Archive for the ‘Mangar Amerdit’ Category


By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

South Sudanese veteran politician, Uncle Clement Mboro

Friday, August 10, 2018 (PW) — The veteran politician Clement Mboro, fondly referred to as “Uncle Clement” inspired many Southern Sudanese during the many years of armed struggle from the 1940s till his passing. Uncle Clement was born on January 3rd 1920 in a small village twenty miles west of Wau to Chief Mboro Bekobo of the N’dogo. He completed his early years of education at Bussure and received a diploma in public administration from Gordon Memorial College in Khartoum, Sudan.

For a number of years, Uncle Clement worked in public service before becoming a political activist. During the Juba Conference of 1947, Uncle Clement gained prominence for being among the only three educated Southerners to participate in the conference. However, he was blamed with other Southern leaders who participated in the conference for not articulating separation of the South from North Sudan. It is important to note that prior to the Juba Conference of 1947, the British had already decided to keep the South united with North Sudan regardless of the call for separation by Southern Sudanese.

Following the Torit Mutiny in 1955, when Southerners soldiers refused to be transported to North Sudan and revolted against their Northern commanding officers which then led to large scale conflict and saw many Southern civilians, soldiers and politicians face persecution and even death. Among those detained and tortured was Uncle Clement who was then the Assistant District Commissioner in Yirol. (more…)


Today in history: The July 26, 1995 Nzara demonstration that heralded the August 18, 1955 Torit Mutiny and altered the course of South Sudan history

By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Nzara Demonstration

Thursday, July 26, 2018 (PW) — On July 26, 1955, a demonstration took place in the small village of Nzara in the Zande District of Equatoria Province. The demonstration would alter the course of Southern Sudan history. A month earlier, the Equatoria Projects Board managed by the Sudan government had dismissed 300 Southern Sudanese from the Zande cotton scheme and hired Northern Sudanese to replace them.

During this period, Northern Sudanese were occupying administrative positions across the Southern region that was once held by the British and other European nationalities; this certainly gave the impression to Southerners they were losing jobs to Northerners.

On the morning of July 26, sixty of the Southern workers who had not been dismissed threatened to strike if they did not receive a pay increase for their labor. A crowd of 250 people which included Southern workers who were still employed at the cotton factory and those who had been dismissed staged a demonstration. (more…)


By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Saturday, July 14, 2018 (PW) — Regarded as one of the prominent intellectual minds to emerge from Southern Sudan, Joseph Ukel Garang was a controversial figure who held the Marxist ideology which were ingrained in his political career. Born in the 1930s in Kiyango close to Wau, Bahr al-Ghazal, Garang received his education at St. Antony’s Busserre and Rumbek Secondary School. He then obtained a law degree from the University of Khartoum in 1957.

He is regarded as the first Southern Sudanese to have obtained a law degree at a time when many Southern students were being prohibited from enrolling in the University of Khartoum. As a student, Garang was an assertive political activist which led him to join the Sudanese Community Part (SCP) in the early 1950s. This propelled him to become a leading member of the Political Bureau and Central Executive Committee of the SCP.

Upon graduating, Garang was offered the post of chief justice in the judiciary, but he declined and instead chose to pursue politics. For one year, he worked as an advocate in Khartoum until he was expelled to Wau by the Abboud regime in 1958. (more…)


By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

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Friday, June 15, 2018 (PW) — In 1955, following the August 18th revolt; it was not only the Torit mutineers who faced reprisal for the uprising they held. Many Southern Sudanese policemen, prison wardens and civilians were arrested, tortured and executed by Northern Sudan. Some of these Southerners were transported to prisons in Khartoum, never to be heard from again.

Also, many Southern villages were destroyed as they were indiscriminately attacked, huts burnt, livestock stolen or killed and elders, women and children faced torture or sudden death. The months following the Torit Mutiny were among the bloodiest in Southern Sudan history.

A survivor of the 1955 revolt from Upper Nile, James Kockweth talked of being arrested with nine other men by Northern soldiers. They were tied against poles and left to the elements for a period of two weeks. Every day, the Northern soldiers would lash them with ten strokes then spit on their wounds. Kockwech added that “It was not enough to suffer their whipping. (more…)


By Comrade Mangar Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Friday, June 8, 2018 (PW) — The Torit Mutiny of 1955 which herald the First Sudan civil war and saw the call for the autonomy of the Southern region played a critical role in the history of the Republic of South Sudan. The refusal by the Southern Equatoria Corps to board lorries that would have transported them to Khartoum was justified given the threats they had received from Northerner administrators. On August 18, 1955, the Southern Equatoria Corps revolted and rushed to the town of Torit where they broke into arms and ammunition stores, taking with them military equipments. Northern officers, settlers and traders ended up being killed by the mutineers.

The fight for the freedom and independence of the Southern region were hampered in various ways from the lack of organization by the mutineers to insufficient amount of military and foreign support. A British diplomat named Sir Alexander Knox Helm played a critical role in events that unfolded during the Torit Mutiny. When Sir Robert Howe resigned as the Governor General of Sudan, he was replaced by Sir Knox Helm in 1955. Sir Knox Helm was born in 1893.

He obtained his education from King’s College in Cambridge and by 1912, he was working in the Foreign Office of England. During World War I, Sir Knox Helm worked as a volunteer in the service where he joined a field artillery unit rising to the position of second lieutenant. When the conflict ended, Sir Knox Helm held various positions; he was the British Consul in Addis Ababa from 1937 to 1939 and served as counselor in Washington D.C. from 1939 to 1942. He also held the position of the British Ambassador to Turkey. (more…)


By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Anyanya one in the upper nile

Revisiting the Past: The History of Anya-Nya One Movement in the Upper Nile Region

March 23, 2018 (SSB) — This is the history of the Anya-Nya One Movement in the Upper Nile Region under the leadership of Paul Ruot, Paul Adung, Paul Awel and Paul Nyingori.

