Posts Tagged ‘upper nile’


Atok Dan Baguoot

April, 2010: It would sound naïve and surprising for somebody to start asserting across political predictions of a certain organized ethnic community based on their historical and political adherence to an ideology that they perceived rewarding but ended up disgracing their contributions as things are awarded on how noisy and chaotic one is instead of loyalty.

Panaruu-Dinka is one of the Dinka clans situated in oil rich Unity state dominated by the Nuer ethnic and it shares some cultural ties and believes with other Dinkas across Southern Sudan. It is a section under greater Padang Dinka historically described as the North Eastern frontier Dinka of Abyei, Alor commonly known as Ruweng in Unity state, Paweny of Atar, Luach, Rut, Thoi, in Jongeli state and other groups of Eastern Ngok of Baliet, Dongjol, Abialiang, Nyiel and Ageer in Upper Nile state. In the context, Panaruu shares common features with other Dinkas more likely with those Dinkas in greater Bor, Lakes and Warrap and Northern Bahr el Ghazal states apart from the groups in description.

The kind of Dinka dialect spoken in Panaruu phonetically sounds like that of Twic East and West though they share some noun similarities with the Agar Dinka of lakes, however, pronunciation differentiates their accent in one way or the other. Panaruu hardly pronounce “R” at the end of a word like in Koor (lion), they say koo which distinguishes them from the rest of the Dinkas even their Padang class.
Their historical disadvantage of being less educated came about during the colonial era when the British government declared all the Nuer lands and areas adjacent to them ungovernable and up to now level of formal education still less among these Padang communities in Greater Upper Nile minus Padang section of Abyei whose Southern Kordofan administration had an influence over their political status. As now, getting educated old men in 70s in Panaruu community is uncommon thing to talk about.

Back to their political and social organisation where the emphasis is, their historical contributions in the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army SPLM/A dated back to earlier hours of the inception of the Movement in 1983 when thousands of young men from the community flocked to Ethiopia after armed Murahaleen (Misseriya) raided the Panaruu-Dinka homestead and went away with millions head of cattle living around thousand people dead in defense of their cattle, a economic and cultural prestige of the Dinka people.

The first wave of the Movement they attended in large numbers was Koryom Division followed by other subsequent divisions and battalions. Thousands of them fall in Jekou around Gatjaak territories when SPLA launched offensive attacks on areas controlled by the Sudan Armed Forces SAF to open up routes to Bilpam for new recruits from all over the South and other marginalised areas of Abyei, Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile. Their food stuffs were not spared as it was the daily ration to SPLA new recruits and foot soldiers to Greater Barh el Ghazal, Bentiu areas and Nuba Mountains.

Where their historical political naivety makes sense came in 1991 during the political split of the Movement along the Nasir group and the mainstream headed by late, Dr. John Garang De Mabior. Panaruu as an area bordering Misseriya northwest and the Nuer whose aggregates formed the Nasir faction in southern part, waged series of attacks and raids on Panaruu after they showed adherence to the SPLM/A. As the word naïve implies, their stance was not a political motivated move but on the fact that they are Dinkas hence, identifying themselves as Dinkas and objected what the Nuer whom they inhabited the state proposed. Since they were encircled in, they became bullets porters from Greater Barh el Ghazal to reinforce the area up to late 1990s.
In defense of the SPLM/A political ideology, they area suffered a great deal of war consequences from their neighbors of the Nuer and Shilluk whereas; Misseriya on the other hand got something to revenge. In the Dinka power class, they had no representation at the highest organ of the Movement to make them feel a direct stakeholder of the concept up to the current GoSS not even a senior director heading the department is from this political naive community.
This is where the equation and question of political naivety works because you cannot be a diehard of a system that does not recognize your contributions yet basis of rewarding benefits is on the basis of what one did even former detractors of the Movement got their shares unopposed. Sometimes people say that they who opposed the system were the one awarded much more than those who defended the system.
In the same context of political naivety, Panaruu still defended the SPLM/A to the amalgamation of different militia forces after the signing of comprehensive peace accord in 2005. When forces were joined and GoSS was to be formed, they stood with one of the commanders to become the first governor of oil rich state of Unity, comrade Taban Deng Gai as SPLM proposed governor and Gai succeeded and eventually formed the government.
In the first Gai’s government where he was the chairman of the SPLM and other Nuer tribesmen as deputy and secretary of the party in the state, Panaruu felt marginalised in the party they protected in absentia of the group which they saw to have hijacked the system. State government was also formed in the same nature without putting into consideration the mathematical proposal brought about by the CPA of ethnicity, region and geographical representation.
In that state, nutritional positions in the government were awarded to Taban loyalists whom they saw as Nuer kin. But until in 2008 when the SPLM launched grassroots’ primaries, Governor Gai made a political about turn to seek support from this political unfortunate community which indeed supported him to teeth though he lost the chairmanship of the party to current GoSS Caretaker Minister of Health, Dr. Joseph Monytuil.
On the eve of those grassroots elections, a lucrative border check point town of Karsana in Panaruu territory in northern frontier was annexed to Southern Kordofan under an agreement signed by Mr. Gai which almost detracted most of Panaruu intellectuals from supporting him, however, they connived and voted for him. Subsequently, most of Panaruu deemed it that another reason of not supporting governor Deng was his encroachment into Panaruu territory of Mango, another busy inland port without their prior consent and up to now it is being inhabited by Mr. Deng.
In the same name of the SPLM and in regard to their political marginalisation both within the state and at Southern level, Panaruu still registered their adherence to the SPLM unknowingly that whatever one does in politics, rewards politically, economically and prestigiously. Have they benefitted no why because of their political naivety?
As it wasn’t enough, the same political adherence was transcended to recent concluded elections in which they supported the SPLM nominated candidate for the post of governor, Mr. Taban Deng Gai. 74,000 was alleged to have voted for Mr. Taban, a vote that springboard him back to post which he almost lost to his immediate rival Independent candidate, Mrs. Angelina Jany Teny, wife of GoSS Vice president and deputy chairperson of the SPLM, Dr. Riek Machar Teny. Area of contention was on the fact that Parieng County had more than 82,000 as a population recorded in the Sudan Fifth Household Population Census an exercise which was later disputed by the SPLM. Southern Sudan went to elections without knowing the exactly numbers in constituencies.
The area recorded 89,000 in voters’ registration, something that dismayed NEC officials in Khartoum. Demographic statisticians estimated the area population to be around 100,000 which probably places the suffrage age to 45,000 if correctly asserted because there is no logical viewpoint where registered voters can exceed the population how much that fact is distorted. However, supporting evidence was there that 89,000 voters were recorded and that also justifies the means although logic remains in dispute with that timely fact and falsehood based on the outcome from the court. There are strong evidences versus weak evidences in all directions. Parieng County emerged to be the only county out of 79 counties in Southern Sudan whose elections results were negatively questioned.
Allegations were aired on media that Panaruu/Parieng county voting was flawed as agents belonged to other political parties were intimidated and dismissed from polls. National Elections Commission NEC suspended Parieng votes temporarily but later revoked and Taban Deng was declared as a winner of that highly contested post. If there was anyone with justifiable reason of not voting for Brig. Taban Deng as a candidate of the SPLM, it was a Panaruu-Dinka whom he marginalised in both the party and in the state government and if there could be also reason for rejecting an SPLM proposed candidate then Panaruu would have had a reason.
Their political leniency towards the SPLM and naivety come when one questions why do this community always opted in support of the SPLM yet they don’t formed the nucleus of the party neither are they found in any set of the SPLM nor government of Southern Sudan to show that they are protecting an interest in return. This community is doing empty political work.
As they are they always proud to be Padang Dinka or Dinka for that matter, another political calculation is that states political structure system outweighed either tribal or cultural ties which they always wish to rely on as an alternative if things become tough as Southern politics still an ethnical tribal showcase. Because they are really political neophytes in the electoral systems, the extemporized elections results extrapolated the political survival of this community as extinct among their Nuer community whom they have shown immature political mobility by supporting one candidate without calculating future political repercussions if any of them wish to stand as a governor later let alone other highly contested seat where one would wish to resort home first.
It is a weak move because their neighboring Dinkas will never come and support them in their political bid despite the fact that Dinka formed the lion share of the Southern population. You have to try it first in the house before reaching out as English old adage says, “Charity begins at home and it ends where it started”. Identifying themselves more loyal citizens of state than branding themselves as tribal political instruments of pleasing far Dinka never have been a preferred option as most Nuers do see Mr. Taban Deng as Dinka candidate imposed on them.
Frankly speaking, the recent voting initiative taken by Panaruu if indeed they voted that way, would have long negative political effect on them as their Nuer state mates are never happy with the way they portrayed themselves yet they are minority in the state. A political move and survival of a minority in a democratic society should not always be seen as spearheading or overriding the majority because you might never know what that strong muscle political class would think about you. It is it to determine your political happiness. Mark the word happiness.
Their political submissiveness and docility led to that rigid one way choice without proper evaluation on political seasonality and objectivity, thus resulted into that questionable behavior, however, as new wave of generation is emerging, that political tooled community would either choose to cease from being used as political propellers or remain quake to foreign ideas without defining their destiny.
The issue is not the SPLM but to have a cordial political relationship with your elder brother so that next time he feels lenient on you like the way they liaise with the seasonal political parties. Political parties go but communities remain as what God molded them so it is upon you to determine the kind of relationship you wish to have with your neighbours and this is where political philosophies meander around. It is none other than game of preserved interest.
This is actually what kills tribal politics in any given society. People don’t strive to kill tribal politics but associations in realization of who your next voter does it automatically. Any political miscalculation normally results into political miscarriage, thus creating euphoria of envy along tribal lines without giving notice to why it happened and this is where politicians fail to define the root cause of a situation.
When the current GoSS president elect, H.E. General Salva Kiir Mayardit visited Parieng County the home county of Panaruu for the first time, he made some promises after personally accessing the deplorable conditions in which that isolated Dinka community was in and none of the pledges materialized but persistently they continue voting for the SPLM without questioning the authenticity of messages given to them knowing very well that heavy pregnant promises could still be ahead especially when one talks of referendum. Hope H.E. president Kiir will remember his long awaited promises.
Lastly, in any political makeup, there is always an interest which defines why somebody or certain element supports an ideology to either death or live depending on the chance or possibility but if it is somewhere violated by one of the partners, this is where you see political divorce taking place in regard to its doctrines of allegiance. It is only he/she who is politically immature that paid a blind allegiance to a political system without defining what belongs to him and the other party.
This was where Southern Sudanese and the rest of oppressed Sudanese felt cheated by their northern brothers on an account that they fought colonial government together and after half independence was granted to all, Arabs came and started grinding an ax on Africans to further neo-colonialism. That was due to lack of fulfillment of political allegiance which I think is probably happening in unity state as soon as the well-informed Panaruu group is assuming political head way of the community.

