Archive for November, 2018


BY JB -JOK BIOR, NAIROBI , KENYA

Wednesday, November 28, 2018 (PW) — South Sudan Students’ Association in Kenya {SSSAK} is facing one its worst crises in more than a decade of its inception, a trend that has turned the former comrades into political foes. The students’ association is now entering its fourth month of chaos and uncertainty. Nothing specific seems to be happening, well, not anytime soon. Everything is currently paralyzed in a standstill. We now have a legal case pending in a Kenyan court and it is until mid- December before its fate is determined.

But, as things stand and considering how hectic December will be, it’s most likely that we might welcome a new year, while still finger pointing each other, concocting unimaginable stories and trading accusations. In another twist, this students’ political mess has dragged in South Sudan Embassy in Kenya and this is the basis of my writing; to separate lies from the truths. But first, allow me take you through the genesis of this particular crisis.

In the month of August, this year, the SSSAK Interim Leadership headed by Ayuel Taupiny Malek as its President, came to end and that meant the executive was to start the electoral processes as dictated by the SSSAK Constitution. The electoral commission was appointed, vetted and instituted in consultation with the relevant organs of the association. The Commission then declared various elective positions vacant and interested student aspirants, from the various universities in Kenya, seized the opportunity and applied. (more…)


Edmund Yakani

MR. EDMUND YAKANI BERIZILIOUS is the Executive Director of the Community Empowerment for Progress Organization (CEPO), a Juba-based South Sudanese civil society organization.

Tuesday, November 27, 2018 (PW) — Juba 27th November, 2018. The signed revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan dated 12th Sept. 2018 mandated the parties’ signatories to the agreement to establish a security mechanism called Joint Defense Board (JDB). JDB is composed of the Chiefs of Staff and Directors General of National Security Service, Police, and all other organized forces.

The heads of the armed opposition groups will continue as Commanders-in-Chief of their forces until the end of the Pre-Transitional Period or until the end of the unification process. On 25th Nov. 2018 first meeting for the formation of JDB was held in Khartoum under the chair of the Sudanese General Isam al-Din Mubarak while the IGAD Special Envoy Ismail Wasi delivered the opening speech.

The meeting discussed the regulations and timetables before to launch the implementation process of security arrangements including troop’s disengagement, cantonment, and joint training before the formation of unified forces. Community Empowerment for Progress Organization welcomes the formation of the JDB. It is remarkable move for speeding up the implementation of Chapter two of the revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the conflict in South Sudan. (more…)


Our Tribes, religions and regions will never unite us; only South Sudanism will unite us as Dr. John Garang would have said

By Ngoi Thuech, Dodoma, Tanzania

John Garang

John Garang’s prophecy

Monday, November 26, 2018 (PW) —- We are all caught up in the most stupendous midst of peace. It is not that we are only tired of war, in essence, no one gets to enjoy the good things a life can offer in a time of war. Martin Luther King, Jr once said that “those who love peace must learn to organize as effectively as those who love war.” Our people are still sensitive to the psychological traumas of the recent war and we ought to perpetually avoid weaponizing words as tools for further ethnic divisions and hatred.

Instead of being too sensitive to fight each other over ethnicity, we should rather be quick to defend each other when such ethnic hatred ensues. Peace is hard to maintain, but people can easily be provoked to fight themselves and in a matter of a few months, they could easily destroy relationships that took decades to create, not to mention the billions of dollars that were spent on building the infrastructure.

So, instead of returning a fire for fire, peace would only elude us and we could end up with one war after another. We are better off finding shared commonalities that will act as binding knots to keep us together in times of uncertainties instead of focusing on the different aspects that we don’t know about each other yet. Our liberation hero Dr. John Garang de Mabior used to say that our tribes, religions, and regions would never unite us; it is only Sudanism (now South Sudanism) that will unite us. (more…)


By Deng Agok Ageer, Australia

Fake News

Monday, 26 November 2018 (PW) —- Few months ago, we saw this unprecedented wedding that was held in Nakuru-Kenya. At the time, I didn’t put a lot of thoughts into it until, the other day when I came across it again, couple with this stories trending about Nyalong wedding, which is also called auction on CNN. Underneath all our social interactions, I have realised, that, we have become accessories of our bad publicity. I know we have enigma of sorts which has become slowly bad PR.

