Posts Tagged ‘corruption in South Sudan’


“I did not say the money was stolen neither I did say $4Bn has been stolen. I said the money has been lost somewhere and someone has to account for it. I have written to 75 former and present gov’t officials. This does not mean that these 75 officials are suspects but they have the responsibility. I will still write to some officials whom I had written to them and now claimed to have not received any letter from my office. I will again write to some more officials whom I did not write to them earlier.” (President Kiir, June 13th, 2012)

By PaanLuel Wël, Washington DC, USA, Planet Earth

The combined forces of determined impunity and endemic corruption are striking back and the once-daring and –forthright President Salva Kiir is beating a hasty retreat on his not-long-ago promise to the South Sudanese people to slay the dragon and to recover the stolen $4 Billion of South Sudan’s national assets. For anyone out there who cares to connect the dots on this war on permeating corruption and entrenched impunity, it looks like there is a Panthou-Part-Two in the making. Remember how President Kiir promised heaven and hell to remain in Panthou/Heglig, comes rain comes sunshine, only for him later to unilaterally withdraw South Sudanese troops without any conditions?

On April 10, 2012, South Sudan Army—the SPLA—captured the disputed, oil-rich town of Panthou/Heglig from Khartoum. While history will record July 9th as South Sudan Independence Day, April 10th, in the minds and spirits of all South Sudanese, was the day that South Sudan truly became an independent state. Two days later, April 12th, President Kiir issued one of his memorable statements that endeared him to and galvanized his support among the South Sudanese citizens as the young nation faced off with Khartoum over Panthou/Heglig’s crisis and contended with unprecedented condemnations from the International community:

“Last night I never slept because of the telephone callsthose who have been calling me — starting with the U.N. Secretary-General, yesterday — he gave me an order that I’m ordering you to immediately withdraw from Heglig. I said I’m not under your commandI told him you do not need to order me because I am not under your command. I am a head of state accountable to my people and do not have to be ordered by someone I do not fall under his direct command. I will not withdraw the troops [from Panthou/Heglig]we withdrew from Abyei. Bashir occupied Abyei and is still there up to todayI told the UN Secretary-General that if you are not moving out with this force of Bashir, we are going to reconsider our position and we are going back to Abyei.” President kiir Mayardit to the UN Chief, Bank Ki Moon, April 12th, 2012)

The statement was magical. That was not Salva Kiir the South Sudanese people knew during the war or within the seven years of the transitional period after the CPA. Salva kiir was known as a quiet, dedicated gentleman with a lot of humility, always keen on avoiding high stake controversies unlike the late SPLM/A charismatic leader, Dr. John Garang, who throve in and was adept at turning high stake controversies into his advantages and lethal weapons against Khartoum. With Joshua (Kiir’s nickname) rallying South Sudanese against the combined onslaughts from the belligerent Khartoum and the largely clueless International Community, South Sudanese people, for the first time since independence, found a cause to shed off their internal divisions and a rally cry to present a united front as one, tribe-less nation.

So strong was the backing President Kiir garnered from the citizens that he threatened “to send SPLA to Abyei if the African Union does not pressure Sudan to withdraw its forces from Abyei, a disputed region between Sudan and South Sudan.” But this was not to be because barely two weeks later, the President caved in to intense pressure from the International Community and unilaterally withdrew the SPLA from Panthou/Heglig. South Sudanese people, left high and dry on the altar of lost and found patriotism, were outraged and dumbfounded. Didn’t the President categorically and publicly declare that he was not under the direct command of anybody but the South Sudanese people themselves, they wondered out loud?

As far as President Kiir’s declared war on corruption is concerned, there is an eerily striking reminiscent of what happened in Panthou. Call it Panthou-Part-Two in the making. On March 3rd, 2012, President Kiir, out of his own volition, baffled the world—but only vindicated South Sudanese who have all along been acutely aware of and been consistently decrying the mounting level of corruption in Juba—when he finally publicly admitted that:

“An estimated $4 billion are unaccounted for, or simply put, stolen by current and former South Sudan officials as corrupt individuals with close ties to government officials. Most of these have been taken out of the country and deposit in foreign accounts. Some have purchased properties; often paid in cashthe people of South Sudan and the International Community are alarmed by the level of corruption in South Sudan. Many people in South Sudan are suffering, and yet some government officials simply care about themselves. The credibility of our government is on the linewe fought for freedom, justice and equality. Many of our friends died to achieve these objectives. Yet, once we got to power, we forgot what we fought for and began to enrich ourselves at the expense of our peopleI am writing to encourage you to return these stolen funds (full or partial) to this account. If funds are returned, the government of the Republic of South Sudan will grant amnesty and will keep your name confidential. I and only one other official will have access to this information.” (President Kiir in an official letter to 75 former and current senior government officials, May 3rd, 2012)

And just like at the dawn of the Panthou/Heglig’s debacle, South Sudanese citizens, who have heroically bore the burden of state-sponsored and –condoned corruption, came out in support of President Kiir’s bold admission of the alarming rate and the pervasiveness of official corruption. Though it was obviously clear to all South Sudanese that the government was utterly corrupt, no one had imagined it to be to the tune of over $4 billion or that over 75 senior government officials were perpetuating it. Because the numbers involved and the magnitude of official corruption were beyond anyone’s wildest dream, President Kiir’s courageous disclosure of the facts was unanimously welcomed and his wholehearted promise to track down and recover the stolen funds was highly appreciated by South Sudanese people.