This long historical political naivety towards the SPLM is being forged by a certain class of people in the community to foster their self ambitions without rewarding the community for their tough stand in protecting their interest. It would be upon this community to rise against this ill inculcated selfish messages by telling themselves enough is enough as their deeds tend to defame the cultural integrity without a return benefit.

Atok Dan is a member of the community in description and a journalist working for Southern Sudan radio & TV and can be reached at atokbaguot@gmail.com, 0917221411/0955410005.


For Mr Gatwec Lul, this year simply started on the wrong footing. Three days after a grinding mill he used to supplement his income broke down; he was notified that his job at the oilfields in Unity state had become redundant.

Gatwec, 42, said he worked in Tharjath as a manual labourer, assisting technicians to move equipment; a job that has supported his six-member family since 2006. With the shutdown in South Sudan’s oil production, Gatwec says the future looks bleak. “It will be too difficult. Where can I begin without the job?”

Gatwec stays at Bentiu, the capital of Unity state, where about 40 per cent of South Sudan oil exports were being produced before the shutdown. He was relieved of his job alongside over 100 other Sudanese working in the fields.
“There is nothing for them to do because the shutdown is complete,” said Mr William Garjuang, Unity State’s minister for Environment.

“A few remained to take care of companies’ properties,” the minister said.
In Palaug oilfields in Upper Nile state, where oil giant Petrodar holds concessions that were producing over 60 per cent of South Sudan’s oil, James Buoth fears that he could soon be sent packing. He works as a cleaner in Palaug centre. It is from this job that Buoth, 38, raises money to feed his 11–member extended family.

“My worry is there may not be work for me in a few days and I have no papers,” Buoth said.
“It’s my prayer that Sudan agrees with our government. It will also be good if (work on) our pipeline can start quickly so that I keep my work,” he said.

In Palaug, the total man power is 3,000 people, according to the Field Operations manager, Bakheit Mahmoud. Out of this, 2,000 work for Petrodar and 1,000 work for associated oil drilling and service companies.

Petrodar employees are shared between Sudan and the South. For the drilling and oil service companies, the workers include different nationalities ranging from Chinese to South Africans.

Most of the South Sudanese workers are “normal labourers” while some are engineers, technicians and operators.

Following the shutdown, a significant number of the employees, both local and foreign, are at risk of losing their jobs. But unlike in Unity state, where Sudanese employees have already evacuated, a decision is yet to be made by Petrodar and the government over whether the workers should leave.

“The decision is not for Petrodar. The decision will be made jointly by Petrodar and the ministry of Petroleum and Mining — how to live in the field, give them medication,” Bakheit said.

South Sudan decided to shut down oil production last month, protesting alleged oil theft and diversion by Khartoum at Port Sudan.

Juba says Khartoum has “stolen” oil worth over $815 million since December. Khartoum admits confiscating the oil, but argues that it was paying itself in kind for previous shipments that it claims South Sudan had not paid.

Letters exchanged between oil companies and South Sudan on one hand and the government of Sudan on the other, show that Juba has been paying transit fees of between $7.4 and $5.5 per barrel.

South Sudanese officials have sought to downplay the risk of losing jobs.
“They should not actually panic,” Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth, the head of mission to the United States, said. “We are taking necessary steps to make sure that everybody is well off,” he said, referring to plans to attract investment companies — which he said would employ locals — into the country.

Returnee train departs Sudan capital for south
Contra Costa Times
By MOHAMED OSMAN AP KHARTOUM, Sudan—A 60-car train carrying 1400 southern Sudanesestranded in the north by their homeland’s declaration of independence has left Khartoum for thesouth, the International Organization for Migration said Friday.

South Sudan oil shutdown leads to massive job losses
Daily Monitor
With the shutdown in South Sudan’s oil production, Gatwec says the future looks bleak. “It will be too difficult. Where can I begin without the job?” Gatwec stays at Bentiu, the capital of Unity state, where about 40 per cent of South Sudan oil exports
South Sudan army hold 9 MPs hostage
Daily Monitor
By FELIX WAROM OKELLO (email the author) The South Sudan authorities are claiming land 15Kms into Uganda. Presidents Salva Kiir and Museveni agreed to set up a commission to resolve the dispute. Nine Members of Parliament were on Thursday afternoon 
ICC Issues Warrant for Sudan Government Official
Yahoo! Contributors Network
On the same day a Sudanese defense minister was accused of atrocities in Darfur, the US State Department decried Sudan and South Sudan border violence. Meanwhile, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton has accused Sudan’s president of trying to kill 

By PaanLuel Wel
This is a great article from Bol Makueng, the SPLM’s secretary for Information, Culture and Communication. Khartoum has indeed been effectively using rule-and-divide policy–inherited from the European colonial masters–to pit Southerners against themselves. “Dinka Domination” has been the staple in that pursuit—the Kokora in the post-Addis Ababa Southern Government is the best epitomization of the case.
It was the same case during the infancy of the SPLM/A when non-Dinkas/non-Nuers were reluctant to join the Movement on the perception that the new Movement was just but a continuation, an extension, of the power wrangling in Juba pitting Abel Alier, Joseph Lagu and Joseph Tombura against themselves, with President Jaafer Nimeri manipulating the show. Hon. Joseph Lagu, in his book, provided an all-too-real illustration of how Nimeri’s regime was using tribal-card as a tool to divide Southerners. Bol Makueng’s point that we should be wary of blaming everything and anything on “Dinka Domination” is a valid, well-articulated observation insofar as the slogan is a tool habitually deploy by Khartoum to divide and weaken South Sudanese:
“the only way to destroy the independence of South Sudan is to repeatedly beat the drum of Dinka domination and leveling SPLA/M as Dinka organizations.”
However cautious South Sudanese should feel about the slogan “Dinka Domination”, it should never be used as a rhetoric to dismiss or downplay genuine concerns that other communities might feel being orchestrated by some self-serving elements in the government who may happen to be ethnic Dinkas. The pervasiveness of corruption in the new country of South Sudan is indisputable. As long as that corruption manifests itself in the form of tribalism and nepotism, it would be pretentious to equate every cry of “Dinka Domination” to Khartoum’s attempt to divide and weaken South sudanese.
If the President happen to be a Dinka, and his kinsmen are implicated in corruption, and yet go scot-free, then it is likely that his reluctance to persecute them could be attributable to their tribal affiliations. If political appointments, job allocations and state contracts etc. are wholly or mostly enjoys by the people ethnically linked to the president, then it is tribal domination. What else would you called it? Wasn’t this the same crime Southerners raised up against Khartoum? It is debatable, however, if that is the true picture of South Sudan presently. 
The best way forward is to examine each case/allegation according to its merits before rushing to the conclusion that this is a case of “Dinka Domination” or before proclaiming/prophesying Khartoum’s hand in every allegation of bad governance and corruption case level against the government of South Sudan, currently headed by a Dinka. In fact, with or without the presence of malicious intent from Khartoum, South Sudanese citizens will always find something wanting about their government of the day and will accordingly press their reservations or grievances against the government.
It does not take a hidden hand of Khartoum nor a proverbial “Dinka Domination” of the government for the American people to register their utmost disgust with the US Congress…currently having approval rating below the freezing point of politics. 
 ——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
By Bol Makueng
The people of the present republic of South Sudan were united in the struggle for freedom. This came about as a result of foreigner invaders and slavers who came to the country and plunder resources including children and women who were taken into slavery. As a response, the peoples of South Sudan fought for ages to get rid of the enemy.
They managed to shake off colonization because the people were united. Yes, there are many tribes in South Sudan and each one of them contributed according to its size and capacity equally to the liberation war. If there were majority tribes, they died in large numbers as well as also occupying military and any other positions in the institutions of liberation movement in proportion to their sizes. In coining up their unity, the history goes back to the very nature of geographical neighborliness, common traditions and the sharing of natural assets of water sources (eg the Nile, rivers and Lakes), grazing areas, fishing spots, dances and intermarriages. It is worth adding that there used to be local conflicts where alliances were made between some tribes against others and vice versa. All these are normal developmental phases of any society which do lead to homogeneity of languages and cultures.
In South Sudan today, Central Upper Nile where the three nationalities (Dinka, Nuer & Shilluk) concur around Malakal and Sobat Mouth, represents a good example of community homogeneity, though amorphous. The people here speak three languages of the area. One is impressed when these people can just switch conversation from one language to another in a very smooth flowing manner. Such integration happens only when the people are peaceful, stable and open to one another. The credit of this goes back to our uneducated leaders of the past whose cultures were not contaminated by the divide and rule policy of the colonizing oppressors.
These days, the unity of the people of South Sudan is under an enormous test and there is a feeling that three nationalities (the Dinka, Nuer & Bari) can either make it or break it. When Southern Sudan was divided up (kokora) in 1983, it was done so with the help of its sons and daughters. The slogan was “DINKA DOMINATION”. Some other communities were comfortable that pointing hand at Dinka would absolve them from any blame or judgmental argument against their mistakes. The bigger picture, according to them, was Dinka domination. Digging deep into the Dinka domination, militia groups were formed to just target the Dinka in most cases and with SPLA/M becoming synonymous with being a Dinka.
 Leveling the liberation movement as a Dinka organization dissuaded most people from joining the liberation war (1983 – 2005) with exception of those committed patriots who ignored the attitude and negative sentiments from their tribesmen.  
“Dinka domination” was an invention from Khartoum and preached in the South. The implementers (militias) and victims of this pogrom became involved in self destruction along tribal lines. And as we have all witnessed, tribalism is destructive. It keeps us from getting to the best solutions for our children, our country and ourselves. Worse, it forces us to become champions of the very things we most despise and don’t like: hatred; division; corruption; nepotism; endless conflicts and self destruction.
Now that we are staggering with building the new nation of South Sudan, the Khartoum system is not leaving South Sudan alone. After all, the NCP has sworn not to leave the young republic at peace. The NCP is reviving the anti Dinka sentiments again as a policy of creating rival political parties to SPLM and militia military wings of those political parties. And going by the saying that history repeats itself, there are already some wrangling voices and hand pointing at the “Dinka”. This large liberator party called SPLM that brought freedom to people of South Sudan, won elections and appointing various people to positions in the government in the states and at national level, is largely ignored. There is no listening ear and mind to the fact that there is no tribe that is a president or minister, but there is an individual who could be one and this does not mean the whole tribe.
Moreover, the SPLM is the only political party in the Republic of South Sudan where every tribe/nationality has a presence. Now, do South Sudanese still believe that “SPLM” is synonymous with “Dinka” as preached by the enemy NCP? Associating SPLM with Dinka is even making the Dinka the only liberators of South Sudan, which is not true. South Sudan was liberated by every nationality except the individual traitors who could be found in all communities.
A member from the NCP was quoted as saying this: “the only way to destroy the independence of South Sudan is to repeatedly beat the drum of Dinka domination and leveling SPLA/M as Dinka organizations. By doing so, the South Sudanese will soon be at each others’ throat. There will be intertribal competition to access SPLM leadership positions. Alternatively, SPLM will break up and with new political parties emerging. When this happens, the non Dinka will unite against the Dinka and the outcome will be a deadly violent conflict. We will then choose an appropriate time to support the side we want.
The lessons the South Sudanese have learned throughout the struggle are important for us to be optimistic about building a free, united and prosperous nation of South Sudan. The colonizer tried many time to divide the people of South Sudan and the whole Sudan on different grounds and it did not succeed. The NCP will again fail to divide and erase the independence of South Sudan. South Sudanese political parties will be divided along programme lines and not on tribal agendas.
In addition, the general populace from political leaders, students, intellectuals and business people should provide healthy education and guidance to ordinary people whose minds should not be poisoned by the teachings from myopic and narrow minded individuals who see South Sudan through the lenses of tribalism.

