Archive for the ‘Arop Madut-Arop’ Category


Revitalisation of President’s Incentive Remark Debate: A Note to Nephew David Mayen Dengdit

By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Oxford, UK

Arop Madut Arop

Hon Arop Madut Arop is the current MP for Abyei in Juba and author of three classic books, namely: Sudan Painful Road to Peace, a full story of the founding and development of SPLM/SPLA (2006); The Genesis of political consciousness in South Sudan (2012), and The Ngok Dinka of Abyei in Historical Perspective (2018).

Saturday, 19 May 2018 (PW) — Before I respond to the comments made by my dear nephew Hon David Mayen Dengdit, on my article, I would like to thank him first for his well thought comments on my article. Secondly, I am sorry to state that the sub-article intended as food for thought was supposed to be a separate well intentioned article from an experienced elder who has had experiences for decades to younger generations, if only they were eager to learn more. The sub article should have therefore been treated as a separate article and hopefully, would have not been taken out of context.

As an educationist, my intention has all along been that I should share my experiences with the youths by way of educating them. But as education is believed to be a slow process, I am also aware that it will take time before our youths can appreciate the knowledge given to them by their experienced elders. At this juncture, I am reminded of my previous studies of pedagogy the science of teaching which is explained here below.

Experienced has shown that when a trained teacher enters the classroom, he immediately sees, in front of him, five categories of students he has to prepare for life. Category one is composed of trouble-shooters who would obstruct whatever a teacher would want to teach; giving a lesson (ten per cent). Category number two is composed of obstinate lot who will cost the teacher much time and energies to bring them on line with his colleagues in the classroom and to convince them to cooperate (ten per cent). The third category of students consists of opportunists who would cooperate if they are praised and given full marks in the exams. (more…)

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By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Oxford, UK

Arop Madut Arop

Hon Arop Madut Arop is the current MP for Abyei in Juba and the author of three classic books, namely: Sudan Painful Road to Peace, a full story of the founding and development of SPLM/SPLA (2006); The Genesis of political consciousness in South Sudan (2012), and The Ngok Dinka of Abyei in Historical Perspective (2018).

 

Tuesday, 15 May, 2018 (PW) — When the IGAD decided to revitalise the 2015 agreement on the conflict in South Sudan in 2017, it dawned into my mind that the term used may be misinterpreted by many of our compatriots since many of us have learned English Language as a second language. Those of us who had first learned the vernacular or the mother tongue will rather think first in native language before writing it down in English Language. In this respect, it is very possible to misinterpret what would otherwise be a straight forward term, like the revitalisation of the 2015 ARCSS peace deal.

When the word revitalisation of the ARCSS was first introduced by the IGAD Mediators, I thought of making it easier for the stakeholders by listing alternative acronyms to the word revitalisation. I first started with the word, ‘vita’ which in Latin Language means life. Thus the word vital has become used in English Language as an adjective to mean important and to revitalise means to energise. But in the IGAD Mediators context, it means to review the 2015 ARCSS peace deal with the aim of improving its contents for feasible implementation. Other acronyms that would help people understand the IGAD terminology to revitalise better, include among others: to resuscitate, review, to revise, to rearrange, to improve, to adjust or simply to correct the terms of the said agreement. (more…)


By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Oxford, UK

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Wednesday, 09 May 2018 (PW) In accordance to the High Level Revitalisation Forum (HLRF) envisaged time line (December 2017), the year 2018 would be spent in discussing successfully, two main items: Declaration of Permanent Ceasefire, adoption of the type of governance through which the world youngest nation would be governed till the end of the transitional period. If the second meeting was to resolve these two main items, according to the Revitalisation Forum, a more realistic and acceptable time line would be worked out and signed.

It was also stressed that, if the upcoming second meeting would succeed, the year 2019 would be spent for the repatriation and resettlement of refugees from the neighbouring countries and the return of the Internal Displaced People inside the country back to their homes of origin. The year 2020 would also be spent on the conduct of national consensus. The remaining years; 2021 and 2023, would be for the drawing up of electoral constituencies and the conduct of internationally supervised general elections after which the elected government would assume office in 2023.