A lot is going wrong to put it that way and So, I though it’s imperative now to shed some lights on certain issues. I will base my thoughts mostly on the context of Nakuru’s wedding that, I just alluded above. What am I talking about? Well, some of us who saw the video, or the picture below, will remember exactly how un-comforting that video was and still is.

I am afraid, that, videos is still circulating around the world. If you saw that, video at that time, then, imagine the how embarrassing it was for the individual, the organisers involved and most importantly for the country the videos came from! With that said, how do you think the world would react to it? In your own imagination, what do you think is being said generally about us? (more…)


By Ayuen J. Awan, Juba, South Sudan

HIV-AIDS prevention: Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

Thank to PrEP and PEP, you can protect yourself and love ones from HIV/AIDS

Monday, November 26, 2018 (PW) — I was in one of clinics in Juba couple of months ago for routine HIV test, something I do after every end of three months to establish my status on this incurable epidemic posing threat to human lives in the world today. It is advisable by medics to test after every three months because new HIV infections become detectable by lab tests after that period. In 2017, there were 36.9 million people living with HIV in the world, of which 180,000 were from South Sudan.

Although there is no data clearly comparing prevalence of HIV in villages and towns, it can be basically assumed that the disease is evenly distributed among populations. Regional data show greater disparity depending on geographical location and the nature of neighborhood. South Sudan population movement is very dynamic – producing a uniform mix of urban and rural people – living side-by-side, socializing, sexualizing and trading together throughout the year, in towns and villages.

Even without such data, it is still extensively held in South Sudan that town people are more exposed to HIV than the rural inhabitants who live in villages and informal settlements like cattle camps and fishing grounds. This is a notion more ingrained particularly in villagers which the urbanites also uphold leading to the rise in the demand for village girls over their civilized and educated counterparts in urban areas. Villagers strongly believe that AIDS is endemic to Urban settings just like urbanites believe that virgin girls are in the village.

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By Ngoi Thuech, Dodoma, Tanzania

federalism

Do Not Confuse a Camouflaged Call for Confederation for Call Federalism

Sunday, November 25, 2018 (PW) —- What do South Sudanese confuse federalism with? Merriam Webster defines it as “the distribution of power in a federation between the central authority and the constituent units (as states) involving especially the allocation of significant lawmaking powers to those constituent units.” In the 1970s Jaafar Nimeri turned the former Northern provinces into decentralized regions. Joseph Lagu and his followers saw this as an opportunity to get rid of the Nuer and Dinka in the Equatoria region who they saw as job grabbers.

This political sensation later popularly became known as ‘Kokora.’ Kokora means to divide or division in Bari. It means ‘re-division’ to its antagonists. “In practice, ‘Kokora’ meant expulsion of non-Equatorians from government and civil service positions in the regional capital of Juba and elsewhere, and their reposting to their home regions” (Douglas H. Johnson’s quote from his Rift Valley Institute Research Paper 1: Federalism in the History of South Sudanese Political Thought).

Today when non-Equatorian people hear the call of federalism from the Equatorian people they probably confuse it with another chauvinistic regionalist call to send them to their home regions. If we dare look again at our governing system, what we have in place is federalism. We have federalism, but it is sort of a car that is taken out of the road and use for something else altogether, let say, its owner uses it as a bath shelter instead of using it to drive himself/herself to work or all sort of social gatherings. We inherit federalism from North Sudan. We have 32 governors and 32 state governments all subordinating to one central government in Juba; if that isn’t federalism, then federalism has lost its true meaning. (more…)


President Trump is Damn Right: CNN and BBC are Fake News Peddlers – The Ke’eny of Nyalong Ngong Deng Jalang from Lakes State.