On June 5th, 2012, South Sudan’s human rights advocacy group—the South Sudan Human Rights Society for Advocacy (SSHURSA)—released a press statement in which they applauded President Kiir’s letter to suspected South Sudanese corrupt officials. Not to be left behind in the holy crusade against national demon, South Sudan’s national assembly, on June 12th, 2012, following a majority vote by members of parliament, called for a suspension of the 75 Government officials identified by the president to have stolen public funds. To complicate the matters further for the 75 corrupt government officials to whom the letters were sent by the president, two former cabinet members, Dr. Lual Achuek who previously headed the Oil Ministry and Madam Awut Deng, an ex-minister of Labor, have come forward admitting that they are indeed part of the alleged 75 corruption mafia and have actually received the letters from the president, urging them to return their booties.

As expected, the two ex-ministers have emphatically denied the allegation of having stolen anything from anybody at any time in their entire lives. Interestingly, they are now calling upon—rather daring—their colleagues to assertively come forward and declare if they have received the letters and if they have stolen the funds as purportedly claim by the president. So far, especially among the currently serving government officials, none has dared to stake his/her neck out to state if they have been written to and what they think of the allegation. By all indications, they want South Sudanese to believe that the alleged 75 corrupt officials are in Khartoum, not Juba. This is the school of thought that Dr. Marial Benjamin, South Sudanese Information Minister, represented on his recent appearance on Aljazeera TV in the wake of President Kiir’s revelatory letter.

Actually, President Kiir is caught between two groups of South Sudanese. The first group is the Comrades in Armed Patriots (the C-in-A). The C-in-A Patriots comprises the vast majority of the veteran SPLA soldiers who are suffering like the rest of South Sudanese; the vast majority of the ordinary South Sudanese that have gained nothing but miseries and disillusionments from the independence of South Sudan, and the few honest and hard-working government officials, Governor Bakasoro of Western Equatoria and the SPLA commanders at the border-frontlines—for instance, who have abstained from the corruption spree to deliver on their promises to the masses. The second group, on the other hand, is the Comrades-in-Crime/Corruption Syndicates (the C-in-C). The C-in-C Syndicates includes, among others, the alleged 75 corrupt mafia who has successfully made away with over $4 billion from South Sudan public money. Dr. Marial Benjamin, by contradicting President Kiir’s crystal clear letter, is their spokesperson. Like Khartoum and the International Community during the Panthou/Heglig crisis, the C-in-C Mafia are determined to ensure the failure of South Sudan to protect and safeguard her interest, be they territorial, political or economic ones.

Unfortunately, the C-in-C mafia is succeeding! Whereas the president was categorically clear in his March 3rd letter to the C-in-C syndicates about the nature of corruption and the identities of those implicated in it, you would mistake him for Dr. Marial Benjamin on Aljazeera if you have read his May 13th, 2012 latest statement on the war on corruption:

“I did not say the money was stolen neither I did say $4Bn has been stolen. I said the money has been lost somewhere and someone has to account for it. I have written to 75 former and present gov’t officials. This does not mean that these 75 officials are suspects but they have the responsibility. I will still write to some officials whom I had written to them and now claimed to have not received any letter from my office. I will again write to some more officials whom I did not write to them earlier.” (President Kiir, June 13th, 2012)

President Kiir of March 3rd, 2012 declared that “an estimated $4 billion are unaccounted for, or simply put, stolen by current and former South Sudan officials as corrupt individuals with close ties to government officials.” In June, he is now claiming that he was quoted out of context because “I did not say the money was stolen neither I did say $4Bn has been stolen. I said the money has been lost somewhere and someone has to account for it.” What in the world is the President talking about? Does he listen to his own sound bites? Moreover, President Kiir had earlier stated that ‘some [former and current government officials] have purchased properties; often paid in cash.” He had written 75 letters to these government officials, requesting them to “return these stolen funds (full or partial).” If indeed those 75 former and present government officials are/were not suspects, how could the President have written to and “encourage” them to “return these stolen funds (full or partial)?” Won’t that be a defamatory civil case?

One more time, just like during the Panthou/Heglig’s crisis, South Sudanese people are wondering out aloud: didn’t the President unreservedly and publicly declared that he has already identified and written to “75 former and current government officials” in a bid to recover the stolen public money and would be relentless in his fight to stop and eradicate corruption in South Sudan, once and for all? What has gotten over him? How could he have come out to expose the corruption malaise only to beat a hasty retreat within a few days? The answer is simple: he is coming under extreme pressure to “relax and take things easy” from the C-in-C mafia or else they would expose him as one of their own kith and kin who have, apparently, gone mad to wreak havoc on the “family house” from within, hardly aware that it would all come down, crumbling upon himself.