Accordingly, the second meeting was convened on February 5. Encouragingly, the parties and the stakeholders agreed virtually on the existence of the 2015 Agreement of the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS), which was the object of the Revitalisation process. But as all and sundry were expecting some kind of a revitalised deal during the second meeting in February, things fell apart because the opposition Alliance reportedly, demanded that the incumbent, President General Kiir Mayardit and the leader of SPLM IO, Dr Riek Machar, should be excluded from any transitional government that would be put in place.

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How Political Wrangling in the Ruling SPLM Party Wrecked South Sudan Apart In 2013: A Belated Reaction to Mabior Garang’s and Deng Vanang’s Articles.

By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Oxford, UK

SPLA Chief of General Staff, Gen James Ajongo Mawut

R. I. P SPLA Chief of General Staff, Gen James Ajongo Mawut Unguec

April 20, 2018 (SSB) — Last month, I wrote an article about the impact of the political bickering and schism in the ruling SPLM party (January-July 2013), and how that wrangling ignited the December 2013 crisis and the ongoing efforts by the IGAD led High Revitalisation Forum to bring a halt to the escalating crises and restore sustainable peace back to the young nation. I have closely and keenly been watching the sad events as they tear our young nation asunder.

Weighed down by the magnitude of destruction unfolding under my watch, I found it morally compelling to give the eyewitness account of what I believe were the direct conflict triggers. While my take on the events may not be comprehensive, it would at least shed light on issues which the IGAD led High-Level Revitalisation Forum (HLRF) Mediators may want to look into with more depth. That was the spirit with which I approached my previous articles.

Two compatriots; Mabior Garang and a Deng Vanang, immediately made comments which, given what I witnessed at first hand, registered to me as an uninformed or willfully dismissive of the actual content of my article. I wish I could desist, but I must say judging from the responses I got from the two discussants, handed down cultural parameters governing healthy exchanges on vexing communal concerns, have become history and are replaced by innuendos, imaginative truths fuelled by phobia, paranoia, and frustration.

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Was The Political Wrangling In The Ruling SPLM Party The Root Cause Of The Current Crisis In South Sudan?

By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Oxford, UK

fighting in juba

fighting in juba, 2013, 2016

March 19, 2018 (SSB) — In this article, I will attempt to answer one basic question as to whether it was political wrangling in the Ruling SPLM party was to blame for the December 15th 20013 crisis or something else. This is important, because some people, both South Sudanese stakeholders and most members of the international community who are making efforts to resolve the on-going crisis appear to have lost sight of the fundamental causes of the said crisis. This oversight was clearly demonstrated when many stakeholders called upon the IGAD led HLRF to resolve the root causes of the crisis first before effort were made to revitalize the 2015 controversial peace deal.

Their request to resolve the root causes before the actual crisis could be addressed presupposes that other social and political ills: like bad governance, tribalism or corruptions were responsible for the crisis. Although these social and political ills are undeniably part of the problem, they are not the root causes of the problem per se. According to medical science, one has to diagnose the causes of the disease suffered by a patient before one can be able to prescribe right medicine to cure it. It is in the same vein that in order to solve the current conflict in the young nation, it will be instructive to discuss the main contributing factors to the current crisis in the hope that those engaged in an effort to bring peace to the world youngest nation would benefit from it. Bear with me.

As we start to discuss the contributing factors to the current crisis, it will be important to recall that, after the independence of South Sudan, all the existing political parties that were registered in accordance to the ancient regime’s constitution, including the SPLM, automatically became illegal entities. The political parties, the old and the new, were then expected to have their parties registered in accordance with the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan 2011 before the function as political entities. Basically, the SPLM, as the lead party should have also been registered afresh. This would have been followed by the calling for third-party national convention in order to approve the party’s basic documents namely, the manifesto and the constitution. Other procedural regulations could have also been revised and approved by the third party national convention.

