By John Sunday Martin
“The Revolution is all about bringing positive changes, and that positive changes cannot be brought in a Nation by bad minded people; therefore, the New Revolution will start with individual ideological changes of selfishness, to broader sense of Nationalism”
April 25, 2015 (SSB) — We are in the era of new revolution which begins with personal attitude, and state of mind, that control our individual feelings and reasons toward our nation. The new revolution is to implant strong positive feelings and reasoning toward our nation; whereas, these very feelings, and reasoning will influence our actions – to do good things for our Nation – both as individuals, and as group. The era of liberation is over and therefore, we cannot talk of liberation struggles in south Sudanese because liberation carries certain ideologies – which are dangerous for National Unity and coexistence. The word “Liberation” in most cases, impacts certain negative doctrines of sectarianism in term of ethnical or religious as well political philosophies. Thus, even when the so called liberation is over, true unity and reconciliation remains always far from being achieved because of the negative legacy of doctrines of the word “liberation.”
Of course, if things don’t go well for some people in our community; rebellion will be perceived, which will give birth to revolution. If some of us are in struggle, and starts to complain about certainties; it means some things are not well and therefore, don’t rule the possibilities of rebellion. As matter of facts; some people have been complaining for long in our society, but we were not willing to listen to their grievance with intention of finding solutions to their problems – before that which called as their problems, turned to be our disasters. Yes, when things are not going well, people will be unhappy and when people are not happy, they will become rebels and strive for their happiness and that is the foundation of revolution in society as it is in the case of south Sudan to date. Therefore, do not blame revolts in our society, don’t claim rebels are bad, but try to find solution to the problems of rebels in meaningful manners because no rebellion without any serious reasons.
However as a nation, we cannot call any rebellion as liberation struggle because the struggle for liberation is over, we are now in era of revolution so as to give clear meaning that, the struggle is for meaningful change to enhance our happiness. To date, most south Sudanese are not happy at all with their state of governance under SPLM which has sparkled loud outcry from every society as we all are looking forward for redemption from the regime of the SPLM. These unhappiness amongst the people of south Sudan are angered by the problems of lack of development, and democratic principles in the Country; which has been the main reasons for every struggles; the decades of struggles between North and South, and now, between us, south Sudanese against the Regime of SPLM – which has put many innocent souls in nation to perish.
Lack of democratic principles; as well development in term of socio-services deliverance and the general socio-economic hardship we are facing can be rate as partial some of the problems because these are the contributing factors. However, the real problem of South Sudan is our individualistic ideologies that has manifestation on forms of political corruptions where power is misused by individuals or political organization (SPLM in this regard) for illegitimate private gain of the individual officials, or SPLM as organization; which undermines democratically principles; and to bring the failure to deliver social services and justices to the public.
These ideologies are our problems because it starts with spirit of tribalism, and lack of patriotism. Hence, to bring meaningful changes in the Country for enhancement of national unity and sustainable socio-economic development and democracy; that will rescue south Sudan from the foreseen factional ethnocentric system of governments on regional bases; there is a need for a New National Revolution that will have to target ideologies that are the real problems of our society. To target these wrong ideologies will start with targeting the:
1.Spirit of tribalism that can be defined as a free will of behavior, thinking and attitude which attracts one to his tribe’s determinations than to his social-group and Country. The spirit of tribalism normal corrupts our moral conscience and impacts an ideology in us which then limits our reasoning to only tribal values that produce behaviors, thinking and attitudes that are negatively toward other ethnicities within our societies – which in turn, affects spirit of unity and peaceful coexistence.
It is real hard for us south Sudanese to coexist anywhere among ourselves, without tensions being caused by behaviors, thinking and attitudes of certain kinds that are normal influenced by our ethnocentrism. Thus, tension amongst south Sudanese seem be spreading faster than before, though the rate of inter-tribal marriages as well inter-regional settlement has increased since south and north civil war – due to massive internal displaced.