It is not that hard to picture the mess President Kiir has enmeshed himself in. First and foremost, by calling out the 75 corrupt officials, President Kiir is striving to differentiate and distance himself from the corrupt government he is leading. President Kiir is trying to reclaim the SPLM/A liberation mantle and of the promise of the Land of Canaan, flowing with milk and honey. He is trying to live up to the high expectation ushered in by the independence of South Sudan on July 9th, 2011. For the president to succeed though, he has to erect the devil and place the blame upon him. This has to be done before the son of man must sit on the high right hand of God, in readiness to be showered with somber praises and unadulterated admirations from the South Sudanese populace. The only problem with that strategy is that the devil, as always, is legendary wiser than mortals could dare to admit or realize. It will not be walking in the park for the President to fight corruption effectively and still remain clean and free especially when he has been the head-boy of this gang of alleged thieves.

Most notably, the demons bedeviling South Sudan’s economy are just but followers. Someone, wittingly or otherwise, gave them the green light, over many times, to engage in corruption. Someone somewhere, to borrow President Kiir’s ambiguity, had led them into corruption and must likewise lead them out of corruption. Put simply, President Kiir’s phraseology again, no one among the 75 government officials would willingly and freely come forward, admit of his/her crime and voluntarily return “full or partial” stolen money. Why would anyone do it if the President has not returned his supposedly stolen wealth? Why would you bother to admit to a crime that is presently being committed or return the money that would get stolen again? If the President is tired of corruption and is now serious and ready to deal with the scandal, he must set an example by being the first to receive his own handwritten letter, first to admit to the crime and first to publicly return his ill-gotten assets. Who among the ministers and the 75 government officials would refuse to toe the line if the President himself has accepted to carry his own cross to the Golgotha?

However, President Kiir is not going to do that anytime soon, never any time to be precise. President Kiir would not do so for the real fear that he would be called upon to account for his own crimes. He would be called upon to persecute the thieves and that would not be easy considering that he would be persecuting himself. The constitution is clear; all thieves belong behind bars. Besides, which President has ever voluntarily done such a thing and still remains as head of state? Is President Kiir ready to voluntarily step down? Absolutely not; he is there to stay put. Secondly, the alleged 75 government officials represent who-is-who in South Sudan tribal politics. There is no way anyone—not even President Kiir—can fire, persecute or jail those 75 guys and ladies and still have the country in peace and harmony. The cry of our-community-is-being-finished-or-being-singled-out-and-targeted will suffocate the nation. Civil war might ensue and Somalia-on-steroid might get born out of the current failed—but not yet collapse—Republic of South Sudan.

Thirdly, some corrupt officials would even be adamant that their conscience is clear in spite of what they have done. This point is well dramatized by one South Sudanese commentator, Mr. Philo of the SPLM-Diaspora Forum—an online forum where government critics regurgitate their unreasonable grievances with and imagined frustrations over the Government of the Republic of South Sudan, and wherein government supporters recite their undying love for and naked admirations of President Kiir in the hope of being spotted for a big, luxurious government’s position:

Following the scandalous episodes in the country, several suspected persons were brought before the high court for conviction trial. Judge Malongdit, wearing a red court robe, opens the court and began interrogating each one of them.

Judge Malongdit: Why did you do what you did?

33rd Person: Your Honor, they never paid my salary for 3 months, so I took what they owed me.

40th Person: Mr. Justice, having what I want is more important than being honest and save my business

45th Person: Lord Justice, I have 10 wives, 50 children, and 215 close relatives, where do I feed them?

57th Person: Lord Justice, everyone is doing it, why not me?

Judge Malongdit: (turning to a young lady, seated composed behind the court bench), what about you young lady what reasons do you have?

Young Lady, 69th Person: Your Honor, my husband is a problem! He accumulates debts and debts, never pays them, coming home late drunk and children in school!

70th Person: Your Honor, I was not paid during the war.

72nd Person: Your Honor Judge, they want to retire me without retirement arrangement, so I took my share of retirement.

73rd Person: Judge, I was just trying to beat the system, to see if they can discover it.

Assumed that the president is clean and free of corruption, it is still practically impossible for him to deal accordingly with his wartime comrades and peacetime buddies. It is partly due to the tribal nature of South Sudanese politics and partly due to the closeness of the top government officials—these are people who struggled, survived war and death together. It is just implausible that President Kiir would go after them with the same zealousness with which they have bankrupted South Sudan’s national coffers. While the war of empty words and rhetoric may intensify in the coming days, weeks, months and years, don’t hold your breath waiting for public persecution of any of the 75 public officials. It might happen that South Sudanese may never know of their exact identities.

But wait a minute; is this not the kind of “analyses” that was recently dismissed by Deng Arok Thon—the son of the Late Arok Thon Arok—as being a patronizing and too-knowing “views” usually espouse by the too-distant, too-arrogant and too-clueless South Sudanese in the Diaspora who should better leave South Sudan to South Sudanese and rather concentrate on their adoptive countries?

You in the Diaspora always seem to “know it all” and have so much to say: giving your “thoughts, analyses, theories, solution, views and resolutions.” Pay more attention to being productive citizens in your adoptive countries. I have nothing against any of you in the diaspora personally, but it’s the sense of patronism and Mr. Know- it- all-I-have-come-to-save-you-from-yourselves attitude many people in the Diaspora always seem to have. (Deng Arok Thon via Facebook May 12th, 2012).

