Archive for the ‘R-ARCSS’ Category

Instead of the controversial 10, 21, 23, 32 or 39 states, South Sudan should be divided into six regions, each headed by Governor General elected by the people with full decentralized or federal powers. The 32 States shall be increased and turned into Counties according to the local available population and size as per local government act

By Kanybil Noon, Juba, South Sudan

Do Not Confuse a Camouflaged Call for Confederation for Call Federalism

Historical Perspective of South Sudan

Wednesday, September 18, 2019 (PW) — Before the Turko-Egyptian invasion of 1821, the Sudan consisted of Kingdoms and tribal communities without modern forms of government as we have today. In other words, Sudan in its present boundaries did not exist. The Turko-Egyptian occupation of 1821 was promoted by the expansionist ambitions of the Ottoman Empire and its craving for wealth and markets. The main commodities of interest were slaves, gold, ivory and timber. South Sudan and her people became the main source of these commodities.

The Turko – Egyptian and the North Sudanese collaborated in their raids against the South Sudan for slaves resulting in millions of South Sudanese people being taken into slavery in the Arab and new World. Although the Turko – Egyptian rule lasted for a period of sixty years, it did not control all the Sudan. South Sudan in particular was not fully brought under the administration of the invading alien power. Similarly, the Mahdist administration of 1883 – 1898 did not succeed to impose its full authority on the whole of South Sudan.

The Belgians in 1892, advancing from the former Belgian Congo (now Zaire), captured Western Equatoria up to Mongalla and established the Lado Enclave as part of the Belgian Congo. During the same period (1892) the French led by Major Marchand occupied large parts of South Sudan (Bahr el Ghazal, Western Upper Nile up to Fashoda) and by 1896 they had established a firm administration in these areas.


By Prof. Simon El Hag Kulusika, Lusaka, Zambia

President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019
President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019

Wednesday, September 18, 2019 (PW) — The title of this article is both inspiring and speculative.  It is used in response to Media reports, in Juba, telling the inhabitants of the city that Dr. Riek Machar was in the city but departed to safe heaves.  Since Dr. Machar is a key player in the Peace Agreement (PA) that has recently been activated in Khartoum, then his coming to Juba, means Peace is ‘just around the corner’ however his sudden exit betrays this optimism.

To a critical observer, this is merely a spectacle.  Because, Dr. Machar arrived in Juba in the company of foreigners, including Generals from Khartoum Government, rather than Generals, such as Paul Malong, Thomas Cirilo Swaka, Col. Bagosoro, Ikong Mboro, Razakuluwa and so on, who have stakes in the Peace in our country.

Pagan amum, Paul Malong Awan, Thomas Chirillo, Chirino Hiteng and Oyai Deng Ajak launch the South Sudan Opposition Movement in the Netherlands
Pagan amum, Paul Malong Awan, Thomas Chirillo, Chirino Hiteng and Oyai Deng Ajak launch the South Sudan Opposition Movement in the Netherlands

Be it as it may, the people of our country want true Peace, which way or how it may be actualized.  For them coming of Dr, Machar is a first step in the difficult walk to Peace.  But, what are the prerequisites for restoring Peace in our country?  This article tentatively answers this question in this orthodox fashion:


The face-to-face meeting in Juba between President kiir and Dr. Riek Machar has done nothing to break the political deadlock in South Sudan.

Peter Adwok Nyaba, Juba, South Sudan

Thursday, September 12, 2019 (PW) — The arrival in Juba on Monday 9 September, 2019 of Dr. Riek Machar at the head of 69-man delegation, and his meeting with President Salva Kiir did nothing either to break the ice, as observers of the situation expected, or add any value to the work of his Advance Team. If anything, the visit spurred bad memories of the July 2016 fighting in J1, it raised the political temperament to complicate their chemistry of the two men, and indeed clogged the gears of the R-ARCISS implementation machinery. 

Travelling with such a huge delegation with his security guarantor, Mohammed Daglo (Hemiti), who was in Juba on an entirely different mission, Dr. Riek Machar spent three days and returned to Khartoum on Thursday. He had an agenda-less meeting with President Salva Kiir on Wednesday. To observant spectator, the face to face meeting was more of a public relations stint than anything serious warranted by the gravity of the political situation in South Sudan. This is gleaned from the casual and informal the two leaders constituted a committee to follow up on the issues they failed to address. It is not clear whether that unnamed committee would play the role of National Pre-Transitional Commissions. 