By Ajang Barach-Magar, Wangulei, South Sudan

Nyalong Ngong Deng Jalang, Awerial County, Lakes State

Nyalong Ngong Deng Jalang, Awerial County, Lakes State, whose bride price consist of 500 cows, 3 V8s, and over $10,000

Friday, November 23, 2018 (PW) —- The hoopla that greeted Kok Alat & Nyalong’s marquee marriage is menacingly refusing to dissipate and is now finding its way to the international headlines albeit as an absolutely fake stunt. The matter assumed a stunning new twist when the American media giant, CNN – an organization one may be forgiven to venerate as a beacon of unfettered code of ethics, integrity/or credibility, reported that a family in South Sudan used Facebook to auction off their under-age girl. The grim reality is that while the high profile nature of the marriage surprised the whole Dinka country, for it has a touch of madness it is utter rubbish to allege that Nyalong’s family conducted anything figuratively close to an auction.

For a start, the primary objective of this article seeks to clarify that the alleged auction was neither mooted nor materialized. The family members of the bride, who allegedly resorted to social media to find eligible suitors for her, are illiterate. None of them is capable of scribbling their name on a piece of white paper. The closest they get to use technology is via mere voice calls on their cell phones. Why, then, would CNN’s moral turpitude lead them to veer off track so far as to fabricate a story against such a humble family? The whole thing is a fat white lie. Not only that. CNN’s conduct lends genuine credence to the American President, Donald John Trump’s consistent accusation that CNN are no more than a bunch of fake news peddlers.

Before delving further, let’s shed light on the standard Dinka traditional marriage practices. There are three methodologies used to achieve the state of union. Please note that since all the three methods exist as descriptions in English rather than abstract entities, it is more convenient to trot them out in Dinka and for that, I petition your mercy for the vernacular indulgence.

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H.E. FVP .Gen. Taban’s decision to reunify the party (SPLM) restored peace and will implement social reforms in the country.

By Dut Deng kok, Juba, South Sudan

kuol-manyang-and-taban-deng

Kuol Manyang Juuk, Taban Deng Ghai, Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth etc in the USA

Friday, November 23, 2018 (PW) —- The first vice president of the Republic of South Sudan H.E Gen. Taban Deng Gai is a greatest strength, humble, effective and good dependable politician. Your Excellency, you play very significant roles in this peace process, that is true democracy, you really redefined democracy like an American great man called Abraham Lincoln as the government of the people, for the people, and by the people.

The recent government of South Sudan is become the government of the people, and by the people, because the leadership that believes in the future of societies is really the government of the people, you created the meaningful life to young people in this country because these wars disadvantage youth and women particularly in many ways, although Youths are perpetrators and war victims, we need Youth to understand their roles in the country.

You love people with your all heart, mind, soul and striving to help your citizen as a true mark responsible politician. You give high regards for morality. We have seen a true democracy in south Sudan, democracy is not only just an approach to political governance but a culture which touches on every facet of human life. (more…)


The Jonglei Institute for Peace, Democracy and Development (JIPDD) calls upon IGAD to include the holdouts groups in the implementation process of the revitalized ARCSS

JIPDD

The Jonglei Institute for Peace, Democracy and Development – JIPDD

Friday, November 23, 2018 (PW) —- The Jonglei institute for Peace, Democracy and Development (JIPDD) has strongly rejected the recent statement issued by the IGAD threatening to categorize holdout groups as ‘spoilers’ of peace in the Country. Last week, the East African bloc of nations IGAD threatened to categorize as peace “spoilers” the holdout rebel groups that refused to join the peace deal in South Sudan.

JIPDD urges the IGAD, Partners and Friends of South Sudan to still reach out to any warring groups who are not signatories to the peace deal. The war for South Sudanese and the peace is for South Sudanese all. No one should left out, our grievances need to be address all equally. Who is not a South Sudanese? And who shall not enjoy this peace? (more…)


By Majok Arol Dhieu, Juba, South Sudan

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Wednesday, November 21, 2018 (PW) — Much of this animosity can be attributed to the reputation fraternities have for engaging in unwise, irresponsible, demeaning, and more other amoral. During the previous war, it’s this addicted misunderstanding that made South Sudanese broken up and scattered to the four winds. Only the small, nonconformist fraternity was left to fight the war to its last days.

What is wrong with acïbïklëuic and abuklëuic? To me, all are very shining advertising slogans unless the two groups are politicizing it or each group is very keen to become arrogant and domineering.