South Sudanese people would pass the verdict themselves. The war on corruption knows no international borders; corruption is a disease against humanity! It was in that humanistic spirit that President Kiir thought it prudent to seek help from other heads of state by writing letters to them seeking the return of stolen South Sudan national resources. All that South Sudanese people care about is that the suspected stolen funds are fully recovered, corruption completely eradicated and that Juba adheres to its social contract with the masses by delivering on economic development, social services, good governance, long lasting peace and political stability!

If the South Sudanese Diaspora community has any contribution to make towards that noble national goal, so much the better! If South Sudan accepts economic, social, technological and developmental assistances from total foreigners, how about from people of South Sudanese origin? The seventh front is part and parcel of the required solution to South Sudan’s national predicaments.

PaanLuel Wël (paanluel2011@gmail.com) is the Managing Editor of PaanLuel Wël: South Sudanese Bloggers. He can be reached through his Facebook page, Twitter account or on the blog: https://paanluelwel2011.wordpress.com/

Impunity Strikes Back, President Kiir Beats a Hasty Retreat..pdf

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By THOMAS C. MOUNTAIN

South Sudan’s leaders have stolen at least $10 billion in oil revenues shared with them by Sudan in the past 7 years. With somewhere between $12 to $17 billion turned over to South Sudan, Africa’s newest “government”, during this time frame some say estimates of only $10 billion stolen is to conservative.

South Sudan has about 8 million people so the oil revenues amount to somewhere between $1,500 to $2000 per man, woman and child in a country where everyday hundreds if not thousands die from hunger and disease.

Where has the $10 billion gone? In some cases directly into London City bank accounts, never having made it into South Sudan’s official treasury. In one instance the South Sudanese Minister of Finance managed to have $300 million “disappear” at one time.

And what has South Sudan to show for its $12 billion+ share of the oil revenues? Almost no infrastructure, few schools, fewer medical facilities and millions suffering from malnutrition and sickness.

The South Sudanese leadership can’t even claim to have spent the money on their military for they have little in the way of modern armament, never mind all the claims of Israeli arms sales to them.

The Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), if you can call it that, for years was revolting over unpaid salaries, resulting in the USA stepping in and providing over $100 million a year to pay its salaries since the last major mutiny in 2009.

The SPLA itself is an ethnic or tribal based military force with little centralized control. Ethnic minorities make up the companies, brigades or even divisions that are based in their own tribal territories. When tribal conflicts over land and water rights break out the local militias quickly call in their “big brothers” in the SPLA and local conflicts become inter-SPLA warfare.

Many times the local commanders are at odds with the largest, ethnically Nok based units and do not coordinate their actions with them.

In other words there are serious doubts whether South Sudan’s President Salva Kir actually controls South Sudan’s army. The latest attack on Heglig, recognized internationally as part of Sudan may not have been initiated by Salva Kir but by the local SPLA commander.

Since convincing South Sudan to stop all oil production in late January 2012 (see “US Plan To Destabilize Sudan”) the USA has continued its history of broken promises and blackmail against both parties and failed to deliver the aid it was secretly promising to South Sudan if it implemented the USA’s plan to evict China from Sudan’s oil fields and, in killing two birds with one stone, destablizing or even bringing down the Bashir government in Sudan by depriving it of it main source of income.

After three months without any oil income at all South Sudan President Salva Kir had to take an emergency trip to China hat in hand to try and keep his government afloat, returning with a Chinese promise of some $8 billion in aid. Hopefully he has learned not to trust the USA, though one should not hold ones breath in this regard.

The World Bank has also signed a several hundred million dollar “loan” agreement with a very smug looking South Sudanese robber baron a.k.a. Finance Minister though no one has bothered asking how with their oil fields shut down, their only source of income, South Sudan will be able to repay the World Bank.

With George Clooney and Angelina Jolie accusing Sudan’s government of everything from food aid blockades to genocide coupled with the Phony Kony/Silent Children 2012 pr blitz  (the people of north Uganda, the region the program claimed to be portraying, threw stones at the screen when it was shown there) western attention has been diverted from the real reason for the suffering in South Sudan due to the massive theft of almost all of the countries income.

While the USA certainly has a hidden hand behind the recent fighting between South Sudan and Sudan, hunger, disease and the missing $10 billion may very well be behind South Sudan’s recent military offensive against Sudan. As the saying goes “patriotism is the last refuge of scoundrels”, what better way to distract your people from hunger, disease and Grand Theft International than starting a war with your erstwhile partner.

One thing is for sure and that is that South Sudan has more than its share of scoundrels and that the USA has more dirty tricks up its sleeve for the people of the region.

Thomas C. Mountain is the only independent western journalist in the Horn of Africa, living and reporting from Eritrea since 2006. He can be reached at thomascmountain at yahoo dot com.

http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/05/01/south-sudans-missing-10-billion/


By Peter Wanyonyi

A common feature of intelligence — even among animals — is to learn from one’s experience. But what should distinguish humans from other animals is the ability to learn from others’ experience, too.

Thus, if your neighbour dies drinking kumi kumi (hooch) at Mama Wakanyi’s shebeen, it is expected that you will not be found patronising the same place the next morning, however thirsty you might be for throat irrigation.

But not in Africa. South Sudan, the world’s newest State, spent decades in gestation, its leadership scattered all around Kenya as their Arab countrymen in the North used them for target practice, as slaves, and as clay pigeons to shoot at for fun.

