooth and peaceful implementation of the IGAD-PLUS peace as well as guaranteeing the safety and guardian of the oil infrastructure in the territories of Ruweng and Padang Counties.

    It would be lauded for President Salva Kiir to take an urgent action now before the deadline of foreign-imposed peace in the Upper Nile and Unity State take an effect in the months.

    We do anticipate your positive feedbacks over these communal demands, and thank you in advance for your considerate and mutual consideration and cooperation.

    Best Regards,
    Ruweng Communities in Diaspora.

    Co-signed by:

    1. Biemnom County Chairperson Diaspora.

    2. Ruweng County Chairperson Diaspora.



    Let us all stand up and observe a minute of silence…..

    We, the people of Ajuong and Pakeer community call upon our intellectuals, relatives, friends, well-wishers and the entire Republic of South Sudan to come and joint us in commemoration of 20 October, 2015 anniversary.

    As you all know dear friends on this date (20 October, 2013) is the darkest day ever in our history when our belove ones ultimately sacrifices their lovely lives for the sake of defending their fathers, mothers, children and the entire territory of Ajuong and Pakeer from David Yauyau militiamen.

    Our dear brothers and sisters even though you are not here with us today, you did not die in vain.We met you in spirit and your faces are still a fresh and shine in our hearts.If tears of remembrance you were to build a stairway and memories a lane, we would have walk right up to heaven and bring you home once again because of love we have deserved in you.

    As far today gathering,we pay tributes and send you our prayers and thoughts of peace and internal life in the name of Jesus Christ we praise and believe “Amen”


  98. Dut .M. Deng kok says:

    the dark side of state building and high corruption in south sudan.

    by Dut .M. Deng Kok. Juba.

    for sustainable human security, state building is the only endgame. Absent state, traditional mechanisms and authority structures might indeed manage communal issues, perhaps even better than would the state . trans communal issues like environmental degradation, complex humanitarian emergencies, and large scale conflicts/ senseless war, however, go beyond the jurisdiction and capacity of such entities. Building a legitimate, professional, and representative state,therefore, is only way to address the problems of the modern, interconnected world. this process is inherently messy, however, as demonstrated in the case of the world’s newest state, south sudan, number four on this year’s failed state index.

    we must be clear eyed about what state building means. new states bring with them many things, and foremost is often unrealistic expectations. A state is not exogenous entity dropped in from above to solve the problems down below. A polarized society gives rise to a polarized state. institutions can be co-opted and power abused, especially in the early years as militias are subsumed into the national security forces and war lords are appointed or elected into positions of national leadership.

    in addition to the hundred of thousands of displaced persons in neighboring countries like Uganda and Kenya even with in the country, including I and my family destroyed properties and infrastructures, and near total economic devastation in country, there were deeply ingrained cleavages through out society exacerbated by the senseless conflicts. A long with the well-defined fault lines between rival armies and militias and the political leadership of the two SPLM”, groups divided further along tribal and position fighters lines as well as political control and the economic opportunity. nevertheless riek bad Kiir good ” perception helped spurs action to end the conflicts and push for implementation to end the senseless war between Kiir and risk.


  99. Malith Alier says:

    The Reckless harangue by VP
    By Malith Alier, Juba
    There are times when people should think and weigh what they utter to the public. South Sudan is a volatile country, made so by the nature of illiteracy and diverse cultures some of which do not accommodate tolerance.
    Many times the media is strongly warned against hate speech by government officials. The other day the minister of Information and Broadcasting warned that the SPLM/A IO must never again be referred to as rebels because they have signed peace and are part of us.
    However, it is the same government officials who have crossed this line of thinking soon after. Hon. Wani Igga threatens the perceived peace spoilers to pack and go to another country. This was during educational event organised by educational fraternity.
    Hon. Wani has not realised that by threatening the supposed peace spoilers, he is creating another problem. You cannot solve one problem by creating another. I wonder whether he is aware that the IO war was basically the war of seats or to be sulta so & so.
    Wani has no right to ask anybody in the country to leave for any reason. There is no single provision in the country’s Constitution that empowers the president or vice to expel citizens for any reason whatsoever.
    Wani had never realised that his “disgruntle officials” reply to the December 6 group was one of the factors that added fuel to the fire. Talking without thinking is like shooting without aim.
    What if they leave the country and be rebels like the IO?
    Therefore, the VP should apologise to the people of South Sudan for this reckless speech.
    He is further advised to concentrate on his “performance contract” he familiarised when he returned from USA. He should also concentrate on his unrealisable fight against corruption.
    Much talk and less work particularly by government high ranking officials will not help this country much instead, it brings more confusion.