SSLA CALLS ON CIVILIANS, NGOs AND UN PERSONNEL TO LEAVE UNITY STATE AND UPPER NILE
For immediate release
Mayom, SSLA Headquarters, South Sudan
February, 22, 2012
The South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA) is hereby informing civilians, NGOs and UN personnel residing in Unity and Upper Nile Sates to leave towns because the SSLA forces will commence Operation Ending Corruption within days. The SSLA does not want civilians to be caught in crossfire when it is engaging the forces of corruption that are stationed near civilians in most towns. It’s unfortunate that the forces of corruption defending the regime in Juba live in towns with civilians making military operations difficult to safeguard the safety of civilians. With the safety of civilians in mind, the SSLA’s Military High Command has no choice but to alert the civilians to leave towns prior to launching attacks. Although military secrecy could not allow the SSLA to alert the civilians ahead of time because the forces of corruption may prepare themselves in anticipation of attacks, we resolved that violating operation rules for the safety of people we are liberating is more important than winning battles.
The SSLA is fulfilling its international law duty to inform all NGOs and UN personnel to leave dangerous areas prior to launching the operation. We seriously call upon the NGOs, Red Cross and UN personnel to leave Unity State and Upper Nile within thirteen days. Should the NGOs, Red Cross and UN personnel fail to leave as we stated, the SSLA will not be responsible for any person caught between crossfire. Our forces have no intention to endanger the lives of international NGOs and UN personnel who came to South Sudan to assist our people. The primary reason for issuing this alert before starting the operations against the forces of corruption is because the SSLA leadership does not want any member of NGOs and UN personnel to be hurt in the process of liberating South Sudan from corruption and dictatorship.
The SSLA calls upon all civilians, journalists, NGOs and UN personnel to avoid visiting SPLA Headquarters of Bilpam in Juba starting March, 5, 2012. Civilians should also avoid going to office of Gen. Salva Kiir in Juba including his residence. SSLA commandos who are already in Juba will conduct surgical operations to speed up the liberation of South Sudan to bring to justice Salva Kiir and his loyalists. The SSLA has loyalists within SPLA forces in Juba who will join the special commandos to attack Bilpam and Salva Kiir’s office and residence.
The UN personnel and NGOs should not ignore this warning for their safety. SSLA will not be held responsible for civilians and international personnel who refuse to heed our warning when they get hurt. Responsible people should take this warning very serious because the SSLA forces will launch widespread attacks in Upper Nile and Unity states. This time, the intensity of fighting will be equivalent to Operation Desert Storm of 1991 because the SSLA is committing all its forces to capture Unity State and Upper Nile.
We strongly alert the international community that Operation Ending Corruptionwill be the mother of all wars in South Sudan. We could predict that all civilians of both states will be displaced because this time the SSLA forces will fight day and night to capture both states in one week. This time SSLA forces will conduct its operations differently because so many peasants and young men joined its rank and file. We congratulate seven hundred youth of Mayiandit County who joined the SSLA forces last week. It is the policy of our Movement to arm youth who want to defend themselves from the forces of corruption. We encourage more youth of Mayiandit County to join SSLA in order to effectively defend themselves from SPLA forces that constantly take their cattle.
Lastly, the SSLA calls on SPLA forces in Unity State and Upper Nile to either join the Movement or go home if they don’t want to die. This time, the SPLA forces will be confronted by SSLA forces composed of energetic young men who are highly motivated to liberate the South. Those SPLA forces who want to fight the SSLA should make necessary arraignments with their families to ensure the future of their children if they wish to die defending corruption in Juba. Most families of SPLA soldiers who were killed in battles suffer without any assistance from Salva Kiir who doesn’t care about the families of SPLA soldiers killed in the battlefields. Therefore, members of SPLA army in Unity State and Upper Nile should think for the future of their children if they allow themselves to be killed defending corrupt regime in Juba.
For contact:
Information Department
SSLA Headquarters
Mayom, South Sudan

* South Sudan escalates row with Chinese oil firms

* Petrodar head expelled for lack of cooperation – official

* Chinese firms investigated for helping Sudan seize oil

* China is the biggest buyer of South Sudan’s oil

* Thursday’s talks with Sudan delayed till March 6- official (Adds more quotes, details, background)

By Hereward Holland

PALOUGE OIL FIELD, South Sudan, Feb 21 (Reuters) – South Sudan has expelled the head of Chinese-Malaysian oil consortium Petrodar, the main oil firm operating in the new African nation, a top southern official said on Tuesday, escalating a row between Juba and Chinese oil firms.

South Sudan has repeatedly attacked Chinese oil firms and launched an investigation into whether they helped Khartoum seize southern oil being exported from the landlocked country through Sudan. Juba has shut down its oil output of 350,000 barrels per day to end the seizures, which were sparked off by a dispute over transit fees.

“The (oil) minister has just expelled the president of Petrodar,” said Pagan Amum, South Sudan’s top negotiator for talks with Sudan over oil payments.

“I think one of the reasons is lack of cooperation by the President of Petrodar (with the government) and we have dismissed him and expelled him and we are asking the partners to appoint a new president,” he told Reuters during a visit to the Palouge oil field.

Amum said relations with China were good but there were difficulties with some oil companies.

Petrodar, which pumped 230,000 bpd and exported the southern oil through a Sudan pipeline until the shutdown, categorically rejected the accusations on Sunday and said it had followed only southern instructions.

South Sudan’s attack on Chinese interests is puzzling Western diplomats because China is the biggest buyer of its oil.

Petrodar is a consortium of mainly Chinese state firms Sinopec, Chinese National Petroleum Corp and Malaysia’s Petronas. It runs oil fields in South Sudan’s Upper Nile state, to which Palouge belongs, and also an export pipeline through Sudan.

Many South Sudanese feel bitter about China because of its support for Khartoum during decades of civil war between the Muslim north and mainly Christian South that killed two million people. The conflict ended only in 2005 with a peace agreement that paved the way for southern independence.

OIL TALKS DELAYED

South Sudan took three-quarters of Sudan’s oil production when it became independent in July but needs to export crude through a northern pipeline and a Red Sea port.

Both states have failed to agree on transit fees Juba needs to pay, prompting Khartoum last month to seize at least three southern oil shipments at the Red Sea terminal.

Amum also said oil talks with Sudan scheduled for Thursday would be delayed until March 6.