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COMMENTS ON PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP’S ARMS EMBARGO EXECUTIVE ORDER ON THE SOUTH SUDAN

By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

Bush-kiir

President Bush with President Salva Kiir at the Oval Office, White House

March 10, 2018 (SSB) —- On Thursday March 8, the United States of America once again asked, the UN Security Council to adopt a resolution aimed at effort to impose arms embargo, apparently on the government in Juba, and has circulated a draft resolution to that effect. As the US administration urge to impose arms embargo on the South Sudan’s warring parties appears controversial, it would be important to make brief comment as a person who has been all along at the epicentre of the events unfolding in the world youngest nation.

But as a tradition, one must look into the past in order to make sense of the matter that is being planned for the future. I beg all those who will read this piece to bear with me if I give a lengthy background to President Trump arms embargo saga because my intention is to draw attention to the public that taking uneducated and uninformed action, which though with good intentioned, may miss the object one intends to achieve. Follow me.

When the US President, His Excellency Donald Trump, issued an executive order, in which he imposed arms embargo on the warring parties in the South Sudan (last month), there were mix reactions both from the government in Juba and from the general public. The response of the government was that, the imposition of the arms embargo at the time the IGAD led Revitalisation Peace Forum was in session, was regrettably untimely, as it will impact negatively on the peace process itself. The government later accused President Trump’s untimely action as responsible for the failure of the second Revitalisation Forum when the HLRF second meeting ended without fruitful results.

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South Sudan Hinging Between War and Peace: Will The High-Level Revitalisation Forum (HLRF) Meeting Salvage The War Situation In South Sudan? Part Two

By Hon. Arop Madut Arop, Juba, South Sudan

IGAD plus President Kiir, 25 July 2017

IGAD plus President Kiir, 25 July 2017

January 30, 2018 (SSB) — In accordance to the timeline set by the IGAD led High-Level Revitalisation Forum (HLRF), during its December 2017 inaugural meeting to discuss peace in South Sudan the second talk is expected to reconvene possibly during the first week of February 2018. In the December meeting, two items were discussed and resolved. These were the cessation of hostilities among the warring parties and access to humanitarian delivery to those behind the rebel controlled areas. In the February 2018 encounter, the Forum is also expected to discuss other two main items on the agenda: the signing of the permanent ceasefire and a search for the type of governance that will suit the people of South Sudan; predictably once sustainable peace is achieved.

Seen by observers, the key to the success of the up-coming February meeting will largely depend on how HLRF will harmonise the two positions held by the government and the opposition in effort to forge a mid-way approach to the settlement of the elusive conflict.  But as we proceed with our discussion, it will be important to comprehend adequately the positions of the warring parties. On the first hand the Transitional Government of National Unity, would want to revise or rearrange the clauses of the August 2015, ARCSS document, whose implementation has been frustrated by a number of co-related issues. The opposition groups on the other hand, would want to renegotiate the said peace deal resuscitate it.

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The Impact of the Culture of an Injury to One, Is an Injury to All

By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

museveni's quote on leadership

January 15, 2018 (SSB) — As representatives of South Sudanese stakeholders, both in the government and in the opposition are expected to converge in the Ethiopian Capital, Addis Ababa; probably in the first week of February, members of international community, on the top the IGAD countries are pestering and lashing on South Sudan leaders to accept the hard fact that the on-going war, which has brought untold hardships and ruins to their country; must be brought to a speedy dead end.

Hopefully, if peace descends in our country, there will be an urgent need for all the peace-loving compatriots in our young republic to rethink and look critically at some of our cultures that might have directly or indirectly been the cause of continuous instability among our people for centuries. This is necessary if we are to stop future wanton killing among our people. But in order to bring about sustainable peace, we must try by all means, it would be important to inform ourselves what the word culture is all about. We will then discuss them as to how we can promote good ones, modernize some and discard those that appear to stand on our way to sustainable peace, the unity of purpose and progress of our people.

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Would the Addis Ababa Revitalisation High-Level Forum Meeting Provide Tangible Outcome?

By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

RSS Flag

A young South Sudanese girl poses with the flag of South Sudan

December 18, 2017 (SSB) — This week, all eyes are turned to Addis Ababa as representatives of the international community, regional, continental bodies and South Sudan representatives of various stakeholders are converging in Addis Ababa, Ethiopian in the effort to revitalize the Agreement for the Resolution for the Conflict in South Sudan. It is expected that how to silence the guns and move the war-ridden nation forward toward sustainable peace, will top the agenda of priorities of the Forum dubbed HLRF.