  100. dengcholmijak says:

    Is Dr. Lam Akol and his Shilluk Mp, Anyito Behind the Violent Riot against Jieeng in Malakal?

    First and foremost, let me pay homage of tribute and heartfelt condolences to those Padang Jieeng sections whose loved ones were massacred mercilessly and indiscriminately by this politicized and ethnically motivated attack by Shilluk and Nuer IDPs (note carefullt that the IDPs is an acronym for the internally displaced persons) against the indigenous natives of Malakal.

    It was not long ago when the prominent politicians of the Shilluk Kingdom were vocally outspoken and crusading for the passionate incitement of the tribal war against the Padang Jieeng in their own Eastern Upper Nile State over what they alleged as the annexation of the Malakal two, the famous indigenous territory of the Padang Jieeng.

    Both Dr. Lam Akol and Mp Anyito have been busy and continue to proliferate the same violent rhetoric of fomenting and inciting their own Shilluk kingdom against Padang Jieeng in their own designated State of Eastern Upper Nile.

    The violent, political rhetoric spewed by both Dr Lam Akol and Mp Anyito was intelligently interpreted as a provocation for the war against Padang Jieeng. Both Dr Lam Akol and Mp Anyito are intelligently believed to be in veiled political and military coordination with Johnson Olonyo and other Shilluk newly created proxy faction known as the Collo Tiger Battalions meant to wage an ethnic revolution against Padang Jieeng.

    In the political perspective, Dr Lam Akol, Mp Anyito including all the Shilluk leaders and their proxy alliances are believed to be coordinating the absolute destabilization of the Eastern Upper Nile by exploiting their IDPs at UNMISS sites in Malakal to create a situational condition of havoc against the Jieeng IDPs inside the UN compound indiscriminately so that the UN, AU, IGAD and Troika who are behind the peace mediation can make a belligerent case against the 28 States whom they are currently opposed to categorically.

    Therefore, the political strategy being employed by Dr Lam Akol, Mp Anyito and all Shilluk prominent leaders including their military leaders who are in charges of their armed groups ( Tiger Battalions) fighting the SPLA was to create a war situation contrary to the current peace atmosphere so that the UNMISS would perceive the violent riot which led to the massacre of Jieeng innocent IDPs as a consequence of the creation of the 28 States. This political conspiracy theory by prominent Shilluk leaders was orchestrated strategically to seek a political justification against the creation of the 28 States.

    Therefore, the State and national leadership under the Governor of Eastern Upper Nile State and South Sudan should interpret this aggressive act against the innocent IDPs of Jieeng as an act of provocation meant to steer and create the tribal tension and war against Jieeng citizens in their own State.

    In addition, this provocation should also be seen as the destabilization of the Eastern Upper Nile State, which could eventually regress and undermine the national security of South Sudan. According to the eyewitnesses on the ground who were there technically, it is reported that the ethnic massacre of Jieeng IDPs in their site within the UNMISS premises was done executed by the armed youths of Shilluk and Nuer IDPs who are believed to have smuggled in the prohibited and dangerous weapons or arms into the UNMISS sites. These Shilluk and Nuer IDPs attackers who mercilessly massacred Jieeng IDPs were believed to have publicly brandished their heavy weapons before they could launch an attack on the Dinka confined site.