“On the request of the government of Sudan the talks have been postponed to March 6,” he said.

A spokesman for the Sudanese foreign ministry said he could not confirm the date.

The African Union has been trying to resolve the oil conflict but positions are wide apart. The South wants to pay around $1 a barrel as fee, while Sudan demands $36 a barrel plus $1 billion in rear payments since July.

Apart from oil, north and south also need to solve a long list of other conflicts such as marking the violent border and finding a solution for the disputed border region of Abyei. (Reporting by Hereward Holland; additional reporting by Khalid Abdelaziz; writing by Ulf Laessing; Editing by Marguerita Choy and Keiron Henderson)

http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/21/southsudan-china-idUSL5E8DLA7420120221

A Chinese puzzle

Over the past decade, China has done well out of the principle of “non-interference” that governs its foreign policy. An increasing number of countries has engaged with Beijing, encouraged by its stated disinclination to meddle in others’ internal affairs. Today, about 850,000 Chinese work abroad, with many thousands in potentially dangerous corners of Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

Recent events in East Africa are now testing the sustainability of this laid-back doctrine. The dispute between Sudan and South Sudan over how to share oil revenues following Juba’s recent independence has blocked Beijing’s seventh-largest supplier of crude oil. The political chaos in the region has also led to the kidnapping of 29 Chinese workers, causing popular discontent in Beijing.

So far, China has conveniently relied on other countries to intercede for it. The negotiations leading to last year’s peace agreement were largely conducted by a troika formed by the US, UK and Norway. The recent effort to resolve the oil dispute has been led by the African Union (AU).

Unfortunately for Beijing, free-riding is no longer an option. South Sudan’s rejection of the AU’s proposal on how to share oil revenues has discredited it as an effective mediator. As for the US, long-standing sanctions and its involvement in last year’s partition of the country has made its relationship with Khartoum too poisonous for it to have credibility.

This leaves a political gap, which it would be only natural for China to fill. The large loans that Beijing is channelling to Khartoum give China substantial leverage on the Sudanese government. And despite long-standing suspicion between Beijing and Juba, negotiators from South Sudan have conceded that China is a long-term strategic partner for their country.

As escalating economic and political tensions risk a new armed conflict, China’s closer involvement could clearly be desirable for the region. Greater engagement would be in Beijing’s self-interest too.

Non-interference has served China well in giving it an entree to the developing world. But to protect the interests it has fostered, it cannot always hang back and expect others to sort out problems.

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/41574dc8-5c8a-11e1-911f-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1n3IY0SG9

South Sudan expels head of Chinese-Malaysian oil firm
Reuters
South Sudan escalates row with Chinese oil firms * Petrodar head expelled for lack of cooperation – official * Chinese firms investigated for helping Sudan seize oil * China is the biggest buyer of South Sudan’s oil * Thursday’s talks with Sudan 

South Sudan expels head of Chinese-Malaysian oil firm
Reuters Africa
PALOUGE OIL FIELD, South Sudan, Feb 21 (Reuters) – South Sudan has expelled the head of Chinese-Malaysian oil consortium Petrodar, the main oil firm operating in the new African nation, top southern officials said on Tuesday, escalating a row between 
South Sudan fears impact of oil shutdown
Financial Times
By Katrina Manson in Juba For a country that has just lost 98 per cent of its revenues, South Sudanbarely seems to have noticed. Multi-storey buildings are still going up in its dusty capital of containers and thatch and traders hawk patriotic 
North-South Border Peace Conference in Aweil Calls for Assistance
AllAfrica.com
Juba — A three day peace conference, bringing together communities from either side of the tense border between north Sudan and newly independent South Sudan, has called for international assistance to complement efforts aiming at mitigating border 
JobsCash Transfer Project Manager – South Sudan
Reuters AlertNet
Manage an ECHO-funded project on response to emergency needs of conflict affected people inSouth Sudan, including responsibility for achievement of project objectives and outputs as well as smooth implementation of project activities.

South Sudan fears impact of oil shutdown

Financial Times – ‎
By Katrina Manson in Juba For a country that has just lost 98 per cent of its revenues, South Sudan barely seems to have noticed. Multi-storey buildings are still going up in its dusty capital of containers and thatch and traders hawk patriotic 

South Sudan wants alternative oil pipelines

By Edith M. Lederer

Associated Press / February 20, 2012

 UNITED NATIONS—South Sudan’s acting U.N. ambassador said Monday his country wants to build alternative pipelines through Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti to ship oil while trying to resolve a dispute with neighboring Sudan over fees for using its pipelines.

Landlocked South Sudan, which became independent from Sudan in July, shut down oil production Jan. 28 after accusing Khartoum of imposing extortionate fees and stealing $815 million of its oil revenue. A research note from Commerzbank last month said South Sudan was producing about 350,000 barrels of oil per day.

The countries split without resolving what to do with the coveted oil reserves. About two-thirds of the oil is in South Sudan, but the newly independent nation has been reliant on Sudan’s pipelines to export the oil through Port Sudan.

South Sudan envoy David Buom Choat said in an interview with The Associated Press that memorandums of understanding were signed with Kenya in late January for a pipeline that would go to the Indian Ocean port of Lamu and with Ethiopia and Djibouti in February. That pipeline would go from South Sudan’s Upper Nile state through Ethiopia to a port in Djibouti, he said.

“It’s starting the technical cooperation to build pipelines through those countries,” Choat said.

He said South Sudan is continuing negotiations with Sudan on the use of its pipelines but “it’s not going too well.”

“We are faithfully negotiating with them but they are not really negotiating in good faith,” Choat said. “They have put their efforts and mentality on cheating us or getting more than we can get from our own oil.”

Sudan has asked for $32 per barrel of oil shipped through its pipelines while South Sudan has offered $1 per barrel, an amount which the country’s information minister, Benjamin Barnaba Marial, has said is “the highest in the world.”

While South Sudan is losing massive amounts of money by shutting down its oil industry, Sudan is losing money as well — and it risks losing future revenue if the alternative pipeline routes South Sudan is planning are completed.

Almost all of South Sudan’s government revenue — 98 percent of it — comes from the oil sector.

Choat said the government is taking “austerity measure” by cutting government expenditures, increasing agricultural production which is a non-oil revenue source, and making sure taxes are collected.

Sudan and South Sudan have a host of other unresolved issues in addition to oil revenue including the demarcation of the north-south border and the status of the disputed Abyei region.

The two countries signed a memorandum of understanding on non-aggression in Ethiopia on Feb. 10, but days later South Sudan accused Sudan of bombing the border town of Jau.

On Friday, Sudan’s U.N. Ambassador Daffa-Alla Elhag Ali Osman accused South Sudan of harboring the remnants of rebels from the Darfur conflict in western Sudan. He urged the Security Council “to put pressure on the government of South Sudan not to assist the armed groups who are hosted now in South Sudan.”

Choat said South Sudan has told Sudan “that we are not harboring armed groups from Sudan in our territory — that includes from Darfur or anywhere because we have a policy of non-interference in the affairs of any other sovereign state.”

He called on the Security Council to demand that Sudan stop bombing South Sudan territory, including Jau and Bahr el Ghazal, and accused Khartoum of supplying arms and weapons to militia that are against South Sudan.

“Sudan should focus on solving its own problem rather than accusing South Sudan for no reason,” Choat said.

http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2012/02/20/south_sudan_wants_alternative_oil_pipelines/

South Sudan: UN urges ethnic groups to show how to ‘make your own peace’
UN News Centre
The top United Nations official in South Sudan has urged warring ethnic communities in the country to find peaceful solutions to their disputes and to serve as an example to other groups about how to turn challenges into opportunities…

South Sudan: New Pipeline Alternatives
New York Times
David Buom Choat, South Sudan’s acting ambassador to the United Nations, said his country wanted to build pipelines through Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti to ship its oil while trying to resolve a dispute with Sudan over fees for using its pipelines…

South Sudan: Students’ Union Receive 30000 SSP From Lakes State Governor
AllAfrica.com
By Misuk Moses Mule, 20 February 2012 Juba — The South Sudanese Students Union in Uganda has expressed gratitude to the Governor of Lakes State, Eng. Chol Tong Mayay over his support for the student activities. The Union Finance Secretary, 

Eight19 lights up South Sudan
Business Weekly
Cambridge CleanTech pioneer, Eight19, has begun deploying its IndiGo pay-as-you-go personal solar electricity system for off-grid communities in the world’s youngest country – South Sudan. Having launched the solar scratch cards in Kenya last September 

Canada deports HIV positive sex offender to South Sudan
DigitalJournal.com
By Arthur Weinreb By Arthur Weinreb. Winnipeg – The former Winnipeg resident, convicted of sex offences for failing to disclose his HIV positive status, has been removed from Canada. Whether his actions were criminal is now before the Supreme Court of 


DigitalJournal.com
Govt grants additional €500k to GOAL for South Sudan relief
Irish Examiner
The Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) today said it has allocated €500000 to GOAL to help them respond to the urgent needs of tens of thousands of refugees in the Maban region of South Sudan. This funding is in addition to an initial €200000 provided 

Boston.com
By Edith M. Lederer AP / February 20, 2012 UNITED NATIONS—South Sudan’s acting UN ambassador said Monday his country wants to build alternative pipelines through Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti to ship oil while trying to resolve a dispute with 

South Sudan probes killing of Kenyan workers in Eastern Equatoria
Sudan Tribune
February 20, 2012 (JUBA) – South Sudan on Monday said it has formed a committee to investigate claims that three Kenyan’s have been killed and three others injured in an attack on Friday 17 February reportedly carried by armed bandits in Eastern 

South Sudan: Worsening food crisis
Eurasia Review
An already dire food situation in South Sudan could deteriorate amid growing economic problems, food shortages and a mass influx of people fleeing Sudan in the next two months, agencies warn. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) and Food and Agricultural 

Lasting peace in South Sudan?
Marshalltown Times Republican (blog)
In a word, that elusive state is what villagers of Old Fangak, South Sudan want. It is easy to understand after living and working among them for nearly nine days. Located in northeast South Sudan, Old Fangak specifically and South Sudan generally have 
South Sudan wants alternative oil pipelines
BusinessWeek
South Sudan’s acting UN ambassador says his country wants to build alternative pipelines through Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti to ship the country’s oil while trying to resolve a dispute with neighboring Sudan over fees for using its pipelines.