While some people may attribute the increased in high inter-tribal as well National tensions in south Sudan to some kind of behaviors by certain group of people, but the truth is that, individual or group behavior is not the manufacturer of tribalism. On contrary, tribalism is the manufacturer of some kind of behaviors, attitudes and thinking that is odd to accommodate in some society.
It is becoming even clear that, south Sudanese seemed to be willingly to stay in peace and unity with other foreign nationals within south Sudan, than with themselves as south Sudanese because of tribalism. The problem of tribalism in South Sudan is because of past that we never tried to address it through true justice and reconciliation mechanism. In this regards of the past, tribalism can be taken as systematic making of the SPLM and this started during SPLM’s guerilla era – warfare against various regimes in Khartoum – that became only well known to most south Sudanese with the 1991 leadership crisis in the SPLM/A – that turns to be almost a struggle for tribal supremacy between Dinkas and Nuers.
The current spirit of tribalism in our society can be attributed to the legacy of SPLM/A to the south Sudanese because in first place, SPLM/A never involved in any pure national politics than political propaganda on racism, – sliding the struggle to be between Muslims and Christians, as well Arabs and black south Sudanese. SPLM/A misused the word liberation for the misunderstanding of its’ cadres and supporters – thus the word, “liberation” became widely posed amongst SPLA/M cadres and supporters as liberation from Arab-Islamists; which made unity and reconciliation very convolution even after endorsement of peace deal in 2005.
Due to the dangerous political propaganda by SPLM/A in the face of misuse of the word liberation, south Sudanese developed strong hatred towards the Arab-Islamist, and engineered the use of the Word such as “Moharais” which is referred to as “blood agent”. The word is used for those suspects to not share the ideologies of the SPLA/M by then. By then, if you are not in support of SPLM/A, and if you are considered Moharis without any just reasons – whether you work for Khartoum government, or neutralist, than you will be tortured if unlucky, summary executed. Special with the 1991 leadership struggle between Riek Machar and John Garang, the supporter of Riek Machar which consists mainly of his tribesmen, the Nuers are taken as “Moharaiseen” and this developed into deep tribal hatred between the Dinkas and Nuers and it soon spreaded to other tribes; which will take not only a time, but true national sacrifices to bring unity and reconciliation between the south Sudan’s 64 tribes.
SPLM/A’s infliction of deep hatred amongst her supporters against Arab-Islamist, and those against the principles of SPLM/A and leadership of John Garang; developed into tribalism, – after SPLM/A failed to impact ideology of revolution in the heart and mind of the people, which was the beginning of problems of South Sudan to date; under the regime of SPLM, and possible any other regime, in case if the ideology of revolution not transplanted in the mind and heart of south Sudanese completely. The politics of propaganda is what we are suffering from to date because it made SPLM to remain focused on the Central Government in Khartoum which is dominated by certain characteristics – while forgetting how to change the systems – which is the core of National Revolution that south demanded, for National integration, Peace and socio-economic development.
Therefore, when people talks of liberation than revolution, and regime change than revolution, the job of building good governance and rule of law which is the trademark of democracy remains untouchable – because democracy is functionalized by revolution. No democracy without revolution. Thus, SPLM since its’ guerilla establishment, until it accented into power, it never experienced spirit of revolution that the nation is longing for; which is the ideological changes of minds and attitudes of the power creep and domination over others, and corruptions of any kind that undermines both collective, and individual rights, and values.
The manifestations of lack of revolutionary ideology amongst the cadres of the SPLM/A, thus SPLM/A was not able to bring any changes in the Nation than to transform racial discrimination of the black afro-Sudanese by the Afro-Arab Islamists in the north into tribal discriminations in South Sudan; as well inheritance of authoritarian rules in the north, which is systematical lending South Sudan into fully sectarianism on ethnocentric.
Today, we have developed deep spirit of hatreds towards other ethnic groups, and attempted to categorical blame those tribes for every problems the nation is experiencing while regarding our-tribes to be better, and this act, is indeed the act of the spirit of tribal dominances, which is foundation of nepotism in Government sectors in term of employment where some tribes are found majority in Government while others are not. Because of tribalism, the real ideal of deployment on bases of individual merit is disappearing very fast and therefore, you can only get better position with the government if you are known by some influential individuals within the structure of the Government, and in this regard, tribal affiliation plays great roles too.