    How the UNMISS security forces who are deployed on the sites failed to apprehend these Shilluk and Nuer IDPs who smuggled in the weapons to hack the Jieeng IDPs remains to be an interesting development to be investigated against the UNMISS forces. Was the UNMISS ethnically and tribally inclined toward the Shilluk and Nuer to have permitted them to commit such an heinous atrocity holistically under their supervisory watch as they monitor the Jieeng IDPs shot to death without their intervention?

    Well, we have to be legally and impartially concerned of this indiscriminate atrocity conspired, sponsored by the Shilluk prominent politicians and later executed under the supervision of the UNMISS. The question which is left lingering in the minds of the conscious and rational thinkers is where on earth would the world neutral forces like UNMISS be so biased and negligent to have permitted the commission of the atrocious crime in their presence when in fact it is their legal mandate to defend and protect innocent IDPs irrespective of their tribal and raciall identities.

    In the other analytical argument, the Presidency of South Sudan and National Intelligence as well as gubernatorial government of Eastern Upper Nile had failed respectively to apprehend those prominent Shilluk politicians for having plotted and orchestrated this violent riot, which could possibly undermine the national security and stability of the Eastern Upper Nile and South Sudan altogether, should the indigenous natives of Malakal take the laws into their own hands and act unilaterally.

    The great citizens of Eastern Upper Nile State believe that they can live side by side in peace and harmonious coexistence with their Shilluk and Nuer counterparts as was in the past. It is also in the best interest of the Eastern Nile state to promote the conducive atmosphere to live among each other States without the discrimination of any South Sudan citizen to live anywhere in RSS.
    Padang Jieeng had long been at relative peace and harmony with their Shilluk and Nuer neighbors for centuries.

    Most of Shilluk fled to eastern Nile of the river long time ago to come and settle in the Jieeng land of Malakal as criminal escapees or dissidents/outlaws fleeing their own traditional kingdom criminal prosecution.

    Other factors which also forced Shilluk long time ago to mingle with Jieeng of Padang was when they crossed from the western Nile bank to eastern Nile bank of Jieeng territories to work as the industrious laborers for the British colonial masters and arab merchants who came to established Malakal as a metropolitan center and commercial hubs for the commerce. Malakal was the indigenous territory of Jieeng de Padang in eastern Nile bank.

    When Shilluk escapes and laborers came to flock, settle and concentrated in Malakal town under the oppressive and callous employment exploitation and slavery, some of them never returned back to their indigenous villages in the western Nile bank where their ancestors were settled.

    Some of these migrants of Shilluk who came to reside in Jieeng land of Malakal later developed the sense of ownership of Malakal as if it was their indigenous land simply because some of them later married there and born children who had never visited their Shilluk indigenous villages in the western Nile bank.

    These adopted and adapted Shilluk who were categorically raised in Malakal as escapees and laborers under the British colonial and Arab merchant oppressive enslavement and abuse later developed the sense of being the owners of Malakal as if they are the sons and daughters of the indigenous land over Malakal. Ironically, I do give them the benefit of doubt because nobody had taught them the history of their ancestors and how they migrated to the Dinka land of Malakal.

    The whole world ought to understand that those Shilluk who claim the ownership of Malakal were the children of the indigenous Shilluk criminal dissidents/escapees and enslaved laborers, who were attracted to the newly booming economic and metropolitan town in the Dinka land of Malakal under the auspicious development of the Colonial British and Arab merchants.

    Malakal had long been the cattle camp for the livestock of Padang Jieeng pastoralists, who were often resistant and sensitive to any foreign enslavement and oppression, unlike Shilluk who embraced and flocked to Malakal from the western Nile bank to Jieeng land in the eastern Nile of the sobat river.

    The Padang Jieeng are peaceful and law-abiding people who like to accommodate any migrants into their society without any segregation. With the current massacre of their innocent IDPs in the watch of the UNMISS forces inside their own city of Malakal in Eastern Upper Nile, one is left to wonder as to where in the world would other external strangers and migrants come to kill you in your own house and expect to live in a relative peace and tranquility without evicting them.