As most oppressed peoples do — something Kenyan politicians have forgotten — South Sudanese took up arms and started a long civil war, which only recently resulted in Independence and self-rule.

During the civil war, they lived all over Africa and the world — in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and the West. Some even managed to trek all the way from Juba to Israel.

One would reasonably expect that South Sudan, being the world’s and Africa’s newest country, would avoid the most obvious pitfalls that African States have faced in their attempts at self-governance. Could be wrong. But one gets the sad feeling that South Sudan is quickly joining the bandwagon of poorly run African states.

Unfortunately, the stakes are much higher for Juba because the population is still armed and has a long experience of fighting bush wars.

President Salva Kiir has to deal with problems that would make even the toughest village chiefs quake. His own tribe, the Dinka, don’t like it that the president has crafted a Cabinet that includes representatives from other tribes in the country. They whine that the few Cabinet and State offices held by Dinka “do not reflect the community’s contribution to the independence struggle”.

Discontent

It appears they, too, want to ‘eat’, just like the ruling elite in many newly independent African states, Kenya included, gorged their tribesmen on the fat of the land.

What cannot be ignored, though, is the discontent and bloodshed that is spreading in the new country. Some NGO even says South Sudan is the place likeliest to experience genocide within the next few years. In the massive Jonglei State — nearly five times the size of Rwanda — for instance, two tribes are involved in vicious civil war. And they are armed with assault rifles, not bows and arrows.

In just one spate of fighting last week, more than 500 people went missing, which is military jargon for presumed dead.

Oil

Corruption is stifling the new State, too — the South Sudanese appear to have heartily taken to heart the Kenyan tradition of kitu kidogo. Corruption is so bad that the cost of doing business in the new country is among the highest in the world. Everyone is on the take and ministers are said to ask openly for bribes to approve deals.

The oil economy just makes it worse. In Africa, where there is oil or minerals, there is phenomenal corruption.

Is it really that hard for the South Sudanese to learn the lessons of the rest of Africa and avoid our shared misfortunes?

http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000054331&cid=349&currentPage=1


Sudan, South Sudan Trade Accusations Ahead of Oil Talks

Wall Street Journal
By NICHOLAS BARIYO KAMPALA, Uganda—South Sudan and Sudan Wednesday accused each other of cross-border attacks in the latest escalation of rhetoric ahead of a summit called to resolve the oil transit spat between the formerly united countries. Col.
South Sudan Inches Closer to Eradicating Guinea Worm
Voice of America
March 21, 2012 South Sudan Inches Closer to Eradicating Guinea Worm Andrew Green | Terekeka,South Sudan South Sudan, the world’s newest country, is on the brink of its first health-care success. Cases of guinea worm have dropped dramatically in the 
South Sudan’s ‘ministry of darkness’ eyes hydropower
Ahram Online
South Sudan is planning to build about half a dozen hydropower and thermal power plants to help end almost permanent blackouts across the country and attract investment to manufacturing industries, an electricity official said on Wednesday.
For Sudan’s Blue Nile refugees, hunger is “like a weapon”
Chicago Tribune
By Hereward Holland DORO CAMP, South Sudan, March 21 (Reuters) – Two-year-old Islam Musa lay in the corner of bed number six as her grandmother, Zena Bade, fed her milk through a tube. Stalked by hunger and aerial bombardment, the pair were among the 
Walden Forum Welcomes ‘Lost Boy of Sudan
Patch.com
The Republic of South Sudan is now the newest country of the world and the 193rd member of the United Nations. It is a country endowed with huge natural resources ranging from wild life to oil, but still it is struggling for good governance, food, 
South Sudan and its north neighbor Sudan have reached an agreement to resolve 
Press TV
After many rounds of talks and negotiations and uncountable threats and accusations,South Sudan has finally come to reach to an agreement with its neighboring Sudan which it seceded from eight months ago. The agreement, which was signed under the
Government: South Sudan Using Humanitarian Barges to Transport Weapons to Renk
Sudan Vision
Khartoum – The government has categorically criticized the actions of the government of South Sudan for employing barges used for expatriation of its citizens stranded in Kosti Port to transport weapons and ammunition to the region of Renk.
Kony Is Not the Problem
New York Times
On the Ugandan side of the border with South Sudan, below a mountainous ridge along the Nile, is a village called Odrupele by locals. It is a place teeming with snakes. Until a few years ago, children walking along the village’s paths were stalked by a 
Pray for Jonglei, South Sudan and Civility
AllAfrica.com
But in Jonglei, the South Sudan’s largest state, both geographically and populously, everybody is arguably a warrior. A warrior is different from a hero. A hero is objective and defined by noble qualities. He can act by his own but for the good of 

Israel threatens to deport South Sudanese, including family reunited after 
Washington Post
That family is among hundreds of South Sudanese Israel plans to expel this month. With the establishment of an independent state of South Sudan in July, Israel is intent on repatriating them and the other 700 to 2000 South Sudanese who live here.

“I wish to send a crystal clear message to all those who are involved or may get involved in corruption in Southern Sudan in the future. Rest assured the Government of Southern Sudan will prosecute you. You can run but you cannot hide. I assure you that the long arm of the Law will catch you…If you swallow something that belongs to the people, we will force you to vomit it out”  —General Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of the Government of Southern Sudan (2009).