Because we are tribal, so we became morally corrupted and therefore, we no longer care whether one is competent for the position to deliver services of high standard as might be required of him by the Nation, as long the position bearer is from our tribes. Even if we do not benefit from him, but only to see that, that someone is from our tribe and all that we enjoy is the name my tribe, and nothing else, in term of services and development.
The issue of tribalism has taken deep root in the nation and therefore, almost every national political cause in South Sudan never takes heed on national interests, but sectarianism and as a result, many people have been innocently killed and tortured on bases of their tribal affiliation in south Sudan. The issues of taking politics on tribal line can be traced from start of the leadership crisis in 1991 between Riek Machar and John Garang, to the moment of Riek Machar and Salva Kirr and that becomes most unfortunate for Riek Machar’s poltical career because wherever Riek Machar seems to be taking lead for National political struggle, tribalism always blankets him and so the innocents Nuers and Dinkas suffers automatically.
The problem of associating politics with tribalism is very dangerous because whenever there is Political crisis, some tribes become soon victims – which always ember bad memories, and spirit of retribution, and this is hindering national unity and reconciliation in south Sudan – special between some ethnicities in our Nation. In despite of these experiences, we are not able to learn and we continue to allow ourselves to be used by individual power hungry politicians for their own individual goals while it is we the ordinary members of their tribes that are sufferings and dying while those very politicians and their families members are enjoying and scoring their political and economic goals. We are to some extent unable to understand so easily that tribalism is our greatest enemy which is putting this nation at the edge of destruction, and because most of us are moral corrupted by tribalism; therefore, we could not even know that, we are tribal in our attitudes and actions, and that tribalism is deep inside us because those of us who are decrying tribalism, are the same people who turns to practices tribalism in fight against tribalism. Thus tribalism is growing faster in south Sudan than ever before; and if solutions are not found quickly, then South Sudan as a Nation will soon never exist, but disintegrated factional ethnocentrism.
It is real painful to see the national socio-political leaders that are in better positions to eradicate tribalism, becoming instrument for spreading tribalism in their own communities and the nation at large – simple to reach their political and economical goal – not minding the danger of their doctrines on the national unity and coexistence for the next generation. As matter of principles, a national position is not a tribal position and therefore, a national leader is not the making of a tribe but that of a nation. So to use tribalism for clipping to power, or to sustain oneself in power like what those leaders are doing now in South Sudan, it is indeed dangerous political game because the tribe that made you into a national leader, will have some feelings of ownership of the Nation, and will attempt to consider other tribes to be inferior through your position. It also develops an ideology of tribal domination because the tribe that put you in power position will interfere in every aspect of your activities as they owned you and your office; thus you robotically become there for them and fulfillment of their interests. Therefore as it is part of your strive to sustain yourself in power, then you will start to became tribal too, and the danger of becoming tribal while holding public office are that, the other tribes becomes marginalized and it is start of national crisis.
We cannot us tribalism in fight against tribalism, because tribalism cannot be eradicated by tribalism as some politicians are practicing by mobilizing their tribe in fight against tribalism in south Sudan to date. The use of tribes in fight against tribalism only creates fertile grounds for wide spreading of tribalism. Therefore, we cannot talk of regime change without focusing of ideological changes of the people in our society because every problems that we encounters in our societies which are resulting in political corruptions and dictatorship, crimes and social injustices, are simple productions of ideologies of some individuals in our societies. Thus, the ideologies of the people in our societies must be the target of revolution if there are to be any meaningful socio-political as well socio-economic development in our nation.