    This raises the question of whethet the newly appointed Governor of Eastern Upper Nile should takes a unilateral executive order with urgency to urge the UNMISS to expedite the relocation and repatriation of the Shilluk and Nuer IDPs in Malakal to their respective States of Western Upper Nile State and Latjor State to avoid the escalation of violence within his State. Lieutenant General, Gov. Chol Thon should acts now as he deems appropriate in the best interest of his citizens and national security of South Sudan.

    Solutions and Recommendations to this crisis:
    With sense of urgency, Lt. Gen. Gov Chol Thon must launch an expeditious investigation into the use of illegal and prohibited arms by the Shilluk and Nuer IDPs against Jieeng IDPs inside UN sites. How did did the arms got into the hands of these criminals must be interrogated.
    In order to ensure the stability, peace, and cessation of retaliatory cycle of revenge as well as guaranteeing the safety of those IDPs of Shilluk and Nuer inside Malakal from the Eastern Upper Nile citizens whose loved ones were slain in this indiscriminate attack and massacre, it would be advisory wise and appropriate for the UNMISS to expedite the relocation and repatriation process of the Shilluk and Nuer IDPs inside Malakal to their respective States of Latjor and Western Nile State with an jmmediate effect.
    It is the responsibility of the Governor of Eastern Upper Nile State to communicate his concern to the national security and presidency of South Sudan to reign in apprehending the prominent Shilluk politician who are politically responsible for the incitement of war against the sovereignty and stability of Eastern Upper Nile State ever since. You cannot continue to allow politicians of this ethnic tribe to continue propagate war while the nation is at the verge of implementing the peace currently in south Sudan.

    Conclusively, the people of Eastern Upper Nile State and their newly appointed and designated governor, Chol are being put to trial at this interim transition, and it is time they should act now to secure and defend and protect their territorial integrity and legal jurisdiction of their State by urging your governor to evict those IDPs who had inflicted massacre against your own citizens. It is your collective will to act mutually as a team in self-defense and protection of your State.

    Sorrowfully yours,
    DengChol Mijak is a concerned citizen.


  101. Archangelo Maker Anyuat says:

    Open letter to: Akec Tong Aleu, The Governor of Tonj State.
    By Chuol Deng Chuol.
    Dear Hon Governor,
    Subject: Condemnation of the recent killings in Thony (Manyany-Ngok)
    The Thony students Community in and outside the country are utterly dismayed and disappointed by the recent news in which some unprofessional soldiers brought by your leadership dumped their constitutional mandate to protect the civilians and their properties, killed people and burn down houses in Manyany-Ngok. We condemn in the strongest terms possible those malicious and duplicitous actions by the commanding officer which are so devilish.’
    Your appointment as the first governor of Tonj state was received with high expectations that you would be fair and competent enough In your supremacy, people celebrated your appointment for you were once known to be a peace tender leader, a man who was capable of maintaining security but all has turned out to be a mere miscalculation of your political status.
    Mr. Governor, I am not going to focus on how much you have failed to maintain Security in Tonj State but on the recent atrocities committed against Thony Community by your unprofessional Army under the command of your uncle Madhol CholThuc, former Commissioner of Tonj East County.It is noticeably clear that the disarmament mission is contrary to burning down of houses, killings of children, women and elderly people who don’t hold guns. Your instructions and commands to your untrained soldiers are far from that of disarmament mission if perceived correctly.
    In the first incident carried out by your army, two people were killed and two others wounded but that was taken to be an oversight as it continues in the second attack which led to the death of two people and one wounded.
    Mr Governor, The most painful attack on 28th April has proved that something dubious is being cooked. Your army strategised and attacked a cattle camp at 4:00 am with the intention of clearing Thony out. They killed children, burn to ashes number of houses which contain foods, goats and all the house hold properties and took with them more than 500 cows.What has remained again? Walls without roofs and the wounded ones without food and shelter.
    But again since your assumption of office, Thony Community had been under constant attack from the three sections of Apuk juwiir, Yar and Mouk to whom you belong but your position and ability to restore peace has been questionable since all these atrocities are rooted to these communual fights in Tonj South.
    Why is there no official condemnation from your office if all these killings by the army which claimed the lives of more than 30 people have got nothing to do with you?
    Every vilgilance citizen of Tonj South knows very well how this Community of Thony had been left handedly treated in your government and on behalf of all Thony Intellectual community I would like to bring out some suggestions that your government can do to at least create an atmosphere of peace between the civilians and the government.
    Firstly, your office should come out pubily to condemn the incident and apologized to the People of Thony, detach itself from all incidents and give reason to why one section is being targeted.
    Secondly, as no one is above the law, Government should bring to book the perpetrators behind this attempt of obliteration and make them accountable for the damage and pain inflicted.
    Last but not the least, Rehabilitation and provision of non food items to the families whose houses were burnt should be initiated by the Government, for it will be unbearable without shelter in this rainy season.
    Thank you.
    On behalf of all Thony Students community who are deeply saddened by this instigated murder.
    Chuol Deng Chuol.