HIV-positive man convicted of aggravated sex assault deported to South Sudan
CTV.ca
Canada Border Services Agency confirmed that Clato Mabior was sent back to South Sudan on Wednesday. (file image) A Winnipeg immigrant convicted for failing to tell his sex partners he was HIV-positive has been deported. The Canada Border Services


CTV.ca
Steve Young: Ritual involves slicing open boys’ foreheads
Sioux Falls Argus Leader
A woman grinds grain in Panyang, South Sudan. Reporter Steve Young is traveling to South Sudan to report on David Jal’s mission to build schools and hospitals. / Rhonda Morse / Submitted photo Argus Leader reporter Steve Young is traveling in South 
South Sudan triggers domestic outcry in Beijing
Financial Times
By Katrina Manson in Juba Lu Zhifang’s mother was horrified at the prospect of her leaving China for the first time to take up a job in South Sudan, and she tried to stop her getting a passport. So when 29 Chinese workers were kidnapped north of the 

South Sudan: 9000 Kenyans Register in Juba
AllAfrica.com
By Lagu Joseph Jackson, 19 February 2012 Juba — At least about nine thousand Kenyans living in Juba the capital of South Sudan were registered following last month’s order from the Ministry of Interior that all foreigners should register with their 

Disputed Sudan Oil Can Unload After Court Ruling, Trafigura Says
BusinessWeek
20 (Bloomberg) — A crude oil cargo that’s been stranded at sea because of a dispute between Sudan and South Sudan can unload in Japan after a court ruling in London, oil trader Trafigura Beheer BV said. “We can confirm that the English court has  

JUBA | Sun Feb 19, 2012 12:16pm EST

(Reuters) – Chinese-Malaysian oil firm Petrodar, the main oil operator in South Sudan, denied on Sunday it had helped Sudan seize any southern oil, after Juba accused Chinese firms of cooperating with Khartoum in a row between the two countries.

South Sudan is locked in a conflict with Sudan over oil payments.

The landlocked nation took three-quarters of Sudan’s oil production when it became independent in July but needs to export crude through a northern pipeline and a Red Sea port.

Both states have failed to agree on a fee Juba needs to pay, prompting Khartoum last month to seize at least three southern oil shipments at the Red Sea terminal. South Sudan has shut down its entire output of 350,000 bpd.

In the past few days, several southern officials have accused unspecified Chinese oil firms of helping Sudan seize southern oil.

The government started an investigation last week and threatened to expel Chinese firms if they were found guilty in cooperating with Sudan.

Petrodar, which pumped 230,000 bpd in South Sudan’s Upper Nile state until the shutdown, said on Sunday it had always complied with instructions from Juba and had no role in seizing southern oil at the Red Sea terminal.

It said it had given staff orders not to cooperate during the seizing of the three shipments which was overseen by Khartoum’s security services.

“Petrodar does not know the destination nor the buyers of the three shipments confiscated by the Republic of Sudan,” it said in a statement.

The firm also said it had always given daily updates for production and active wells after Oil Minister Stephen Dhieu Dau had questioned Petrodar’s output figures.

“The daily number of active wells varies from day to day based on operations, well maintenance and work-over activities,” Petrodar said.

Dau had said 40,000 bpd were missing at the key Palouge oil field but Petrodar blamed water separation during pumping for the difference.

Petrodar is a consortium of mainly Chinese state firms Sinpoec, Chinese National Petroleum Corp and Malaysia’s Petronas. It runs oil fields in South Sudan and also an export pipeline through Sudan.

South Sudan’s accusations have puzzled Western diplomats since China is the biggest buyer of its oil which make up 98 percent of state revenues.

Petrodar also said it would take up 40 days to six months or even longer to restart oil production, putting doubts over government statements that oil output could be restarted anytime.

South Sudan are due to resume oil talks sponsored by the African Union in Addis Ababa on Thursday but diplomats see no breakthrough as positions are wide apart.

Sudan wants $1 billion in back payments plus $36 a barrel, while Juba has said it is willing to pay around $1 a barrel.

Sudan’s President Omar Hassan al-Bashir has warned the conflict could lead to war. North and south fought for decades in a civil war that killed 2 million people.

(Reporting by Ulf Laessing; Editing by David Cowell)

http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/19/us-southsudan-china-idUSTRE81I0GH20120219

China-Malaysia firm rejects S.Sudan accusations in oil row
Reuters
JUBA (Reuters) – Chinese-Malaysian oil firm Petrodar, the main oil operator in South Sudan, denied on Sunday it had helped Sudan seize any southern oil, after Juba accused Chinese firms of cooperating with Khartoum in a row between the two countries.

Lakes state hosts a meeting to discuss cattle rustling in South Sudan
Sudan Tribune
February 19, 2012 (JUBA) – The vice president of South Sudan Riek Machar together with governor of Lakes, Unity and Warrap states all converged in Lakes state on Saturday morning to discuss cattle rustling and border issues affecting neighbouring 

South Sudanese protest deportation outside UNHCR office
Jerusalem Post
By BEN HARTMAN 02/19/2012 11:32 Six weeks ahead of their deportation from Israel, a group ofSouth Sudanese held a rally outside the United Nations High Committee for Refugees office in Tel Aviv, where they called on the UNHCR to help postpone the 

South Sudan VP hosts peace talks between Lake, Unity and Warrap States
Sudan Tribune
By Bonifacio Taban Kuich February 18, 2012 (MAPELS) – South Sudan’s Vice President Riek Machar Teny urged on Saturday the three neighboring states governors of Warrap, Unity and Lake States to work to create peaceful borders and relations…

South Sudan halves spending after oil shutdown row
AFP
JUBA — South Sudan slashed non-salary government spending by half, weeks after halting the oil production that forms 98 percent of its budget in a bitter row with former foes in north Sudan, officials said Sunday. But the government of the oil-rich 

In South Sudan, oil shutoff is a matter of national pride
Sacramento Bee
By ROBYN DIXON JUBA, South Sudan – To outsiders, the move appears suicidal, a recipe for ruining the economy and possibly returning to war. But on the streets of Juba, the capital of South Sudan, the decision to turn off the flow from oil wells that 

S. Sudanese on deportation: Who’ll protect us?
Jerusalem Post
By BEN HARTMAN 02/19/2012 11:41 Six weeks ahead of deportation from Israel, South Sudanesegroup protest gov’t decision outside UNHCR office. By Ben Hartman Six weeks before they will face deportation from Israel, a group of South Sudanese held a rally 
Sudan mourns musical icon Wardi
AFP
Just over a year ago, he told AFP that the 2005 peace deal which ended 22 years of civil war with southern Sudan had encouraged his return with hope for “the unity of all Sudan.” But, speaking with sadness just before South Sudan voted overwhelming for

Gabe Joselow | Nairobi, Kenya

South Sudanese express their support as President Salva Kiir declared a halt on all oil operations in South Sudan, in Juba, January 23, 2012.

Photo: Reuters
South Sudanese express their support as President Salva Kiir declared a halt on all oil operations in South Sudan, in Juba, January 23, 2012.

South Sudan is shutting down its oil production to protest against high fees Sudan charges to transport the commodity through northern pipelines. The move threatens both countries’ economies and is heightening tensions that have festered since the south declared independence in July.

The government of South Sudan says it already has cut oil output in the country by more than half and plans to continue reducing outflows unless Sudan meets its demands.

South Sudan had shut down most of its wells by the end of the day Tuesday in the north central parts of the country. The process is continuing in Upper Nile state in the east, home to the bulk of the country’s oil fields.

Continuing conflict

The shutoff is the latest development of an ongoing dispute between the two Sudans on how to share oil revenues following their split last year.

South Sudan claims the north has confiscated $815 million in oil from the south. Khartoum says it took the oil to compensate for lost revenues.

Sudan also is charging the south transit fees as high as $36 per barrel – far above the industry standard – which is closer to $1 per barrel.

South Sudan’s Petroleum and Mining Minister Stephen Dhieu Dau says that Khartoum’s terms are unacceptable.

“We also have been paying the operation costs for the pipeline and marine terminal and covering all these facilities. But Khartoum, unfortunately, is imposing punitive fees, discriminatory fees, against South Sudan as a penalty for the secession,” said Dau.

Heavy reliance on oil money

More than 90 percent of South Sudan’s revenues are derived from oil exports. The country, at its creation, inherited three-quarters of the known oil reserves in the former united Sudan. The separation is said to have cost Khartoum more than $7 billion in lost revenue.

While South Sudan produces the bulk of the crude oil, though, it has no refining capacity, and relies on northern pipelines to export.

The move to shutdown the pipelines will cost both countries economically, but Dau said the south has considered the alternatives.

“You will come to one answer. Either you produce, you get zero – or you shut down, you get zero and Khartoum gets zero,” said Dau.

AU summit negotiations

The leaders of the two Sudans are expected to meet on the sidelines of the African Union summit in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. An AU panel that has been mediating the negotiations submitted a new draft proposal this week to resolve the dispute.