In Dinka areas, someone who don’t have plans or who do not want to work must meet some provocations from his relatives, especially his father and his age-mates in order for him to work very hard for his own future. I’m using “him/his” because no “her” in those days was a breadwinner. In case “her” may complains, please make sure that I’m not writing my opinions about this modern world where a teenybopper become an end consumer of her private part in restaurants without permission from her toiled mother.

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An Open Letter to Amb. Chol Ajongo, South Sudanese Ambassador to Kenya

Posted: November 20, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Junub Sudan, Letters

By Bol Deng Bol, Nairobi, Kenya

GORDON BUAY 2

Ambassador Gordon Buay in the foreground

Dear Ambassador Chol Ajongo,

Monday, November 19, 2018 (PW) — I have so much to bring to your courtesy which I am going to have to try constricting in this letter. But before that, please accept my greetings and sincere accolade to you and the entire embassy. Despite of the seemly unending trials inflicted to South Sudanese in general and students in particular, the Embassy has commendably stood their ground in service provision and representing us in Kenya. We very much appreciate.

It is admittedly boring that South Sudanese Students Association in Kenya (SSSAK) gets theatrically chaotic during every election period. It is embarrassing to the association as much as it is also disappointing to you, His Excellency and the entire principled Embassy. I am therefore, obliged by the relating plight and consequential uncertain forthcomings of the association to quickly seek your attention. Please allow me to briefly highlight the genesis of the triggers that have managed to plunge the association into the plight am talking about.

The outgoing Interim Leadership of SSSAK headed by President Ayuel Taupiny Malek in August, formed an Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) and approved by the Council constitutionally stipulated. On the 16th September, the IEC commenced their mandate, but on the same date, a motion questioning the financial integrity of the outgoing President Ayuel Taupiny and his executive members emerged. (more…)


By Jok WaMonychok Juba, South Sudan

Saturday, November 17, 2018 (PW) —- In reference to the United Nations Security Council(UNSC) ‘s Resolution on Abyei, I would like to shade light on fundamental contents of the document. At first I was confused on what to call it; extension of United Nations Interim Security Forces for Abyei (UNISFA) mandate or the autonomy granting a self-rule for Abyei until the final status is determined. My mom called me late last night to congratulate me saying we are celebrating the resolution which grants Abyei an autonomy. I had to tell her what I have read is different and the document was ambiguous to me. I read it again today and I am compelled to highlight some points here.

First and foremost, I am delighted and fairly made hopeful by the steps taken by UNISFA and UNSC in turning their eyes and hearts to the sweltering suffering of Ngok-Dinka of Abyei. As written by the Secretary General in the letter of 20 August 2018(S/ 2018/778) taking note of security situation in the area as criminal in nature considering nonexistence of military threats though there is a presence of Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) in Kech, ignorantly referred to as Diffra and the South Sudan security personnels in the area, the security has taken the center stage of UNISFA’s mandate. The insecurity being described as criminal in nature still remains a threat to the civil population and thus demands draconian measures to quell the threat.

As of now, economic activities and development have been derailed by this so-called criminal in nature threat. However, a light at the end of the tunnel remains glowing tremendously with full authorization of all necessary measures to protect civilians by UNISFA regardless of whoever is imposing the violence as per UNISFA mandate under paragraph 3 of resolution 1990(2011). It further reiterates the confiscation and destruction of any weapon found in the area as Abyei falls under Safe Demilitarized Border Zone (SDBZ). And considers the security situation within and along the borders of Sudan and South Sudan as threat to the peace and security of the world. On the other hand, Abyei Police Service will come into force immediately. The appointment of Civil Deputy Head of the Mission signals a positive move towards having our Abyei back.

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Communique of the 66th Extra-Ordinary Session of IGAD Council of Ministers

Posted: November 17, 2018 by PaanLuel Wël Media Ltd. in Junub Sudan

The National Dialogue Season in South Sudan

Posted: November 16, 2018 by aljokd in Junub Sudan

By Malith Alier, Perth, Australia

img_1841

Friday, 16, 2018 (PW) – This is the conscience blasting in episode. The conscience is the inner voice that God whispers to us what is good and bad according to my hymns book of the Episcopal believe.

Moses Obusibiri ten years ago in a workshop told us that there was something wrong with the conscience of the people in what was aspiring to be a country of its own – Southern Sudan. “There is no good advice that the world has not given to your country however, There is something wrong with the conscience of your people and until that changed you won’t see progress,” he said. Well, that was ten good years past.