  102. MOHAMMED says:



  103. Peter Majak Garang says:

    2017: A year badly ended with ethnic killing among Communities of Kolnyang
    By Peter M. Garang
    Despite the current economic hardship, civilians in South Sudan and particularly in Greater Bor were busy buying things in the markets. The aim was for them to mark the end of 2017 in style. Children and women stormed the markets and bought varieties of items including clothes and foodstuff for their Christmas and New Year celebration, whereas, men were indoors figuring out how the families would sustain themselves in upcoming days and months once the festivals are over.
    However, from conflict perspective, some of the people in former Kolnyang payam – currently known as Bor South County were busy looking for weapons and hoes/fangas to own the tools with an aim of using these (weapons) to kill and bury themselves. That exactly happened on 22nd Dec 2017 when a fight between two sections of Chueiker broke out. The root cause of the conflict was controversial but has been blamed on ownership of land. A local media report attributes the eruption of conflict to ownership of grazing land and the naming of a village. One section wants the land and the village names it as Panweel while another section wants it called/named Anueet.
    This has deeply divided the communities, and as a result the communities’ sharpened weapons did exactly what they [inciters/ringleaders] had been praying for – killing and wounding of innocent civilians. According to Hon Deng Mabior (the Commissioner of Bor South County) about 22 civilians were killed and 18 people injured during the clashes; some in critical conditions and were airlifted to Juba. There was also displacement of civilians from their original homes to either toch or other places like Bor town, Mingkaman and Juba where humanitarian situation was reported worse/dire. Livestock such as goats, sheep, cattle etc were either looted or driven to other places where children could not access their products. The displaced people who are said to be the lucky ones, also felt the impact when they (IDPs) spent most of their times in an open areas or under the trees in the December coldness locally called Aruot.
    Fear of a revenge by opponents or those who lost their beloved ones dominate sleepless night, and has confined some youth in a confined location. Some youth are still at large, and do not want their locations to be disclosed to the public for the fear of a revenge or arrest.
    Some of the children who were caught up by surprise during the deadly attack ended up being fatherless and helpless because their fathers were either killed or wounded. Others [children] left their contested school – Anueet/Panwel for unknown locations where the need to attend education was of the past, instead the needs and vision of children in pursuing education has accidentally or unexpectedly changed to community defense and cattle keeping.
    Youth from the two sections did not only listen to their elders/leaders but also did not listen to government and the representatives from area. It was alleged that some communities in Kolnyang are having interests in the fight and were alleged to have joined/involved in the conflict. In-depth investigation to prove this is being carried out.
    After hearing the fierce fighting between the sections, Jonglei state Government deployed troops (SPLA, SSNPS, prison depts., wildlife and Fire brigades) to the conflict zone to ease the tension and make peace in the area but the attempts failed to control and or de-escalate the situation. Some of the ringleaders and inciters including chiefs and youth leaders surrendered themselves to Jonglei Authority for apprehensions but few of them refused to be arrested.
    Luckily enough, ICRC in partnership with South Sudan Red Cross/crescent in close coordination with the State Health Ministry were able to transport critically wounded to Juba for specialized treatment. It’s not yet clear whether the wounded from both sides are being treated in the same hospital in Juba or are being treated in different health facilities. And if by chance, they (wounded) are treated in the same health facilities; do relatives of different sections greet one another during the visiting hours? And if the relatives and the community intellectuals living in Juba greet one another, then why do they allow such thing to happen? Where were they, when the situation was being polarized?
    Besides, military interventions, prominent elders/leaders from Bor community are also in the frontline in mediating a settlement to the conflict. Optimistically the parties would be reconciled and would live peaceful co-existence life but there is still a question of accountability in the mind of ordinary citizens.
    It is not yet concluded what will the government of Jonglei State, as well as Bor Community do to stabilize the situation, but it is obvious and will remain as usual that people who committed crimes go unpunished. In this Chueiker situation, people who planted and polarized this conflict are still free and are allegedly spreading hatreds among the communities.