Dana Wilkins, a campaigner at Global Witness, a natural resources monitoring group, said the south has a lot to lose if its gambit does not work.

“South Sudan in particular is going to feel the hit on revenues pretty quickly. It’s not clear just how much they have in savings, but what is clear is that they’re going to have to rely heavily on the international community for financial support over the coming year if this shutdown happens in full and the negotiations don’t come to at least an interim arrangement,” said Wilkins.

South Sudan is exploring alternative transit routes for its oil. The government announced this week it has struck a deal with Kenya for a new pipeline stretching to the town of Lamu on the Indian Ocean. But it was not clear when the pipeline may be started or finished.

http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/South-Sudan-Gambles-Big-With-Oil-Shutdown-138129903.html


JUBA, South Sudan — Tribal clashes and cattle raiding attacks that have displaced tens of thousands of people in South Sudan will not affect the development of the oil industry, a top official said.Pagan Amum said Sunday that the situation in Jonglei state — the site of large tribe-on-tribe attacks over the last several weeks — would not affect the planned exploitation of the state’s oil fields.

South Sudan — the world’s newest country — gets nearly all of its government revenue from oil fields. The people of South Sudan are among the poorest in the world. South Sudan split off from Sudan last July.Last week South Sudan signed its first post-independence oil deals with the state petroleum companies of China, India and Malaysia for oil-producing concessions in Unity and Upper Nile states. The agreements replaced exploration and production agreements made previously with the Sudanese government in Khartoum.

Amum, the secretary-general of South Sudan’s ruling political party, urged French oil giant Total and other investors in the region to sign similar agreements and resume their operations in Jonglei.

The United Nations estimates that more than 60,000 people in Jonglei have been affected by recent waves of violence, which began on Dec. 23 between the Murle and Lou Nuer ethnic groups. Last week, state officials said 57 Lou Nuer — mostly women and children — were killed in retaliatory attacks by the Murle in Akobo county.

Jonglei is home to Concession Block B, one of the largest oil blocks in South Sudan. Total holds a 32.5 percent stake in Block B and is responsible for the exploration and development of the area’s oil. Total acquired the stake in 1980 when the south was still part of Sudan, but suspended operations in 1985 due to the country’s civil war.

On Tuesday in Ethiopia, South Sudan will resume talks with Sudan over the separation of the two countries’ once-unified oil industry.

All southern oil must be pumped through pipelines in Sudan, but the two countries greatly disagree over the amount the south should pay for the use of the pipelines.

The general atmosphere between the sides is tense. In a statement Saturday, South Sudan’s petroleum minister accused Khartoum of stealing 650,000 barrels of the south’s oil at Port Sudan. Amum, who serves as South Sudan’s chief negotiator in the talks, said South Sudan would not accept such “state piracy.”

Amum said the south would develop alternative means of extracting its oil if Khartoum did not conduct its business fairly.

“We have a company like Toyota Tsusho of Japan which is almost completing a feasibility study and have lined up financing to build an alternative pipeline through Kenya,” he said. Toyota Tsusho is part of the Japanese manufacturing giant Toyota Group.

Amum said South Sudan is already in discussions with Kenya and Toyota on the possible pipeline and is planning “trilateral talks.”

Copyright 2012 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/south-sudan-encourages-oil-development-despite-waves-of-internal-violence/2012/01/16/gIQAFPo52P_story.html

South Sudan: Can We Make 2012 a Year of Plenty in Term of Food?
AllAfrica.com
Early rains in most parts of Republic of South Sudan usually come in March which is less than two months away. It is with rains that cultivation in this new nation is closely related because our new ministry of electricity and dams have not yet 

South Sudan encourages oil development despite waves of internal violence
The Republic
AP JUBA, South Sudan — A top official in South Sudan says that tribal clashes and cattle raiding attacks that have displaced tens of thousands of people in the nation will not affect the development of the oil industry. South Sudan — the world’s 

South-bound but stranded in Sudan
UNHCR (press release)
After waiting for over a year to go to South Sudan, some southerners have set up home in abandoned train carriages at Khartoum’s Shajara railway station. KHARTOUM, Sudan, January 16 (UNHCR) – At first glance it looks like a junkyard, strewn with piles 

UNHCR Declares Massive Humanitarian Disaster In South Sudan
Oye! Times
“I want to make a very strong appeal to the international community for massive humanitarian solidarity for the people of South Sudan at the moment. South Sudan is a new born State still facing enormous challenge from humanitarian perspective. 

Washington Post
JUBA, South Sudan — Tribal clashes and cattle raiding attacks that have displaced tens of thousands of people in South Sudan will not affect the development of the oil industry, a top official said. Pagan Amum said Sunday that the situation in Jonglei Violence mocks the hope of South Sudan’s independence
OneNewsNow
South Sudan (MNN) ― They dared to hope. On July 09, 2011, the Republic of South Sudandeclared itself independent from Sudan (north) under the terms of a 2005 peace agreement that ended decades of civil war. The new nation was feted and gifted with 

Global Deal: Petronas Signs South Sudan Deal to Continue Existing Operations
Wall Street Journal (blog)
By Jason Ng of Dow Jones Newswires KUALA LUMPUR – Petroliam Nasional Bhd., or Petronas, said it has signed an agreement with the government of South Sudan that allows it to continue operations it began prior to the country’s 2011 independence from 

Malaysia’s Petronas signs transition agreement for South Sudan blocks
Platts
Malaysia’s state-owned Petronas and its partners have signed a transition agreement with the government of the Republic of South Sudan that enables them to continue operating in upstream blocks in South Sudan previously awarded by the government of the 

Egypt Pledges to Cooperate With Nation
AllAfrica.com
Juba — A delegation from the Republic of Egypt headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs Mohamed Al-Khalil Amri reaffirmed the commitment of the Egyptian Government to support South Sudan in developmental sectors as part of bridging their relations 


THE ADDIS ABABA AGREEMENT ON THE PROBLEM OF SOUTH SUDAN

Draft Organic Law to organize Regional Self-Government in the Southern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan

In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and in realization of the memorable May Revolution Declaration of June 9, 1969, granting the Southern Provinces of the Sudan Regional Self-Government within a united socialist Sudan, and in accordance with the principle of the May Revolution that the Sudanese people participate actively in and supervise the decentralized system of the government of their country, it is hereunder enacted:

 

Article 1.

 

This law shall be called the law for Regional Self-Government in the Southern Provinces. It shall come into force and a date within a period not exceeding thirty days from the date of Addis Ababa Agreement.

Article 2.

 

This law shall be issued as an organic law which cannot be amended except by a three-quarters majority of the People’s National Assembly and confirmed by a two-thirds majority in a referendum held in the three Southern Provinces of the Sudan.

 

                               CHAPTER I: DEFINITIONS

Article 3.

a) ‘Constitution’ refers to the Republican Order No. 5 or any other basic law replacing or amending it.

b) ‘President’ means the president of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan.

c) ‘Southern Provinces of the Sudan’ means the Provinces of Bahr El Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile in accordance with their boundaries as they stood January 1, 1956, and other areas that were culturally and geographically a part of the Southern Complex as may be decided by a referendum.

‘People’s Regional Assembly” refers to the legislative body for the Southern Region of the Sudan.

‘High Executive Council’ refers to t he Executive council appointed by the President on the recommendation of the President of the High Executive Council and such body shall supervise the administration and direct public affairs in the Southern Region of the Sudan.

‘President of the High Executive Council’ refers the person appointed by the President on the recommendation of the People’s Regional Assembly to lead and supervise the executive organs responsible for the administration of the Southern Provinces.

‘People’s National Assembly’ refer to the National Legislative Assembly representing the people of the Sudan in accordance with the constitution.

‘Sudanese’ refers to any Sudanese citizens as defined by the Sudanese Nationality Act 1957 and any amendment thereof.

 

                                                                         

CHAPTER II

 

Article 4. The Provinces of Bahr El Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile as defined in Article 3. (iii) shall constitute a self-governing Region within the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and be known as the Southern Region.

Article 5. The Southern Region shall have legislative and executive organs, the functions and power of which are defined by this law.

Article 6. Arabic shall be official language for the Sudan and English the principle language for the Southern Region without prejudice to the use of any language or languages, which may serve a practical necessity for the efficient and expeditious discharge of executive and administrative functions of the Region.

 

                                                                          CHAPTER III

 

Article 7. Neither the People’s Regional Assembly nor the High Executive Council shall legislate or exercise any powers on matters of national nature which are:

National Defense

External Affairs

Currency and Coinage

Air and Inter-Regional Transport

Communications and Telecommunications

Customs and Foreign Trade except for border trade and certain commodities, which the Regional Government may specify with the approval of the Central Government.

Nationality and Immigration (Emigration)

Planning for Economic and Social Development

Educational Planning

Public-Audit.

 

                                                            CHAPTER IV

 

Article 8. Regional Legislation in the Southern Region is exercised by a People’s Regional Assembly elected by Sudanese Citizens resident in the Southern Region. The constitution and condition of membership of the Assembly shall be determined by law.

Article 9. Members of the People’s Regional Assembly shall be elected by direct secret ballot.

 

Article 10.

For the First Assembly the President may appoint additional members to the People’s Regional Assembly where conditions for elections are not conducive to such elections as stipulated in Article 9, provided that such appointed members shall not exceed one-quarter of the Assembly.

The People’s Regional Assembly shall regulate the conduct of its business in accordance with rules of procedures to be laid down by the said Assembly during it first sitting.

The People’s Regional Assembly shall elect one of its members as a speaker, provided that the first sitting shall be presided over by the Interim President of the High Executive Council.