Therefore, any meaningful new revolution will not ignore ideologies of the people – but target these ideologies that pose threats of any kind in our society – thus, the new revolution in our society will be the great revolutionary warfare the nation will experience because it will target the ideologies of individual south Sudanese where seeds of tribalism and lack of spirit of patriotism sprout. It will start by targeting those in power positions, and those having such ideologies in any society of south Sudanese which has become the manufacturer of evil policies, and attitudes that is affecting the national unity and development. The mission of the New Revolution is to target the demolitions of the current systems of the Governance in south Sudan, which is associated with considerable tensions on ethnocentrism and social-injustices that has resulted in the failure to deliver social services and development to the population; then will go on to focus on installations of functional systems that will address the national problems; – to make South Sudan a socialist republic without discriminations of any kind, so as to attain its’ sustainable peace and development; and this requires:-
a)Ban of tribal politics by discouraging use of tribalism for any political purpose where politicians are taking advantages of their vulnerable tribesmen, and politicizing every politics into tribal lines to gain tribal supports to achieve their own individual political goals which again result in political corruptions where nepotism are practices which systematical develops into domination of government and politics by other ethnicities.
As matter of facts when politics are done on tribal sectors in a multi-tribes nation like south Sudan, every tribe will have to take their positions to defend their values and interests which can, to some extent be a threat to the national unity, peace and development. We south Sudanese were afraid from power of domination by Arab-Islamist in north that caused us to fight for our rights, thus we are even now, as well in future, will still be afraid of being dominated by any ethnicity, and to loses our dignities, and values; because where there is tribal domination, there are cultural suppression of tribes; and in same manner, where politics is played on tribal line, democracy fades away faster as majority tribes becomes the dominance force, and threats to other ethnicities, hence problems will start to emerge in Nation on ethnocentrism.
b)Ban of urban settlements in large ethnical settings because this influences spirit of tribalism and hinders inter-cultural integration and coexistence – as locals may feel a systematic crabbing of their lands by that specific ethnicity through such settlements and this is actual the feelings of many south Sudanese –special the Equatorians to date toward other ethnicities who have settled in greater Equatoria in large ethnical settings. The fear is simple because land is the not only our heritage, but also rich resources, and to take the land away from people means to leave people without roots and natural possessions.
c)Encourage Inter-State Civil Servants Transfer Programs on fixed term bases to facilitate spirit of coexistence and cultural unification as the civil-servants will be agents of peace building and promotion of multi-cultural integrations in south Sudanese societies to enhance the national peace and unity in the Country through installation of the spirit of coexistence.
2.The Installation of the Spirit of Patriotism, in this regard, Spirit of Patriotism can be defined as will of civilized affection toward national causes, which embrace one devotional to his Country at all cost, and time. A nation is build by the patriots and it is made a better as well safe place for all law-abiding people by the spirit of patriotism. However, most South Sudanese – specifically the so called “cerebral” seem to be losing the spirit of patriotism nowadays – where they no longer treat South Sudan as Home but “working field” and the only attraction they have to south Sudan are “employment” and “financial” opportunity for their sustainability in their countries of residences abroad. The three major social indicators to show South Sudanese are losing spirit of patriotism it has to do with ideologies as they lost interests in the Country and these indicators are:-
a)The first indicator that south Sudanese are not having spirit of patriotism is because it is now becoming ideology of every financial able south Sudanese to have “a Home” abroad – special East African Countries like Uganda and Kenya. Those that cannot afford to sustain themselves in towns will prefer to voluntarily have their families to stay in the refugee camps in Uganda or Kenya as they remain in South Sudan to earn some cash to support their families in the camps.
It is because we no longer treat South Sudan as our home Country, therefore, we no longer even mind to build it and improve existing infrastructures, and provide services of high quality despising the Country’s riches to meet the demand of services by the citizenry.
It is real surprise but it is fact that, south Sudanese in their very own country, yet became as visitors as they prefer to stay in hotels and not even thinking of having a plot or rent a house in the Country. When I came in the Country, it was real surprise for me to see people who have been in South Sudan some years ahead of me and have stable business and employment in Juba; they have no home and stable properties in Juba, not even mentioning the Country. They stay in hotels and have their permanent rooms in these hotels, as they eat from restaurants while their immediately family members, spouse and children are abroad. When they say I am going home, it simple means they are travelling abroad to a country they call home while they are true south Sudanese. Even when their spouse comes on visitation to the Country, they also end up in hotels and most are not even thinking of bringing their families in south Sudan, rather they themselves are the one going for holidays in their countries of dual citizenship to join their families.