Souther Sudan Anti-corruption Strategy (Final Draft).pdf Southern Sudan Anti-corruption Strategy (Final Draft).pdf
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By Joseph Monyde Malieny

Eight Months since the historical independence of South Sudan in 2011, the South Sudanese society has devolved themselves into various standpoints such as tribal fights and land disputes, and distracted not to determine the successes or failures of our government ever since the coming of our freedom under the brutal Islamic regime of Sudan. It is therefore appropriate for the South Sudan society to do “good not bad or good not evil” “right not wrong” and evaluate the progress of ethics in public administration and administrative justice, that the government has made in their primary functions such as protective and coercive line functions; promotive and developmental line functions; enabling and facilitative staff functions and  implementation of its numerous policies published in South Sudan Transitional Constitution on the transformation of public service that set targets and timeframes for making the public service more representatives (Republic of South Sudan 2011). This constitution is our social contract between the South Sudan society and the South Sudan government.

The constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011, PART TWO,BILL OF RIGHTS” (30(1)) stated, “All levels of government shall guarantee to persons with disabilities or special needs participation in society and the enjoyment of rights and freedoms set out in this Constitution, especially access to public utilities, suitable education and employment.” This specific article gives us an obligation to litigate or ask public servants of how effective, efficiency, economical and appropriateness has the services been rendered to the determined priorities, but if we are busy with tribal planning of how to attack other tribal groups, then our government officials will be busy too, fuelling their pockets or account with public money for satisfying their private needs rather than people needs. So, let us distance ourselves from evil doings and join our constitution as our basic step of building South Sudan.

The purpose of this article is not to evaluate the progress that has been made with the transformation of the South Sudan public service, but to show what is “corruption,” the causes of corruption,”  “community’s or communities’ role in corruption and communities/community control on corruption.” As well as how protection services work through ethics guidelines and produce a conceptual framework that will extricate the major transformation of the newly born State’s concepts in the public services. In doing writing, this article is going to explain what corruption is, so that one can know where and how an official get trap in corruption or dishonesty for personal gain; who are involved in corruption and how public services can be protected from misuse by officials.

Corruption

According to University of South Africa Press, corruption is defined as the abuse of power for personal gain (Professor F Uys 2006-117). It is an inducement to wrong by improper or unlawful means (bribery). Corruption, similar to stress, is a dynamic that has been present in all institutions since an institution is established, but it is undesirable and has a negative effect on the provision of services. According to “CHAPTER III” of ANTI-CORRUPTION COMMISSION 2011, Article (144 (1) d) affirm that, “pursuant to the provisions of Article 120 (1) herein; require all persons holding such public offices to make confidential formal declarations of their income, assets and liabilities.” In South Sudan, corruption emerged amidst of public officials and police officials has become increasingly entrenched in politic as vice president (VP) of the Republic of South Sudan, Riek Machar, has officially declared his personal income, assets and liabilities while calling on all constitutional post holders in the country to do the same (Sudan tribune news: February, 14, 2012 JUBA).  In viciousness of sustained efforts to combat corruption, it has to continue for centuries if there are no essential majors against corruption rather than declaration personal assets, income and liabilities.

In fighting corruption to improve governance, the organization’s political fairness, partnerships and governance focus need to be clearly cited as its value-added contribution in the area of anti-corruption is vital. In efforts to eliminate corruption, institutions have to raise salaries, offer more training and education, and have to introduce policies to target those factors that give rise to corruption. To understand why corruption continues to boom, we need to understand how individuals diverge and how the community influences corruption as well as to understand the environment in which protection services operate. According to Article (144 (1) d) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan mentioned above. Require all persons holding public positions to declare their property, but corruption take place in all parts of government levels indirectly rather than national sphere, provincial sphere and local sphere. Emblematic patterns of corruption include treasure on construction contracts, bribes to ensure favourable decisions in granting licences, gratuities following the allocation of land, using public resources such as labour, vehicles, travel and accommodation for personal purposes, providing public sector employment for unqualified family members and friends, selling state property such as construction material or weapons and keeping the income from such sales, payment of wages to phantasm human resources into one’s own bank account, and hiring an intermediary to disburse off the involved in order to expedite the issuing of a passport, or the bribing of a traffic officer to ignore a traffic offence. Theft, corruption and abuse of power is based on public officials and political office bearers but it’s seem not to be in all offices of government levels but an illegitimate taxes or tipping on streets, airports, ports and markets are others phenomenon symbols of corruption, and these are usually related to public protective bodies such as agency of securities and police officers. The causes of corruption are important because public servants trap in corruption without knowing how he/she corrupts public funds.

Causes of corruption

The causes of corruption are varies and should be viewed in the precise milieu. Corruption is closely an evil on every personal’s career ways if you are not aware of its causes, but not exclusively, linked to an officials’ optional power and the degree of accountability in executing such discretion. A numeral of conditions may influence the scope to which the execution of such discretion becomes vulnerable to corrupt practices; for instance, in the absence of clear rules and codes of ethics, discretionary power could easily become abused. Besides, the less effective government is in all-purposes, with dawdling budget procedures, lack of transparency, inadequate strategic vision and weak monitoring mechanisms, and delay of income, cause more fertile environment for corrupt practices. Stumpy public sector salaries and pitiable working conditions, with few incentives and rewards for efficient and effectives presentation, are strong inducement for corruption. The fact that the overall culture of governance plays an essential role, political leaders and top officials set an example of self-enhancement about public ethics, then lower-sphere officials and members of the public resolve to follow their suit.