As usual, opinion is divided among South Sudanese populace. There are Pessimists on the one hand who believe that what is taking place in Addis Ababa is just a public relation exercise and they give reasons. One of the reasons they give is that regional interest may hamper unanimity among the regional bloc. The optimists, on the other hand, are of the opinion that given the international community involvement and the hardships the people of South Sudan are experiencing; both the conveners of the Forum and South Sudanese stakeholders may find it expedient to re-adjust the August 2015 agreement and implement it. As a long time keen observers of South Sudan politics, I thought it necessary to examine and float some ideas that may guide the Forum through thin and thick.

If the members attending the High-Level Revitalisation Forum (HLRF), in its current endeavors, were to succeed to persuade the warring parties to agree for the secession of hostilities, the next move would be how to finally silence the guns by the declaration of the permanent ceasefire. The Forum will then move forward and design the type of transitional arrangement that will manage the affairs of the state throughout the timelines set, which is already laid down by the HLRF, in its recent press release. Hopefully, the silencing of guns is expected to set the ball running for the execution of what would move the country toward sustainable peace and the installation of a credible democratic government that would steer the ship of state safely ashore against the inherent storms ahead.

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By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

john garang in the bushDecember 12, 2017 (SSB) — As I was reading the last proof of my new book on the Ngok Dinka history, which is currently with the printers, somebody sent me a recorded voice message purportedly given by Uncle Bona Malwal in his recent press conference in Khartoum. In the voice message, it would appear that Uncle Bona Malwal was answering questions from journalists about a number of sensitive issues including a so-called Abyei Area controversy.

From Uncle Bona Malwal press statement, which I believed was staged to enable him to air some of his frustrations about a number of issues which had in not very distant past, led to his retiring from politics; Some facts beg the positive response from the concerned citizens of Ngok Dinka Region, which by accident of politics, has become known as Abyei area.

But as most of the issues discussed by Uncle Bona Malwal in his Khartoum conference were his own personal opinions, I will only comment on some of the important issues that struck me in the face. But before I discuss the issues raised by Uncle Bona Malwal, I would like to appeal to my great and resilient people of the Ngok Atungdiak not to react negatively and used abusive language in their response to Uncle Bona Malwal assertion that; Abyei area is a Sudanese for the following reasons.

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By Hon Arop Madut Arop (MP), Nairobi, Kenya

RSS coat of ARMS

South Sudan’s coat of arms, in which the eagle symbolizes vision, strength, resilience and majesty, and the shield and spear the people’s resolve to protect the sovereignty of their republic and work hard to feed it.

December 10, 2017 (SSB) — Every year, South Sudan from all walks of life, mark December 5th anniversary as their Constitutional Day. This year they marked the 15th anniversary of the constitutional day, quietly at their respective homes and places of work. Importantly, as we strive to come to term with the agonies bred by the on-going senseless civil war and how to bring guns to dead silence and re-launch democratic institutions, it will be natural for the people of South Sudan to look back at their final glorious journey to statehood. Below is the first leg to statehood.

It all began soon after the conclusion of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, when the SPLM Chairman Dr John Garang de Mabior called upon the SPLM Liberation Council to form a technical committee, composed of a team of legal experts to put together a draft constitution that would be presented to the first Southern Sudan legislative assembly to endorse it as this would guide the full implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the establishment of all government institutions.

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By Hon Arop Madut Arop (MP), Nairobi, Kenya

RSS coat of ARMS

South Sudan’s coat of arms, in which the eagle symbolizes vision, strength, resilience and majesty, and the shield and spear the people’s resolve to protect the sovereignty of their republic and work hard to feed it.

November 1, 2017 (SSB) — A as a tradition, I do routinely read news coverage daily; and more importantly, opinion articles from various media outlets; particularly the social media. However, before I discuss what I intend to share with readers I will, as a reminder, that any writer of any article has something he would like to convey to the general public and his intended readership.