 

Article 11. The People’s Regional Assembly shall legislate for the preservation of public order, interim security, efficient administration and the development of the Southern Region in cultural, economic and social fields and in particular in the following:

Promotion and utilization of Regional financial resources for the development and administration of the Southern Region.

Organization of the machinery for Regional and Local Administration.

Legislation on traditional law and custom within the framework of National Law.

Establishment, maintenance and administration of prisons and reformatory institutions.

Establishment, maintenance and administration of Public Schools at all levels in accordance with National Plans for education and economic and social development.

Promotion of local languages and cultures.

Town and village planning and the construction of roads in accordance with National Plans and programs

Promotion of trade; establishment of local industries and markets; issue of traders’ licenses and formation of co-operation societies.

Establishment, maintenance and administration of public hospitals.

Administration of environmental health services; maternity care; child welfare; supervision of markets; combat of epidemic diseases; training of medical assistants and rural midwives; establishment of health centers, dispensaries and dressing stations.

Promotion of animal health; control of epidemics and improvement of animal production and trade.

Promotion of tourism

Establishment of zoological gardens, museums, organizations of trade and cultural exhibitions.

Mining and quarrying without prejudice to the right of the Central Government in the event of the discovery of natural gas and minerals.

Recruitment for, organization and administration of Police and Prison services in accordance with the national policy and standards.

Land use in accordance with national laws.

Control and prevention of pests and plant diseases.

Development, utilization, and protection of forests crops and pastures in accordance with national laws.

Promotion and encouragement of self-help programmes.

All other matters delegated by the President or the People’s National Assembly for legislation.

 

Article 12. The People’s National Assembly may call for facts and information concerning the conduct of administration in the Southern Region.

 

Article 13.

The People’s Regional Assembly may, by a three-quarters majority and for specified reasons relating to public interest, request the President of relieve the President or any member of the High Executive Council from office. The President shall accede to such request.

in case of vacancy, relief or resignation of the President of the High Executive Council, the entire body shall be considered as having automatically resigned.

 

Article 14. The People’s Regional Assembly may, by a two-thirds majority, request the President to postpone the coming into force of any law which, in the view of the members, adversely affects the welfare and interests of the citizens of the Southern Region. The President may, if he thinks fit, accede to such request.

 

Article 15.

The People’s Regional Assembly may, by a majority of its members, request the President to withdraw any Bill presented to the People’s National Assembly which in their view affects adversely the welfare, rights or interests of the citizens in the Southern Region, pending communication of the views of the People’s Regional Assembly.

If the President accedes to such request, the People’s Regional Assembly shall present its views within 15 days from the date accession to the request.

The President accedes to such request, The People’s Regional Assembly together with his own observation if he deems necessary.

Article 16. The People’s National Assembly shall communicate all Bills and Acts of the People’s Regional Assembly for their information. The People’s Regional Assembly shall act similarly.

 

                                                   CHAPTER V: THE EXECUTIVE

 

Article 17. The Regional Executive Authority is vested in a High Executive Council which acts on behalf of the President.

Article 18. The High Executive Council shall specify the duties of the various departments in the Southern Region provided that on matters relating to Central Government Agencies it shall act with approval of the President.

Article 19. The President of the High Executive council shall be appointed and relieved of office by the President on the recommendation of the People’s Regional Assembly.

Article 20. The High Executive Council shall be composed of members appointed and relieved of office by the President on the recommendation of the President of the High Executive Council

Article 21. The President of the High Executive Council and its members are responsible to the President and to the People’s Regional Assembly for efficient administration in the Southern Region. They shall take an oath of office before the President.

Article 22. The President and members of the High Executive Council may attend meetings of the People’s Regional Assembly and participate in its deliberations without the right of vote, unless they are also members of the People’s Regional Assembly.

 

CHAPTER VI

 

Article 23. The president shall form time to time regulate the relationship between the high Executive Council and the central ministries.

Article 24. The High Executive Council may initiate laws for the creation of a Regional Public Service. These laws shall specify the terms and conditions of service for the Regional Public Service.

 

                                                                 CHAPTER VII: FINANCE

 

Article 25. The People’s Regional Assembly may levy Regional duties and taxes in addition to National and Local duties and taxes. It may issue legislation and orders to guarantee the collection of all public monies at different levels.

(One) The source of revenue of the Southern Region shall consist of the following:-

Direct and indirect regional taxes.

Contribution from People’s Local Government Councils

Revenue from commercial, industrial and agricultural projects in the Region in accordance with the National Plan.

Funds from the National Treasury for established services.

Funds voted by the people’s National Assembly in accordance with the requirements of the Region.

The Special Development Budget for the South as presented by the People’s Regional Assembly for the acceleration of economic and social advancement of the Southern Region as envisaged in the declaration of June 9, 1968.

 

CHAPTER VIII: OTHER PROVISIONS

 

Article 26. Citizens of the Southern Region shall constitute a sizeable proportion of the People’s Armed Forces in such reasonable numbers as will correspond to the population of the region.

the use of the People’s Armed Forces within the Region and outside the framework of national defense shall be controlled by the President of the advice of the President of the High Executive Council

Temporary arrangements for the composition of units of the People’s Armed Forces in the Southern Region are provided for in the Protocol on Interim Arrangements.

 

Article 27. The President may veto any Bill which he deems contrary to the Provisions of the National Constitution provided the People’s Regional Assembly, after receiving the President’s views, may reintroduce the Bill.

 

Article 28. The President and members of the High Executive Council may initiate laws in the People’s Regional Assembly.

 

Article 29. Any member of the People’s Regional Assembly may initiate any law provided that financial Bills shall not be presented without sufficient notice tot he President of the High Executive Council.

 

Article 30. The People’s Regional Assembly shall strive to consolidate the unity of the Sudan and respect the spirit of the National Constitution.

 

Article 31. All citizens are guaranteed freedom of movement in and out of the Southern Region, provided restriction or prohibition of movement may be imposed on a named citizen solely on grounds of public health and order.

 

Article 32.a) All citizens resident in the Southern Region are guaranteed equal opportunity of education, employment, commerce and the practice of any profession.

No law adversely affect the rights of citizens enumerated in the previous item on the basis of race, tribal origin, religion, place of birth, or sex.

 

Article 33. Juba shall be the Capital of the Southern Region and the seat of the Regional Executive and Legislature.

 

APPENDIX A: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

 

The following should be guaranteed by the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan.

 

A citizen should not be deprived of his citizenship

Equality of citizens.

a) All citizens, without distinction based on race, national origin, birth, language, sec, economic or social status, should have equal rights and duties before the law.

All persons should be equal before the courts of law and should have the rights to institute legal proceedings in order to remove any injustice or declare any right in an open court without delay prejudicing their interest.

Personal liberty.

a) Penal liability should be personal. Any kind of collective punishment should be prohibited.

The accused should be presumed innocent until proved guilty.

Retrospective penal legislation and punishment should be prohibited.

The right of the accused to defend himself personally or through an agent should be guaranteed.

No person should be arrested, detained or imprisoned except in accordance with the due process of law, and no person should remain in custody or detention for more than twenty-four hours without judicial order.

No accused person should be subjected to inducement, intimidation of torture in order to extract evidence from him whether in his favor or against him or against any other person, and no humiliating punishment should be inflicted on any convicted person.

Freedom of Religion and Conscience.

Every person should enjoy freedom of religious opinion and of conscience and the right to profess them publicly and privately and to establish religious institutions subject to reasonable limitations in favor of morality, health or public order as prescribed by law.

Parents and Guardians should be guaranteed the right to educate their children and those under their care in accordance with the relation of their choice.

Protection of Labor.

i) Forced and compulsory labor of any kind should be prohibited except when ordered for military or civil necessity or pursuant to penal punishment prescribed by law.

ii) The right to equal pay for equal work should be guaranteed.

Freedom of minority to use their languages and develop their culture should be guaranteed.

 

APPENDIX B: DRAFT ORDINANCE ON ITEMS OR REVENUE AND GRANTS-IN-AID FOR THE SOUTHERN REGION

 

Profits accruing to the Central Government as a result of exporting products of the Southern Region.

Business Profit Tax of the Southern Region that are at present in the Central list of the Ministry of Treasury.

Excise Duties on alcoholic beverages and spirits consumed in the Southern Region.

Profits on sugar consumed in Southern Region.

Royalties of forest products of the Southern Region.

Royalties on leaf Tobacco and Cigarettes.

Taxation on property other than that provided in the Rates Ordinance.

Taxes and Rates on Central and Local Government Projects (5 percent of net profits of factories, co-operative societies, agricultural enterprises and cinemas).

Revenue accruing from Central Government activities in the Southern Region provided the Region shall bear maintenance expenses e.g., Post Office revenue, land sales, sale of forms and documents, stamp duties and any other item to e specified from time to time.

Licenses other than those provided for in the People’s Local Government Act, 1971.

Special Development Tax to be paid by Residents in the Southern Region the rate of which should be decided by the People’s Regional Assembly.

Income Tax collected from officials and employees serving in the Southern Region both in the local and national civil services as well as in the Army, Police and Prisons, Judiciary, and Political Establishment.

Corporation Tax on any factory and/or agricultural project established in the Region but not run by the Regional Government (5 percent of the initial cost).

Contribution from the Central Government for the encouragement of construction and development; for every agricultural project, industrial project and trading enterprise (20 percent of the initial cost as assessed by the Central Government).

New Social Service Projects to be established by the Region or any of its Local Government units, and for which funds are allocated, shall receive grants from the National Treasury in the following manner:

Education institution, 20 percent of expenses.

Trunk and through Roads and Bridges, 25 per cent of expenses.

Relief and Social amenities, 15 percent of expenses.

Tourist attraction projects 25 percent of expenses.