b)The second indicator that south Sudanese are losing spirit of patriotism is in the Country’s Health and education sector: The health sector has suffered the most brutal damages, since the era of Islamic regime in Khartoum, until the era of SPLM. The population of South Sudan is estimated to be around 11 million as of 2013, while there has been no increase in infrastructure development necessary to provide services to South Sudanese as the last batch of hospitals were built by (at least) the former occupying regimes in the North Sudan. Hospitals lack equipment, sufficient staffs, and recurrent expenditure to provide services effectively. As a result, there are no drugs; patients sleep on floors and medical staffs are demoralized and under paid. It is not therefore surprising as political leaders, senior public servants have lost confidence and interest in their own medical services, and instead, they prefer to be flown abroad with their families for medical treatment at taxpayers’ expense, while leaving the taxpayers themselves to die from treatable diseases.
The education sector has seen decline of standards Therefore, it is not a bombshell to many citizens to see SPLM elites and senior government officers dispatching their immediate children and family members to study in better institutions of learning outside the country on taxpayer’s money, while the financial able south Sudanese also does the same by sending off their children out of the Country for educational purpose – leaving the poor south Sudanese children to study in poor equipped schools, without proper systems in place. This shows clearly how the SPLM is a visionless regime, has no interests in human development of the citizenry, and have never treated all citizens the same in term of services. In fact, any good regime, will never serve the interests of its officials highly, than the interests of the nation and its ordinary citizen as in the case of the SPLM regime today.
There is no quality education in the Country, therefore, it is becoming dreams of every south Sudanese to send off their children to other countries for studying purpose and this is not for the high institution of learning but starting even from the preparatory schools such as kindergarten to primary schools till Universities. As a nation, we spend millions of United States dollars on sending off our children to foreign countries and if the amount we spent to send off children to foreign countries for studies can be used to improve and provide adequate educational facilities in the Country and only send off selective high institutions students to other foreign High Institutions of learning for academic exchange programs, this would have saved our economy and provided better opportunities for poor south Sudanese who are unable to send off their children abroad for studies.
c)Properties and Funds: the third indicator that south Sudanese are losing spirit of patriotism because instead of building and owning properties in South Sudan. We are fond of owning properties such as Houses abroad, including saving our money in foreign Banks than in South Sudan.
d)Dual Citizenship is the fourth indicator that south Sudanese are losing the spirit of patriotism because even if the person is a politician or government employees, they still maintain dual citizenship – those that have dual citizenship are the most so regarded “cerebrals” of South Sudan that the Nation looks upon for, as National asset to enhance the development of South Sudan.
Therefore, when we talk of the New Revolution, we are talking of desired changes that will first target the ideologies of every citizens because even if there are regime changes, or general change of leadership as well change of political system in the Country; if the people remains with the same ideologies, then revolution has not taken place because never will there be any meaningful changes in the nation to faster the spirit of the national identity as one people – which starts from individual ideological realm – to enhance sustainable eradication of ethnocentric South Sudan is facing.
Besides; any meaningful changes in the Country that will enhance sustainable peace and development starts from individual changes of ideologies toward his Country, to enhance their positive contributions for sustainable peace and development of the Country. People do not depend of their Government to develop their Nation, because it is not the Government that develops the Country, but patriotic citizens dose develop the Nation through positive contributions in socio-economic investments. The role of Government in the National development is to create socio-political and socio-economic as well provide socioeconomic infrastructures atmosphere for facilitation of development by citizens – in substantiate partnership with other foreign investors.
Therefore, the new revolution will target to eliminate the ideologies of tribalism that is first problem of south Sudan, and then it will inspire the installation of the spirit of patriotism in south Sudanese – which is very difficult tasks for of all, because it will in some case affect both individual and collective rights. However, if it can bring national coexistence and development, then it will have to be pursued – because there is no revolution without intrude on some people within any society – special those that are abstract to the revolutionary agenda and goals.