Fundamentally, people who write opinion articles; fall into the following category of writers. The first category consists of writers who write sensational news reports and sell them to Media Houses that will enable them eke a living, regardless of the impact their writings would bring to bear on the society in which they live.

The second category of writers, do write in order to lobby for a cause they feel, must be corrected or rectified by the policymakers for the general good of the concerned society and the country. The third category of writers is composed of those who write opinion articles in order to destroy things; either out of sheer frustration and malice or personal phobia.

The fourth category is composed of writers, who write to correct things by giving advice as to how issues are handled constructively for the public interest. As a journalist, I tend to fall into the last category of writers. It will be in this context that I will comment briefly on two very important petitions I have come across recently, in Paanluel Wel bloggers. I will later offer suggestions about what I see as the way forward.

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By Hon Arop Madut Arop (MP), Nairobi, Kenya

abyei pic

October 14, 2017 (SSB) — Early this month, the Sudanese Abyei Joint oversight committee (AJOC) co-chair, made a very ridiculous, if not incredible announcement. In his announcement, the Khartoum based AJOC, Co-chair, Mr Hassan Ali Nimr, told the press that Sudan has allocated 330 positions for the employment of Abyei university graduates. I would respond later to Mr Hassan Ali Nimr incredulous pledge. In the meantime I would rather make a brief to the issue under scrutiny and the circumstances that has led to the existence of a body called AJOC and the mandate accorded to it. I would specifically discuss the root causes of the delay in implementing Abyei Protocol and the game being played around it by Khartoum authorities (read more).

Following the defeat of the Mahdists Dervish insurgents by the Anglo-Egyptian forces at the Battle of Kerrari in September 1897, as we all know, Captain Winston Churchill, who later became his country Prime Minister, was with the invading forces. Writing later in his book ‘’The River War’’; Churchill had this to say.

When the Anglo-Egyptian forces took effective control of the affairs of the country they have occupied, we found two Sudans: the military Sudan (northern Sudan) and the real Sudan (South Sudan). Winston Churchill stated and I quote, ‘’we found the people of the real Sudan (South Sudan) hunting, dancing, marrying and killing one another. Churchill then turned and described the people of the military Sudan, as hybrid of Afro-Arab admixture who have produced people that would cost you a lot to convince them that they are wrong’’.

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The Republic of South Sudan marks the 62nd anniversary of the historical and popular Torit uprising on the 18th of August, 1955

By Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

Torit mutiny

The 61st anniversary of August 18, 1955, Torit Mutiny that launched the 50 years revolutionary struggle of South Sudanese against Khartoum, culminating in the independence of South Sudan in July 2011

August 16, 2017 (SSB) — As the people of the Republic of South Sudan mark and celebrate the 62nd anniversary of August 18th, 1955 Torit uprising, it would extremely be important to recall the events that ushered in the protracted armed struggle between the Sudan’s two regions. The object of that liberation struggle was for the people of South Sudan to achieve dignity, freedom and self-esteemed denied them for decades. When people mark an occasion like the 62nd anniversary of our armed resistance struggle, it is always natural to remember the huge sacrifices the pioneers of our political struggle under went in their fight to liberate their people.

Besides reminding ourselves about the issues that surrounded South Sudan treacherous journey to peace and independence, this important occasion, is intended for the benefit of our younger people and future generations, who may have not lived the events described in this piece. Importantly, August 18th, the anniversary is very vital to celebrate because it marked the starting point for the people of the South Sudan long tedious and treacherous journey to permanent peace and prosperity.

On the top of the martyrs that we should remember as we celebrate this important memorable occasion include: General Emidio Tafeng Lodongi, who was a lead organiser of the uprising, Corporal Saturnino Oboya who ignited the uprising and last but not least, Private Latada who single-handedly kept the liberation torch alight on the top of his Latada Hill outside Torit Town, until the entire South Sudanese people joined him and fought two wars to successful end.

Below are excerpts which depict what happened on the 18th August over six decades ago (read more).