2008 was truly well into the interim period and the referendum was fast approaching for the people of Southern Sudan to decide their future in the united old Sudan that was believed to oppress them! Come 2018 and the National Dialogue (ND) grapples with the issues which caused bloodshed, displacement and a couple of peace agreements to fix the broken nation some people referred to as “promised land. ” Promised by who? (more…)


By Awuol Gabriel Arok, Juba, South Sudan

 

images

Friday, November 16, 2018 (PW) —my neighbor’s kid snobbery journey into the bizarre land of human hunters and his holmic escaped from the fence of slavery is part of the desolated stories experiences by many victims of abduction and kidnapping.

If one could swear before the Almighty God, absolutely those people killed his father and burnt their house.

They are the one that killed his father before they kidnapped him at the tender age of 5 during the dark cover of the night and inhumanly dragged him along the elephant grasses toward the unknown destination.

In a flashy recap, he and his parents had just had a soft evening meal of a mashed pumpkin.

Few minutes before they went to sleep, his grandfather narrated to the family’s members how his childhood and adulthood days were spent before the blanket of aging cover much of his once energetic body.

After few minutes of interlude the aging giant abruptly raised his voice and said “this boy is precisely who I was during my childhood”

Just after that the victim who was a toddler of five years crafted into the beautifulness of the life journey. (more…)


By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, Kampala, Uganda

Ramciel

Master Plan of the proposed Ramchiel City, Lakes State, South Sudan

Wednesday, November 14, 2018 (PW) — Since the formation of the Government of South Sudan in 2005 that was followed by the formation of the government of independent South Sudan, the relevance of doctrine of terra nullius has become apparent. Terra nullius is a common law doctrine later adopted in the international law. It according to Latin terra nullius means a “land belonging to nobody.”

The issue of whether any land in South Sudan belong no one was never an issue during the period liberation struggle of 1983 to 2005. But with the formation of the Government of Southern Sudan in 2005 and the formation of the government of independent South Sudan in 2011, the discourse over the land in South Sudan change as seen in the plan to build Ramciel as the Capital city of South Sudan.

Currently, there is a heated debate on social media that Ramciel is no man’s land. Those who claim that Ramciel is a no man’s land based their reasoning on the fact that Ramciel is a vast land with no inhabitants on it and because of that it is the land that belongs to no one. This argument is a reminiscence of the British Colonial Masters’ argument during the colonial period.

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Engineer Akol Lual Lual Akol’s Role in Transforming the Concept of Education among the Refugees in Kakuma, Kenya

By Deng Diar Diing, Mombasa, Kenya

The Late Akol Lual Lual Akol

Tributes to the Late Engineer Akol Lual Lual Who Pioneered Academic Excellence in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

Monday, November 12, 2018 (PW) — The outpour of grief and shock from the Jesh Amer and Lost Boys community following sudden death of Eng. Akol Lual Lual Akol has left many to wonder to the pattern and girth of appeal this gentleman had. It is clear that Akol has been mourned by a population that had its roots in Jesh Amer of Dima, Fugnido and Polataka who eventually found themselves in Kakuma. This is not to discount the fact that there are a lot of people who have and still are mourning in silence out of intensity of sorrow or lack of access to the social media.

It has also to be noted that those who showed their grief in public domains are not making it for a show of association but rather, hero’s death just like John Garang was, are normally too sad to bear individually and normally are communal angst. After all, a problem shared is half solved.

Akol Lual Lual was laid to rest yesterday in his village of Akon. May God rest his soul in peace. To all the outpour of commiserations and eulogies about the life of Eng. Akol as an inspiration to his peers, I would like to bring forth the processes that led him to be a hero of this important constituency. As a beneficiary of his epic academic journey and someone who took a mantle of my time following his inspiration, I feel spellbound to explaining why we love this gentleman that dear.

There was this Catholic Scholarship program called Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) that used to sponsor the top 3% percent of refugees who sat for Kenya Certificate of Primary Education for secondary education to Kenyan Public Schools. Akol Lual Lual, Marial Kuol, Samuel Anyieth, Chol de Guin and Bior Gayo won this scholarship in 1994(This group was later joined by Peter Gatpan Thoar). William Andrew was sponsored in 1993.