By Samuel Reech Mayen, Juba, South Sudan

President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019
President Kiir and Riek Machar, Face to Face meeting in Juba, September 2019

Thursday, September 12, 2019 (PW) — For a start, this piece is an introduction to the series of articles which the constant readers will be consuming on weekly basis under the theme “Streamlining thoughts and Actions for Peace.” These pieces of writing are purposely for peace building. With the nation still in a fragile state, trapped in deep conflict and hatred, the citizens are divided along ethnic and regional lines. There is no trust amongst the people. The notion of “us versus them” defines the relations amongst the citizens.

The propaganda continues to fuel the conflict. This situation has paralyzed and retarded the economy and social progress. To join the voices which are committed to address and mitigate these issues, I have chosen the above theme to help the readers think for the betterment of this country. Human actions are driven by thoughts. Those who think positively act in a similar manner and vice versa. Thoughts affect a society in form of actions. As we begin the journey of reading the series of articles which will be appearing in this column weekly, I urge readers to embrace peace as a mechanism for recovery from the devastations of war.


By Tong Kot Kuocnin & Yar Telar Deng, Nairobi, Kenya

Monday, August 19, 2019 (PW) — The Third Transitional Period From 9th July 2015 to 9th July 2018. As discussed in the first and second preceding parts of this article, this is the third and final part which will concentrate on the third transitional period in South Sudanese politics from 9th July 2015 to 9th July 2018.

This part examines the last phase of the transitional period by shading more light on the political developments which ensued in 2016, after the signing of the compromised peace agreement. A dog fight erupted around the Presidential Palace – J1, shortly after the formation of the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU).

Equally, the government extended the term of office of the president and other officials in July 2017 ushering in the third transitional period ranging from 9th July 2018 to 12th July 2021. The bill which amended the transitional constitution was introduced by Hon. Dengtiel Ayuen, the chair of the legislative committee in the parliament.

The amendment of the constitution allows H.E President Salva Kiir to remain in power until 2021 and extends the mandate of the current South Sudan transitional government, parliament and governors of all the 32 states for another three years.


Did we really define objectively what we want as Nuer Nation? If the war was all about tribal revenge or democratic change in South Sudan?

By Amb. John Kassara Koang Nhial, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Saturday, August 3, 2019 (PW) —- Don’t you guys (Nuer in Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon’s camp) know where Dinka areas are if you are turning it to be a tribal war between the Nuer and the Dinka?

When we challenged the poor administration of Riek Machar and his uneducated Generals some few individuals who are politically immature termed us as slave of Dinka , Nuerwew, Food lovers , heartless and many others undesirable names that will bring nothing and will never change anything rather than disintegrate the Nuer tribe themselves along different political Movements and clan lines basis where it will end up in clash of clans as it happened in 1997 after the fall of Khartoum Peace Agreement ( KPA ) which was signed by Riek Machar with the government of Khartoum.

The Nuer who are still with Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon are in dilemma, they don’t know what they are fighting for, and this is because of lack of political objective.

If they are fighting for change, why do they divided themselves into the below groups ?

Riek Machar and Emma McCunne


The National Housing and Population census could be viable determining factor for number of states in South Sudan: It can neither be IBC nor IGAD’s decision.

By Adv. Bol Chol Kucdit, Juba, South Sudan

Map of 28 states

Friday, 28 June 2019 (PW) — It appeared recently that the IBC that was established under terms of R-ARCSS, 2018 reached stalemate as to the number of states in South Sudan. The preliminary report of their work indicated the IBC failed to adopt (10) states in their voting exercise by lack of one vote to meet the qualified majority stipulated under R-ARCSS. The preliminary report also suggested that the IBC referred the matter of states to IGAD for further consideration.

Though everything in this country is accepted for the sake of peace which may turn out to be war at any hour, I beg to share a different view that the R-ACRSS created a sort of condominium ad hoc body called IBC to decide some important national issues for South Sudanese. The IBC in fact has membership of (10) South Sudanese that were appointed by parties to R-ARCSS respectively with different ratios. The other (5) members were appointed by African Union High-Level Ad hoc Committee on South Sudan mainly from South Africa, Nigeria, Chad, Rwanda and Algeria. The membership of these foreign countries beats my reasoning as to why should our national affairs be decided by foreigners.

The inclusion of South Sudanese in the committee was a matter of formality but the actual control of the process was a kin to 1947 Juba conference event. It was just meant to confirm the premeditated decision in favour of colonist. The IBC which is chaired by a foreigner was given unnecessary powers to collect opinions of South Sudanese as to how many states do they want. They were also tasked to adopt any number of states through voting and their decision should be binding on parties to R-ARCSS and entire citizens of South Sudan. They were also tasked to restructure council of states in National parliament after redrawing new states’ boundaries.