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By Hon Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

The 6th Anniversary of the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan

July 9, 2017 (SSB) — As a tradition, human beings do mark and celebrate their birth days annually. In the same vein, citizens of a given country do joyously and lavishly mark and celebrate the birthday of their nation, annually. As a continuation of my writings about the political history of South Sudan, through my experiences, having lived some of the events described in my published two books; it is natural that I should also write a book about the insurmountable challenges encountered during the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005) between the Government of Khartoum and the rebel Sudan People Liberation Movement, which had been fighting continuously for more than two decades. The last chapter from the book: The Passing of John Garang and Ascent of Salva Kiir to power in South Sudan, gives an eyewitness account July 2011 to December 2013 crisis. This last chapter of the book attempts to answer one vital question as to whether the senseless destructive conflict, which arose out of sheer political wrangling within the leadership of the historic ruling party, the SPLM; was avoidable? As I have not been able to find funding for the publication of this import piece of work, as described by the people who have read the manuscript; and as we mark the Sixth Birthday of our beloved young nation, I have decided to share with my compatriots, a chapter from the book. Below is the chapter on the Birth of South Sudan as an Independent State after more than fifty years of painful labour and birth pangs. Happy Birth Day To You My Beloved Country (we can now read the piece).

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Letter to the Editor: I was never beaten up by Presidential Guards in Juba

Journalism in South Sudan

Dear Colleagues

July 1, 2017 (SSB) — I was shocked to read from Radio Tamazuj alleging that I was beaten by the presidential Guards while I have been away from Juba since May. I am vindicated that I have been writing about the abused of Journalism Profession in South Sudan.

I was never surprised to see Radio Tamazuj publishing news item without giving the sources of their information. I have been on record that Radio Tamazuj and Sudan Tribune, being foreign based institutions and apparently being edited by northern Sudanese, one can have credible reason to state that the two websites are campaigning aimed at causing friction among the people of South Sudan.

If Radio Tamazuj is edited by professional journalists, its management, on receiving news about my being beaten, should have sent reporters to seek exclusive interview with me before publishing anything about the incident.

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Comparative News Analysis of Press Coverage of South Sudan’s Crisis

By Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

Journalism in South Sudan

June 6, 2017 (SSB) — In accordance to the established tradition of news analysis worldwide, one is expected to compare the treatment of news coverage by different newspapers or media organisations. In their analysis, experts are expected to observe biases, honesty and objectivity of the news organisations coverage of the event breaking. They are also expected to answer which of the newspapers, being analysed, give fair treatment of news that affects the majority of society in which they lived.

Equally, they are expected to strictly observe, which of the newspapers news coverage, in their judgement, is influenced by cultural, ideological or political interests. Another fact which I feel is worth taking note of has also to do with the reason why some people write opinion articles for publications in the newspapers and most recently in the social media.

Fundamentally, there are people who write with the aim to influence the corrections of the affairs in the public domain in their country. There are also some, who do write opinion articles or commentaries in effort to lobby for a cause they believe, is for public’s interests. Other rather malicious writers do so to campaign in effort to shame others or write with an aim to destroy things for their own personal glory or for the interests of their paymasters. Whichever reason, people who write, have something in mind to achieve good or bad, safer or harmful.

It will, therefore be, in this setting, that I am going to give a comparative analysis of four media organisation about their news coverage about the current grinding conflict in the South Sudan, which all the peace loving people are yearning to come to a halt sooner than later. To guide us through our analysis, it would be instructive to comment briefly by giving backgrounds of the webs that publish news about the current senseless conflict in South Sudan.

As a matter of demonstration I have selected four news media organisations namely: Gurtong Peace Trust, Sudan tribune, Radio Tamazuj and PaanLuel Wël Bloggers.