Security, 15 percent of expenses.

Grants for Post Secondary and University education within the Sudan, 20 percent of grants, outside the Sudan 30 percent of grants.

Contribution for Research, Scientific Advancement, and Cultural Activities, 25 percent of expenses.

 

AGREEMENT OF THE CEASE-FIRE IN THE SOUTHERN REGION

 

Article 1. This Agreement shall come into force on the date and time specified for the ratification of the Addis Ababa Agreement.

Article 2. There will be an end to all military operations and to all armed actions in the Southern Region from the time of cease-fire.

Article 3. All combat forces shall remain in the area under their control at the time of the cease-fire.

Article 4. Both parties agree to forbid any individual or collective acts of violence.

Any underground activities contrary to public order shall cease.

Article 5. Movements of individual members of both combat forces outside the areas under their control shall be allowed only if these individuals are unarmed and authorized by their respective authorities. The plans for stationing troops from the National Army shall be such as to avoid any contact between them and the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement combat forces.

Article 6. A joint Commission is hereby created for the implementation of all questions related to the cease-fire including repatriation of refugees. The Joint Commission shall include members from all the countries bordering on the Southern Region as well as representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, World Council of Churches, all Africa Conference of Churches and United Nations High Commissioner for Refuges.

Article 7. The joint Commission shall propose all measures to be undertaken by both parties in dealing with all incidents after a full inquiry on the spot.

Article 8. Each party shall be represented on the Joint Commission by one senior military officer and maximum of five other members.

Article 9. The headquarters of the Joint Commission shall be located in Juba with provincial branches in Juba, Malakal and Wau.

Article 10. The Joint Commission shall appoint local commission in various centers of the Southern Region composed of two members from each party.

 

PROTOCOLS ON INTERIM ARRANGEMENTS

 

CHAPTER 1: INTERIM ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

 

(Political, Local Government and Civil Service)

 

Article 1. The President of the Democratic Republic of Sudan shall, in consultation with the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (S.S.L.M) and branches of the Sudanese Socialist Union in the Southern Region, appoint the president and members of an Interim High Executive Council.

Article 2. The Interim High Executive Council shall consist of the President and other members with portfolios in:

 

1 Finance and Economic Planning.

2 Education

3 Information, Culture and Tourism

4 Communication and Transport

5 Agriculture, Animal Production and Fisheries.

6 Public Health.

7 Regional Administration (Local Government, Legal Affairs, Police and Prisons).

8 Housing, Public Works and Utilities

9 Natural Resources and Rural Development (Land Use, Rural Water Supply, Forestry and Cooperatives).

10 Public Service and Labor

11 Minerals and Industry, Trade and Supply.

Article 3. The interim High Executive Council shall, in accordance with national laws, establish a Regional Civil Service subject to ratification by the People’s Regional Assembly.

Article 4. The President shall, in consultation with the Interim High Executive Council determine the date for the election to the People’s Regional Assembly, and the Interim High Executive Council shall make arrangements for the setting up of this Assembly.

Article 5. In order to facilitate the placement in and appointment to both central and regional institutions, the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement shall compile and communicate lists of citizens of the Southern Region outside of the Sudan in accordance with details to be supplied by the Ministry of Public Service and Administrative Reform.

Article 6. The Interim High Executive Council and the Ministry of Public Service and Administrative Reform shall undertake to provide necessary financial allocations with effect from the 192\72-73 Budget for such placements and appointments.

Article 7. The Mandate of the Interim High Executive Council shall not exceed a period of 18 months.

  

CHAPTER II: TEMPORARY ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE COMPOSITION OF UNITS OF THE PEOPLE’S ARMED FORCES IN THE SOUTHERN REGION.

 

Article 1. These arrangements shall remain in force for a period of five years subject to revision by the President of the request of the President of the High Executive Council acting with the consent of the People’s Regional Assembly.

 

Article 2. The People’s Armed Forces in the Southern Region shall consist of a national force called the Southern Command composed of 12,000 officers and men of whom 6,000 shall be citizens from the Region and the other 6,000 from outside the Region.

 

Article 3. The recruitment and integration of citizens from the Southern Region within the aforementioned Forces shall be determined by a Joint Military Commission taking into account the need for initial separate deployment of troops with a view to achieve smooth integration in the national force. The commission shall ensure that this deployment shall be such that an atmosphere of peace and confidence shall prevail in the Southern Region.

 

Article 4. The joint Military Commission shall be composed of three senior military officers from each side. Decision of the Joint Military Commission shall be taken unanimously. In case of disagreement such matters shall be referred to the respective authorities.

CHAPTER III: AMNESTY AND JUDICIAL ARRANGEMENTS

 

Article 1. No action or other legal proceedings whatsoever, civil or criminal, shall be instituted against any person in any court of law for or on account of any act or matter done inside or outside the Sudan as from the 18th day of August 1995, if such act or matter was done in connection with mutiny, rebellion or sedition in the Southern Region.

 

Article 2. If a civil suit in relation to any acts or matters referred to in Article 1 is instituted before or after the date of ratification of the Addis Ababa Agreement such a suit shall be discharged and made null and void.

 

Article 3. All persons serving terms of imprisonment or held in detention in respect of offences herein before specified in Article 1 shall be discharged of released within 15 days for the date of ratification of the Addis Ababa Agreement.

 

Article 4. The joint Cease-fire Commission shall keep a register of all civilian returnees, which register shall serve to certify that the person therein named are considered indemnified within the meaning of this Agreement provided that the commission may delegate such power to the Sudan in the case of citizens from the Southern Region living abroad and to whom the provisions of this Agreement apply.

 

Article 5. In the case of armed returnees or those belonging to combat forces the Joint Military Commission shall keep a similar register of those persons who shall be treated in the same manner as provided for in Article 4.

Article 6. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 4 and 5 above a Special Tribunal with ad hoc judicial powers shall be established to examine and decide on those cases which in the estimation of the authorities do not meet the conditions for amnesty specified in Article 1 of this Agreement. The Special Tribunal shall be composed of a President appointed by the President of the Republic and not more than four members named by the Cease-fire Commission.

 

Article 7. Cases referred to in Article 6 shall be brought to the attention of the Special Tribunal by request of the Minister of Justice.

 

Article 8. The Amnesty Provision contained in this Agreement as well as the powers of Special Tribunal shall remain in force until such time as the President after consultation with the commissions referred to in this

 

Article 9. Although resettlement and rehabilitation of refugees and displaced persons is administratively the responsibility of the Regional Government the present conditions in the Southern Region dictate that efforts of the whole nation of the Sudan and International organizations should be pooled to help and rehabilitate persons affected by the conflict. The Relief and Resettlement Commission shall co-ordinate activities and resources of the Organization within the country.

 

Article 10. The first priority shall be the resettlement of displaced persons within the Sudan in the following order:

1 Persons presently residing in overcrowded centers in the Southern Region, and persons desirous to return to their original areas and homes;

 

2 Persons returning from the bush including Anayanya Supporters;

3 Handicapped persons and orphans

 

Article 11. The second priority shall be given to returnees from the neighboring and other countries according to an agreed plan. This plan shall provide for:

1 Adequate reception centers with facilities for shelter, food supplies, medicine and medicaments;

2 Transportation to permanent resettlement villages or places of origin.

3 Materials and equipment.

 

                       Article 12. The Relief and Resettlement Commission shall:

1 Appeal to international organizations and voluntary agencies to continue assistance for students already under their support particularly for students in secondary schools and higher institutions until appropriate arrangements are made for their repartition;

2 Compile adequate information on students and persons in need of financial support from the Sudan Government.

 

Article 13. The Relief and Resettlement Commission shall arrange for the education of all returnees who were attending primary schools.

This agreement is hereby concluded on this twenty-seventh day of the month of February in the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy two, A.D, in this city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan on the one hand and the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement on the other. It shall come into force on the date and hour fixed for its ratification by the President of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and the Leader of the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement. It shall be ratified by the said by two Leaders in person or through their respective authorized Representatives, in this city, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, at the twelfth hour at noon, on the twelfth day of the month of March, in the year on thousand nine hundred and seventy two, A.D.

In witness whereof, we the Representatives of the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and the Representatives of the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement hereby append our signatures in the presence of the Representative of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Ethiopia and the Representatives of the World Council of Churches, the All Africa Conference of Churches, and the Sudan Council of Churches.

 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN

 

Abel Alier-Wal Kuai, Vice President and Minister of State for Southern Affairs.

Dr. Mansour Khalid, Minister for foreign Affairs.

Dr. Gaafar Mohammed Ali Bakheit, Minister for Local Government

Major-General Mohammed Al Baghir Ahmed, Minister of Interior.

Abel Rahman Abdalla, Minister of Public Service and Administrative Reform.

Brigadier Mirghani Suleiman

Colonel Kamal Abashar.

 

FOR THE SOUTHERN SUDAN LIBERATION MOVEMENT

 

Ezboni Mondiri Gwonza, Leader of the Delegation.

Dr. Lawrence Wol Wol, Secretary of the Delegation. Mading deGarang, Spokesman of the Delegation.

Colonel Frederick Brian Maggot, Special Military Representative.

Oliver Batali Albino, Member.

Anelo Voga Morjan, Member.

Rev. Paul Puot, Member.

Job Adier de Jok, Member.

 

Witnesses

 

Nabiyelul Kifle, Representative of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Ethiopia.

Leopolda J. Niilus, Representative of the World Council of Churches.

Kodwo E. Akrah, Representative of the World Council of Churches.

Burgess Carr, General Secretary All Africa Council of Churches.

Samuel Athi Bwogo, Representative of the Sudan Council of Churches.

Attestation