Low compensation

In developing countries, mainly in Africa, the wages and salaries of public officials habitually stay low while inflation is going high and the devaluation of currencies is increasing. In view of these conditions, it has been said that, “public officials use corruption merely as a means to survive, and sometimes also simply because everyone else is doing it” (Uys 2006:118). One way of looking at corruption to argue that corrupt officials exist because they have been often corrupted by others, such as foreign actors. It is because multinational corporations have regularly been accused of bribery to secure contracts. It should not be ignored that the members of the public on a daily basis encourage corruption by bribing officials and even on occasion blackmailing them. This is usually being practiced by external influences to push their interests on track.

Individual values and norms

The public servant is morally bound, just as other people, to tell the truth, to keep promises, to respect the persons and the property of others, and to abide by the requirements of the law.  In many ways, this level only describes the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of a group or society. There are some basics of behavior that are anticipated of all if a society is to function for the collective good. For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is important to stick to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than the average constituent of the society. By disregarding this veracity, legalistic solutions based on institutional changes and stricter enforcement of rules is likely to effectively contain the extensive and systematic abuse of office sustained by social networks. If legal and institutional reforms are not applied in cycle with primary societal changes that adjust power relations and raise civic competence in dealing with corruption, then the prospects of making significant inroads into reducing corruption will remain remote. This is a narrative adapted from a study guide of “Public Administration of protection services” (University of South Africa Press 2006:119). Read it and imagine how protection services linked to corruption.

A young police officer was called to check on an elderly person. When he arrived, he found the person dead on the floor. On the table, he saw five hundred pound in cash. There was nobody else in the house and it seemed that the elderly person had lived alone. Certainly, the elderly person wake up and found his money on the table lost after a young police have informed his colleagues about his problem. Would anyone have known if the police officer had taken the money? May be, he did not, but another police officer in similar circumstance may have taken it. Some of the officers’ colleagues may even have said that he was foolish not to have taken the money.

I can conclude from the above tale that, each human being has a set of norms and values that will guide his or her dealings. The person is imperative, but it can also take place that the state of affairs overrule the person, for instance, individual cases of corruption may be the result of insatiability, economic problems or collect force. In this situation, the institutions that grant protection services will do the whole lot in their power to avoid appointing individual whose personalities make them vulnerable to corrupt indirectly because when this occurs repeatedly, and then the circumstances is no longer tolerable.

Communities’ role in corruption

The communities’ contribution to corruption in institutions that provide protection services should also be taken into account by reporting illegal actions of those institutions. And if any community endures dishonesty, it also gets involved in it and it will encourage public institutions to flourish the environment of corruption. According to Uys 2006:120 mentioned that, “police scandals are said to have done much damage to the American police in the early nineties.” The receipt of bribes, the protection of thieves such as those who hide unlawful materials, for instance, drugs for their private use and lack of departmental control over such behaviors on some police officers, threatened to cause serious damage to the image of the police and members of the communities felt that they could no longer trust those in power.

 Control of corruption

There is no suspicion that corruption must be controlled directly by anti-corruption commission indirectly through communities’ members. According to the Republic of South Sudan Constitution,CHAPTER IIof “Duties of the Citizen” section (46{2} d) outline citizens duties to “prevent and combat corruption and sabotage;” it has allow all citizens to stand up against corruption. The costs are just too high, and it affects not only the individuals but also the delivery of protection services as a whole, and the community itself. Unlawful participation in corruption may demolish the career and family life of individual officers and may also guide to legal sanctions. From the community’s point of view, corruption leads to a loss of respect for members of institutions, poor service delivery and loss of trust in the institution that corrupt public funds. Within the institution itself, corruption may direct to low morale, inefficient act and cause problems with the image and authority of the service. Strong controls are essential to eliminate corruption. Such control should come from within the institution and should be supported by community.

To keep in mind, there are no distinct easy solutions for dealing with corruption in institutions that deliver protection services. On the one hand, broad reforms such as liberalization and democratization could grant the proposal for clean governance and management, but on the other hand, the fight against corruption also demands precise reforms to create a culture of accountability, introduce public service reforms, raise civil awareness and put reasons for proper behaviour in place. Eventually, a strategy for responding to corruption must target administration, civil society and private investors.