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By Hon. Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

media reporting

THE FUNCTION OF A NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY AND THE STATE OF THE PRESS IN SOUTH SUDAN

April 5, 2017 (SSB) —- In part three of this article, we will discuss the function of a newspaper’s concept, identity and its management. This part will shed some light on how a newspaper is conceived and born. This is important because many business people in South Sudan in particular, have started establishing newspapers without making thorough market research or by consulting with those better informed about this vital profession, which affects lives of people. The sad endgame is that, majority of newspapers, in Juba today, except few ones, like Juba Monitor and the Arabic Daily al Moufeg, do not reflect what newspapers are expected to provide. In the second part, we will also discuss the first appearance of press in the then Southern Region of the then Sudan and the present pathetic state of the media in South Sudan. The last part will discuss about the dire need for the training of press men and press women in the world youngest nation, the Republic of South Sudan. Finally, in the opinion of this author is an urgent need for enactment of laws that hold responsible only, the media managements; and not the poor untrained reporters who have been getting the brunt of the discrepancies in the news gathering process in South Sudan.

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The constraints in the Practice of Journalism Profession

By Hon. Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

media reporting

March 29, 2017 (SSB) — As the whole article is entirely about the abuse of journalism profession, it would be important to look at the work and constraints journalists encounter as they go about their work and their relations with the management of the news organisation they work for. As the central theme of the article discusses about the abuse of the journalism profession and the need to rectify it, we will now discuss the constraints that do confront reporters in their daily practice of journalism. It will also be useful to mention the set of categories that are involved in the operations of the press/media industry before we delve into the subject matter. Basically, there are four set of categories involved in the practice of journalism profession.

In the first category, are the news players (politicians, Executives). In the second category, are the news organisers (media houses). The third category consists of the news producers (Journalists/reporters). In the fourth category, are the news consumers (the general public). The war between these sets of categories involved in the operation of journalism practice, does make it necessary to discuss the role each one bring to bear on the other. This move restricts the free flow of information to the intended: reading, listening and viewing audiences. I must stress that, the skill in collecting information is never a smooth running affairs because journalists face lot of difficulties between the news organisers and the news makers on the one hand and the news organisations on the news producers on the other hand.

One of the most important constraints in the practice of journalism, according to mass communication theory, has to do with the agenda setting function of the print media (newspapers). This theory suggests that newspapers organisers and managers often set news agenda for readers by concentrating and carrying in their papers news stories about significant events for the benefits of their businesses. To realise fullest expression of this theory requires the contribution of both journalists and the owners of the news organisations. However, evidence from day to day practice points to the fact that, newspapers are not capable in carrying news reports about all that goes on around the world, as expected. In essence, news organisations do arrange things in such away so that staff and resources available could meet the expected flow of news. Where possible, news reports are therefore managed to fit the needs of the news organisations, regardless.

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By Hon. Arop Madut Arop, Nairobi, Kenya

 media reporting

March 25, 2017 (SSB) —- The topic journalism; the most abused profession in the Republic of South Sudan, in particular and Africa at large, will be discussed, in several articles. The first part will revisit the origin of information gathering skill, the emergence of the modern press industry, as well as the first appearance and subsequent development of journalism as a profession. We will then turn and discuss the need to have a new vision for an African press, as opposed to capitalist and socialist press. This part will attempt to answer the question as to whether there is an absolute Freedom of the Press at all in the world. The second part will briefly look at the constraints encounter by journalists in their practice of their profession; hence the importance for the training of press men and women. The third part of the article will comment briefly about the introduction and development of the press, for the first time, in South Sudan, during the regional self-rule experiment (1972-1982) and the current pathetic situation of the press industry in the world youngest nation. The study will further discuss briefly, the importance and the need for the training of press men and press women in South Sudan, by the country ministry of information and broadcasting; assuming that the concerned authorities have learned useful lessons from the past experiences of the previous regional ministry of information authorities (1972-1982), when they managed and trained many journalists from scratch. Importantly the training of journalists is pivotal so that they can do their job of informing the general public accurately and satisfactorily about what concerned them directly or indirectly; in accordance to the norms and ethics of journalism profession. The third part will bring us to the conclusion about the central theme of our topic ‘’journalism the most abused profession in the Republic of South Sudan’’. In this concluding part, we will give classic comparative examples about the abused of journalism profession or lack of it in the world youngest nation. In this context we will compare the press coverage of the South Sudan current conflict by the Sudan Tribune and Radio Tamazuj Websites, on the one hand, with that of Gurtong Peace Trust and PaanLuel Wël Websites, on the other hand.  Let us now start discussing part one of the article.

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