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The Formation of the Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGONU): Why South Sudan is better off with Riek Machar’s SPLM-IO in Juba than in the political wilderness

By PaanLuel Wël, Juba, South Sudan

Riek Machar
Riek Machar

Sunday, May 12, 2019 (PW) — Today, 12 May 2019, was earmarked for the establishment of the long-awaited Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGoNU) after the expiration of the 8-month pre-transitional period in which the warring parties and peace partners were supposed to have cantoned and integrated their respective armed forces into a unified national army; determined the appropriate number and demarcated the exact boundaries of states; demilitarized Juba and other major urban centers for safe return of the civil population; facilitated the deployment of the UN-mandated regional protection forces (RPF) in Juba and other major towns to allow the safe return of senior opposition leaders; tabled and ratified the constitutional amendment bill enshrining the revitalized peace agreement into the current Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan (2011), without which there would be no legal basis to form and run the revitalized transitional government (R-TGONU), and more importantly, provided sufficient funding for the timely and full implementation of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS), 12 September 2018.

Instead, on 3 May 2019, the summit of the parties to the 2018 R-ARCSS, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 2 to 3 May 2019, unanimously decided to extend the pre-interim period by an additional six (6) months, from 12 May to 12 November, 2019, purportedly to allow more time for the implementation of the critical and consequential outstanding issues – primarily the failed unification and deployment of armed forces and the pending determination of the number and boundaries of states. During the summit, the representatives of the parties to the 2018 R-ARCSS, having taken “stock of the status of the implementation of the R-ARCSS, identified progress made, challenges encountered and deliberated on the way forward and agreed on a roadmap,” concluded that the timely and full implementation process of the revitalized peace agreement was shackled and doomed by financial constraints, trust deficit and dearth of political will among the warring parties and peace partners, as well as by inadequate support from the peace guarantors and the international community, among others.



The Intergovernmental Authority on Development is an eight-country trade bloc in Africa. It includes governments from the Horn of Africa, Nile Valley, and the African Great Lakes. Its headquarters are in Djibouti City.

Thursday, May 9, 2019 (PW) — The IGAD Council of Ministers held its 67th Extra-Ordinary Session on 7th May 2019 in Juba, South Sudan, under the chairmanship of H.E. Gedu Andargachew, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to deliberate on the status of the implementation of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCSS) and the way forward. 

The meeting was attended by H.E. Sam Kutesa, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uganda; Hon. Nhial Deng Nhial, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of South Sudan; H.E. Hirut Zemene, State Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; H.E. Abdulkadir Ahmedkheyr Abdi, State Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Somalia; Hon. Ababu Namwamba, Chief Administrative Secretary for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kenya; H.E. Mohamed Ali Hassan, Secretary General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the Republic of Djibouti; and H.E. Isam Idris Ibrahim, Minister Plenipotentiary, Embassy of the Republic of Sudan.


Riek Machar
Riek Machar

IGAD – Friday May 03, 2019, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: The meeting of the leadership of the Parties to the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 2 to 3 May 2019.

At the meeting, the Parties took stock of the status of the implementation of the R-ARCSS, identified progress made, challenges encountered and deliberated on the way forward and agreed on a roadmap. The Parties observed that key Pre-Transitional tasks that are critical for the formation of the Revitalized Government of National Unity such as the cantonment, screening, training, unification and deployment of forces and the determination of the number and boundaries of state are pending.


By Dr. James Okuk Padiet (PhD), Juba, South Sudan

Dr. James Okuk, professor of political science at the University of Juba, South Sudan

Thursday, May 02, 2019 (PW) — This article is written with informed intention to provide constructive way forward for the Parties, the Stakeholders and Guarantors who signed the 2018 Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) to overcome the stalemate on the polemics of establishment of the Revitalized Government of National Unity (RTGoNU) on 12 May 2019 as expectedly agreed in the peace deal. The author contextualizes this problem technically with a cogent proposal for pragmatic exit and soft landing in peace that would avoid rush for disastrous crash. The objective is to persuade the Parties and Guarantors to reach a consensus on deferring the formation of RTGoNU not later than 12 September 2019.