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By Ms. Adol Makeny Dhieu, Sydney, Australia

Nyalong Ngong Deng Jalang, Awerial County, Lakes State

Nyalong Ngong Deng Jalang, Awerial County, Lakes State, whose bride price consist of 500 cows, 3 V8s, and over $10,000

Monday, November 12, 2018 (PW) —- What happened to Nyalong Ngong Deng Jalang in the recent times is outrageous and we are all livid by it. Many have expressed their angers, one way or the other and in different forums since the marriage became known, all through to its settlement.

I applaud and encourage your rage to go beyond press releases; but for you to continue to pursue other meaningful ways to device lasting solutions to the issue at hand. However, I viewed that a legal action against Nyalong’s family (both families and accomplices), or a suit brought solely in relation to her marriage, will serve not but rogue justice.

Here is why: (more…)


After the Transitional Period, Salva Kiir Needs to Set an Example and Allow a Free and Fair Elections

By Ngoi Thuech, Dodoma, Tanzania

President Kiir's speeches after independence

Salva Kiir Mayaardit: The Joshua of South Sudan

Saturday, November 10, 2018 (PW) — What Peter Biar Ajak termed as a generational exit should not mistakenly be interpreted as an all-out call for our aging liberation generation to retire from active politics and allow the new and upcoming youthful generation to give it a try this time around. The late Senator John McCain of Arizona served his people up to the very last of his breath when he passed away this past summer. He was a war veteran, much like our current leaders are. So, being from a military background doesn’t necessary socialize you to rule dictatorially and hold the country hostage as a ransom for personal enrichment. One thing that sets the late John McCain with our liberation leaders was that the former came from a stable and liberal democratic nation whereas our leaders come from a region whose democratic institutions are absent or nonexistence.

South Sudanese are forever going to be thankful to Salva Kiir and Riek Machar for inking the peace deal to work together in one unity government as a testament to their faith that for once they can put aside their differences and work for the betterment of their people. Many countries on our East African block have two presidential term limits which run for a total of eight to ten years. President Uhuru Kenyatta said recently that it is unconstitutional to run for a third term in Kenya. President Kiir took up the presidential crown after we gained our independence from Sudan. And by the end of the Transitional Period, he would have been in power for ten years, much like the time normally spent by the Kenyan presidents at the State House. The probable reason why there is a limit on a presidential rule is perhaps to avoid what the political scientists called the political decay, a scenario which entails lack of accepting new ideas and overall democratic institutional upgrade. (more…)


By Tito Awen Bol, Juba, South Sudan

Saturday, November 10, 2018 (PW) — I keep wondering if peace can divide or unite the partners. I am not so young nor unmindful not to have known what happened after signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) or not to have read other cases of peace in the World so as to draw comparison to the recently signed peace agreement in South Sudan duped as R-ARCISS. After signing of the CPA, some of the Southern and Northern Parties joined Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) as opposition coalition while some of the Northern and Southern Parties joined the National Congress Party (NCP) as ruling coalition. Hold on reader: just know that my writing is not so much of the opinion leathered and loathed with any form of negative interest but just drawing the observation for future correction and reference by the analysts and opinion leaders of my kind.

To begin with, the word revitalization means rejuvenation or resuscitation of the Agreement on the Resolutions of Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCISS) which was at death bed then as a result of the J1’s ‘‘dogs fight’’ as popularly termed by most of the analysts and political commentators. That supposedly means that the agreement that was signed would have been the best agreement capable of addressing the root causes of post-independence issues and differences which possibly were the ones that led to 2013 and repeatedly led to 2016 aggressions and subsequently the present polarization & conflicts.

Papers were still not dry of the ink when the Revitalized-Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCIS) was signed on 12th September, 2018 when several breakaways emerged from different political parties that were parts and parcels or simply the signatories to the agreement (R-ARCISS). South Sudan Opposition Alliance (SSOA) which is the major opposition coalition was the first victim of split when most of its member parties defied & refused the call from the chairperson to sign the agreement though some were at a later date ‘intimidated’ to sign. They made their position real after the final signature by its leader-Mr.Changson Chang. (more…)