  104. Christie Waters says:

    Hi everybody. I recently saw a testimony about Dr. Todd in a blog I visit for relationship and dating counseling problems because i had been having serious issues with my boyfriend and we had been dating for six months, he just suddenly changed,he wasnt returning my calls,he started cheating,he was hurting me in many ways i never thought possible and I just thought I should try it*maybe out of desperation of some sort*..and I contacted Dr. Todd..At first everything felt dreamy and unbelievable,his consultations and solution was a little bit easy and strange and I was scared a little coz I heard read and heard lots of stories of fake spell casters,scams and i never really believed in magic..I played along with a little hope and and faith and I sent some few stuffs after everything and it worked like a miracle,everything went to a while new direction,it was and is amazing…I guess it was all good faith that made me read That particular post that faithful day..I hope he could help other people too like he did me…I did a little and I got everything I wanted and wished for*my husband,my family and my life back. E-mail: manifestspellcast@gmail. com


  105. Ogebe Omot says:

    Date 14-11-2018
    Boma State,s Negative Administration and Marginalization of Anyuak.
    Based on accurate details about the marginalization of Anyuak ethnicity by Murlei incompetency leaders who concentrated on discrimination of Anyuak Community treating them as second-class citizens as if they liberated Pibor from Arabs.
    the question is, why the leadership in Juba is not willing to appoint a good liberator from SPLA/M being Anyuak or Murlei and not anyhow, all the best are sideline? Governor of Boma State lacks local orders and regulations in the government positions in Boma state Ministers, Advisors and Commissions,therefore Anyauk Community in Boma State are precisely not enjoying the condominium powers and are not being consulted in the most signification is therefore my pleasure to forward this to you and all those who can read to ensure all South Sudanese citizens like better and fulfilling live with equality and justice. You will read The Anyuak demands for their State for the genuine reason.
    The negative governance and discrimination in positions as follows:

    Council of Ministers.
    1 Governor is Murlei.
    2 Speaker is Murlei.
    3 Minister of Local Government- Murlei.
    4 Minister of Finance Murlei.
    5 Minister of Education -Murlei.
    6 Minister Health of-Murlei.
    7 Minister of physical infrastructure-murle.
    8 Minister of information –Murle.
    9 minister of animal and resource Murlei
    10 Mayor -Murlei.
    11 SPLM Youth League -Murle.
    Commissions: only two are Anyuak out of six{4 Murlei }
    we, therefore, need demanding the separate state for Gilo State, to consortium Anyauk of Pochalla and Akobo. I want personally, how best we as people can live in peace and prosperity without abduction, cattle raiding,land-dispute or killing innocents persons. all those types of crime must be eradicated.
    I would like to condemn Jonglei attacks on villagers by Murlei peoples and condolences to the families.
    Hon: Ogebe Omot Ochan,
    former Commissioner of Pochalla County


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