PART 1: ANYA-NYA MOVEMENT IN UPPER NILE – History indicates that the region of Upper Nile in South Sudan played a pivotal role during the Anya-Nya Movement. Border tribes of the Nuer and Anuak saw extensions of themselves in both Sudan and Ethiopia as their communities neighbored each other. These distinct tribes possessed weaponry which was availed to them by the British administration in order to repel raids by Ethiopians.

Along the period of 1962 and 1963, the call to Southerners to fight for the freedom of Southern Sudan by Sudan African National Union (SANU) and the formation of SANU’s plebiscite branch in Ethiopia galvanized many soldiers, policemen and prison wardens in Upper Nile to join the movement. Upon deserting their respective posts, they formed the “Southern Sudanese Land Freedom Army.” The primary persons who initiated the recruitments of the Southerners were Paul Ruot, Paul Adung, Paul Awel and Paul Nyingori. To discuss these four men, in brief, Paul Ruot, was a Nuer from Thul region close to Waat who graduated from Juba Commercial Secondary School in 1962. He was the only secondary educated recruiter among his three peers. Ruot joined the freedom fighters after being trained as a military cadet. Paul Adung, a Shilluk and the former sergeant of the police in Kodok, organized a camp near Kodok and recruited many Shilluk men to join the freedom fighters. Paul Awel, a Dinka and police corporal, left his station in Akobo alongside 75 other men and joined the freedom fighters in July 1963. While Paul Nyingori, an Anuak from Akobo, had completed intermediate school in 1958 and finished a course in farm management, before becoming a farmer. He left his farm in Akobo and joined the freedom fighters in 1963. In August of 1963, these four military recruiters and many others gathered at the Anya-Nya base that was seven miles from Pachalla. In August, the number of men at the base numbered 300 and by October it had increased to 700.

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By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Aggrey Jaden

February 9, 2018 (SSB) — After the fall of General Abboud’s regime in October 1964, a caretaker government was formed under the leadership of Sirr al-Khatim who was sworn in as Prime Minister. At this time, William Deng wrote to Sirr al-Khatim stating that a conference be held on the Southern affair. The Sudan government agreed with the suggestion and se the t delegation to Kampala to talk to SANU members in exile. However, the division among SANU and Southern leaders ran deep. First, William Deng advocated for federation.

Second, Aggrey Jaden who was elected President of SANU favored the talk with the government since his group called for the political independence of the Southern Region. Third, Joseph Oduho who was recently replaced as president of SANU and appointed as SANU Secretary for Constitutional Affairs rejected talks with the government; he believed nothing fruitful would develop from the discussions. Fourth, the Southern Front called for self-determination of the Southern region with the authority of the South to determine its relations with the North. After extensive discussions, delegations from both the Southern region and Sudan government came to an agreement to hold talks.

On March 16, 1965, the Round Table Conference began with delegates from Southern region and Sudan government convening in Khartoum. Observers from the countries of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria and the United Arab Republic (U.A.R.), attended the Round Table Conference. In the past, these countries played a neutral role and provided limited support to SANU since Sudan was a member of the Organization of African Union (O.A.U). Uganda was the only country that offered significant sanctuary to a large population of Southern refugee many of them students.

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The History of Internal Conflicts within SANU

By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Aggrey Jaden

January 13, 2018 (SSB) — Following the formation of Sudan African National Union (SANU) in 1962, with Joseph Oduho as the President, William Deng Nhial as Secretary of External Affairs and Fr. Saturnino Lohure as Patron, the political organization had established relative unity, but this was short lived.

First, accusations swirled around over the mismanagement of funds by the SANU leaders. SANU had not opened a central bank account where all the money received by leaders could be deposited and the use of funds accounted for. Each leader operated independently when it came to financial matters. Secondly, the three leaders were pursuing different strategies that did not work for the unity of SANU.

For instance, Oduho was more concerned with establishing the political wing of the organization, William Deng continued to travel extensively throughout Europe and Fr. Saturnino focused on the military strategies of the conflict by recruiting soldiers and acquiring weapons. Starting from 1963, Fr. Saturnino and Joseph Lagu spearheaded the military attacks of the Anya-Nya Movement while working alongside SANU against Sudan government.

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By Mangar Marial Amerdid, Juba, South Sudan

Founders of Anyanya one

Founders of Anyanya one – Father Saturnino Lohure (Patron), Joseph Oudho (President) and William Deng Nhial (Secretary General)

January 5, 2018 (SSB) — The creation of the Sudan African National Union (SANU) is among the oldest political parties that emerged from Southern Sudan. The party was founded by Fr. Saturnino Lohure, William Deng Nhial and Joseph Oduho. In 1961, the three leaders visited different African countries to advocate for the cause of the Southerners. In January 1962, Fr. Saturnino and Oduho attended the all African People’s Congress in Lagos (the ‘Monrovia Group’), where they were not allowed to present a petition but met African heads of state and held a press conference.

Returning to Leopoldville in February, they were joined by Deng and founded the ‘Sudan African Closed Districts National Union’ (SACDNU) with Oduho as president and Deng as Secretary General. This was not a secret organization but an open political movement; by June, all the well-known Southern politicians in exile had joined it.

After a lucky escape in Leopoldville in April when Oduho had avoided being deported back to the Sudan by jumping out the window of his hotel, he and Fr. Saturnino went on to several African countries including Congo Brazzaville and the Central African Republic. They then met up with Deng again in Europe, where Deng wrote a letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and Oduho gave an interview which was reported in The Observer.

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