Internal control of corruption

The main component in combating corruption is the attitude of leaders and the quality of line management. The leaders of the institution should take a strong stand against corruption. The absence of strict action against corruption in an institution conveys the significance that such conduct is acceptable, and that will lead to more corruption. Well-trained and sensitive administrators that will back up the chiefs in the institution will enhance their ability to combat corruption. It is often emphasized that training can contribute to the fight against corruption. Such training should be intended explicitly at the ethical behaviour and evading of corruption and in situation that may lead to corruption, for example, where an officer regularly accepts free meals at the same restaurant. If members of the institution are not informed of penalties of corruption, because it will just encourage corrupt practices. Arrests and prosecution of corrupt officers or officials will send a clear signal to other members of the institution.     CHAPTER III of ANTI-CORRUPTION COMMISSION in the constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, Article (145{4}) authorized anti-corruption commission (ACC) by stating that, ” The Commission shall have power to issue summons or other orders requiring representatives of relevant institutions and other bodies at all levels of government or persons or organizations to appear before it or produce any document or record relevant to any investigation by the Commission.” This is not only the responsibility of (ACC) alone but it remains the responsibility of each member of an institution to report acts that constitute corruption to the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC).

Communities or community control

The authorities need the help of the community to combat corruption. The public should be educated to know and understand the implications and outlay of corruption. It should be understand that even the smallest bribe can lead to greater corruption when an individual within a community didn’t report such pace.  The increase focus on corruption in the state of affair is one reason that will exclusively reduce unlawful actions of public officials. Corruption is like HIV/Aids problem because it cannot be controlled completely but it must be combated based on corporation of vertical and horizontal communication of a state. Institutions can use a number of tools, such as strict control by executive officers, quality supervision, discipline, training and special units for investigating corruption. Community control includes educating the public and introducing community investigation units to help Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) eradicate dishonesty of protection officers and public officials. But South Sudan society is so busy with unprofitable duties such as tribal fights of which they don’t even think of what is “well-being.” Well-being is one of the most important aspects of our lives, as individuals and as societies.

Conclusion

 As it was mentioned above that, “this article is not to assess or investigate the progress that has been made within the South Sudan public service,” but its purpose is to put awareness on the table together with personal career as dishonesty is an evil in public affair of the State. Corruption is defined as the misused of public funds but it is undesirable and has an unenthusiastic effect on the provision of services. Also I have explained some numeral of conditions that may influence the scope of corruption and to which the execution of discretion becomes vulnerable to corrupt practices; for instance, in the absence of clear rules and codes of ethics, discretionary power could easily become abused. Nevertheless, I have described the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of a group or society in the public sector and how they are bound to administrative justice. In the control measures of corruption, it was said that arrests and prosecution of corrupt officers or officials will send a clear signal to other members of the institution. And finally, Corruption is enlightened to have characteristics of HIV/Aids, and it must be combated using corporation of vertical and horizontal communication of a state. Institutions have been revealed to use number of tools, such as a strict control via executive officers, quality management, obedience, training and special units for investigating corruption. Community controls are based on education as part of corruption prevention and introducing community investigation units to help Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) eliminate fraudulence of protection officers and public officials.

Joseph Monyde Malieny is the author of article  and a student at University of South Africa, Pretoria: and you reach him at Josephmalieny@yahoo.com

SOUTHERN SUDAN ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGY, 2010 – 2014: 

TOWARDS A CORRUPTION-FREE SOUTHERN SUDAN

http://www.goss-online.org/magnoliaPublic/en/Independant-Commissions-and-Chambers/Anti-Corruption/mainColumnParagraphs/0/content_files/file3/Souther%20Sudan%20Anti-corruption%20Strategy%20(Final%20Draft).pdf



Dear Readers;
I have no idea nor any way to verify the validity of this alleged list of the 16 top GoSS officials said to have been implicated in corruption, 2005-2011.
Therefore, it has to be considered for what it is…unofficial list—-as we wait, probably forever, to receive the REAL thing.
Thanks, PaanLuel Wel.
Quote “Top GOSS 16 Politicians have been accused by American government of misused public funds during the interim period 2005 – 2011.

Here is the true unofficial List from the top to the less corrupt officials, or whatever that meant, it is still the same degree of stealing public funds: Note that every figure is reported in *millions USAD*

1.     Arthur Akuien Chol…$51millions in his Swish bank Account:
2.     President Salva Kiir Mayardit $38 millions in Australian Bank Account
3.     Vice President Riek Machar Teny $36 Swish bank account…and so the rest follow.
4.     Minister of Roads and bridges: Gier Chuang Aluang $36 millions
5.     Former minister of finance: Kuol Athian Mawien: $30
6.     Northern Bahr El Gazaal Governor: Malong Awan Anei…$30 millions
7.     Minister of cabinet affairs: Deng Alor Kuol $28 millions
8.     First Lt. General Obote Mamur Mete …$27 millions
9.     Former deputy of Republic of Sudan’s National Intelligent Security Service and current deputy minister of defense in Republic of South Sudan: Majak Agoot Atem…$27 millions
10.  Former minister of cabinet affairs in Republic of Sudan and Peace and CPA in government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) and SPLM secretary-general since 2005: Pa’gan Amum Okiech…$25 millions
11.   Former speaker of GOSS parliament and current speaker of Republic of South Sudan: James Wani Igga…$ 21 millions
12.    Unity State Governor: Taban Deng Gai…$20 millions
13.   Jonglei State Governor and former minister of roads and transportation in Republic of Sudan: Kuol Manyang Juuk…$15 millions
14.      Central Equatoria Governor: Clement Wani Konga…$15 millions
15.      SPLA Chief of General Staff: James Hoth Mai…$15 millions USAD
16.      Deputy Speaker of RSS parliament: Daniel Awet Akot: $5 millions USAD