The suggested limited extension of pre-transitional period by 4 months has to be justified by reasonable evidence rather than malicious whims so as not to risk the R-ARCSS for a second relapse. It is hoped that the extraordinary meeting of the leadership of the Parties and mediation Guarantors of the R-ARCSS in Addis Ababa on 2 – 3 May 2019 would quickly break the deadlock and ensure that the peace process is kept moving on the right track of the critically agreed priorities and timely benchmarks. This must be reinforced urgently by IGAD Council of Ministers Meeting followed by Extraordinary Summit of IGAD Heads of State and Government, which should untangle any emerging complication or confusion that may scare the undesirable hell out of purgatory of unpredictable contradictory South Sudan.


The logical and practical reasons for the extension of the formation of the Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGONU)

By Garang Kuot, Juba, South Sudan

2 Dinkas, 3 Nuers, and one Equatorian - The Proposed Presidency of the Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGONU)
2 Dinkas, 3 Nuers, and one Equatorian – The Proposed Presidency of the Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGONU)

Sunday, April 28, 2019 (PW) — The ongoing debate over the delay or immediate formation of a transitional government of national unity, slated for May 12, 2019, is already losing track on facts as the Juba propaganda machinery is seizing the opportunity to sadly mislead the people of South Sudan one more time. South Sudan was here before and so the people of South Sudan shouldn’t risk falling into the same trap of manipulation and deception. 

The Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS) never left any room for ambiguity, everything is adequately and clearly spelled out. It would, therefore, be a colossal and unforgivable mistake to repeat the blunders of the past considering the carnage and suffering the people endured in the last five years. 

The SPLM (IO) Chairman, Dr. Riek Machar’s proposal to extend the formation of a transitional government has drawn a mixed reaction. However, the critics of his proposal are either deliberately refusing to see the truth for ulterior reasons or they have not read the agreement. Drawing from past experiences, the R-ARCSS has laid out a step by step processes and modalities on how to execute its implementation. No room was left for guesswork in the R-ARCSS and so there is no reason to start guessing now.


The Legal Status of Establishing a Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGONU) without the Participation of Riek Machar’s SPLM-IO Faction

By Bol Chol Kucdit, Juba, South Sudan

Friday, 26 April 2019 (PW) — It has been observed since last week that one of signatories to R-ARCSS in person of Riek Machar and his SPLM-IO faction requested for the extension of timeline of 12th, May, 2019 for other six months to form the Transitional government of National Unity in South Sudan. This news was received by peace lovers of this country as bad news.

Many people were perplexed by this one step backward approach by Riek Machar again. People thought Riek Machar shall never be the same again given his commitment to come to Juba for official celebration of peace last year at Dr. John Garang Mausoleum. People’s positive thoughts about his commitment were later corroborated by the high level spiritual retreat to Vatican City but all in vain.

No wonder to those who have been eye witnesses to Riek Machar’s war series! Many people who witnessed his volume of war series of 1991, 2013 and 2016 respectively, still held some doubts that South Sudanese should be prepared to watch for his 4th edition of war in 2019 or later date. Pathetic!


By Peter Wek Mabiordit, Juba, South Sudan

Tuesday, March 19, 2019 (PW) —- Peace is an important thing in human life. It is demonstrated by our daily actions toward others. The noble choice of doing right things depends on individual’s attitude and behaviors. When we behave in the right manner, our behaviors immediately translate into peace. For the last 3 years there had been a search for a lasting peace in South Sudan. Many agreements had been signed but dishonored.

The Khartoum peace agreement signed in 2018 is another step towards lasting peace. Although critics argue that it will not hold because it does not address the root causes of conflict, I’m optimistic that there are chances of achieving peace because our leaders have expressed their full commitment to implement it.

But how do we achieve lasting peace in South Sudan? Well, in my opinion, real peace starts from within ourselves and extends to others. For us to achieve happiness in life, we must allow the strings of love and unity to bind us together. When we understand the meaning of life, we learn to appreciate the very reason of our existence. True freedom and the right to life are only exercised when we own the spirit of nation building and avoid illegal activities like corruption, gambling, robbery, rebellion and revenge killings.


SPLM Message to Diaspora No. 03/2019: Dear Comrades from the SPLM Diaspora Chapters

Monday, March 4, 2019 (PW) — Comradeship greetings to you all, saluting and wishing you ahead of time a very Happy Easter. The SPLM activities in South Sudan and all over have been geared towards achieving total peace and reconciliation in our beloved country. February had continued witnessing the arrival of our brothers and sisters who were fighting against the government and sovereignty of our country.

Their messages on arrival have been: “ Never again shall we fight each other; Democracy will be the way of political life in the country; South Sudan first and everything else follows… all those who are still holding out under foreign influence should come home as well”. We are pleased that everyone has realised peace as such.