Principles for the development of education

Posted: October 24, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Education

By Morris Mabior Awikjokdit

Education in South Sudan is intended to serve individuals, social and economic well- being and to enhance the quality of life for all. This aim will be guided by the principles of liberalization, decentralization, equality, partnership, and accountability. Liberalization of educational provision entails fundamental changes in power relations within the education sector. Under a liberalized educational system the right of private organizations individuals, religious bodies and local communities to establish and control their own schools and other educational institutions is recognized and welcomed. Liberalization of educational provision allows those with resources to establish such institutions and to run them in accordance with their own principles subject, however, to stipulated rules and regulations. In this way liberalization contributes to expansion of educational opportunities while protecting the right of parents to send their children to educational institutions of their own choice, be they public, private, religious or communal.

Educational decentralization

Decentralization involves the devolution of power from the centre to the local level in states, counties and schools in Bomas and payams. Good pay of teachers in a reasonable scale is part educational decentralization processes that need to be carefully dealt with. It promotes broad based participation in the management of education with great emphasis placed on the creativity, innovation and imagination of the local level of education managers. By allowing various stakeholders to share in decision- making and to take responsibility for education at the local level, decentralization fosters a sense of local ownership and promotes better management. By decentralizing to the local and school levels many of the bureaucratic procedures that currently impede efficiency in the educational system will be eliminated. Government expects that the newly- established education boards will:-

  1. Relieve the Ministry of education of much of the burden of day- to- day business.
  2. Cater for a greater degree of democracy in the management and administration of the system; and
  3. Allow for greater responsiveness to local need.

Equality and equity

I am much quite sure that, every individual (citizen) in South Sudan has a constitutional right to education. Hence, it is a matter of fairness or justice that access to, and participation and benefit in, the education system be available to all. The development of education will therefore seek to promote equality of access, participation and benefit for all in accordance with individual needs and abilities. Measures to promote equality education will include allocating resources to all ten states of South Sudan to those in greatest need providing appropriate support systems, and changing the tangible and intangible qualities of the system itself to cater for the diverse educational needs and interests of the population. It will also include strategies and uniform payment scale of teachers across the nation for the earliest feasible intervention to support children at risk. Parents and their children are in daring need to quality education across the nation as stipulated in the Transitional constitution of the Republic of South Sudan.

The government will ensure that special support measures for such children are developed to enable them to participate in education. Where access, participation and achievement in education are impeded by gender, physical, mental, economic, or social factors, the government should seek to eliminate sources of education disadvantage in order to enhance equity.

The achievement of fairness in education demands that educational policies should value and promote a multifaceted development of the people, taking into account their uniqueness, so that they can fully and rationally participate in the economic cultural and social affairs of society. In all its educational endeavors, the state will aim at making it possible for its citizens to live useful lives, taking into account knowledge and skills appropriate to their age, their social and economic roles, the complexity of the modern world and the social environment in which they lives. Educational policy of South Sudan should deal, therefore, with South Sudan’s cultural and intellectual heritage as well as with knowledge, skills and values that are to be transmitted to future generations. In other words, the concepts of equity in education necessitate the diversification of the curriculum in order to suit different abilities, talents and interests.

The author is a freelance opinion writer and a professional experience teacher based in Warrap state- Kuajok currently in Tonj town for the preparation process of Greater Tonj community conference. You can reach him by email: or contact him on 0912646306.

You Better Silence than to put that ugly comment across: This Serve as a Guiding Note for International Commentators and Observers of South Sudan Conflict

By Chuol C. Puol

It’s not only disgusting putting a comment in a very sensitive conflict like that of South Sudan base on rumors and imagination, but also a situation worsening, if you didn’t know. I write this piece not as a criticism to the international observers and commentators of South Sudan conflict, but rather a guidance piece on the events that led to the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan as well as the factors contributing on its prolonging.

Honestly, it has been happening not only as a surprise, but instead a shocking, hearing some international friends of South Sudan commenting obliviously and sometime misinformed on the South Sudan conflict’s complexity. Most of them, but surely not all of them, have been seeing the South Sudan conflict as mere tribal mocking and cleansing which would have been addressed in whatever way possible by Salva Kirr, whether militarily or politically and get rid of the Nuer of Riek Machar.

The Nuer as a community had no ground of recognition from the east African Countries for a very long time. Some leaders of the SPLM who were Dinka ethnic group used to lei to the east African in conferences calling other tribes as part of Dinka; there was Dinka-Topossa, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka-Shilluk and just count the rest of the sixty tribes of South Sudan. However, the east African observers didn’t know this community calls Nuer. They didn’t know their social and culture guiding principle which absolutely base on Democracy and equality.

Tribal hatred and differences:

In a brief explanation, the conflict was thought of by the close friends of Salva Kirr in politics, masterminded, designed and supported by Yoweri Museveni of Uganda; it was later fueled by tribal hatred between Dinka and Nuer which led to the Nuer massacre in Juba in the first place.

Dinka and Nuer had never been under one ruling in their societies. From 1960th to 1970th during the Anyanya I struggle, Nuer and Dinka were together in uniforms as soldiers but not in the governance and societal solidarity and prosperity. It was believed that the second enemy of a Dinka or a Nuer after an Arab was Nuer and Dinka respectively. From the Akobo mutiny of 1975 up to 1982, which mark the Anyanya II struggle in the history of South Sudan, the forces of the South Sudanese Liberation Moment/Army (SSLM/A) and their politicians never strongly come together and looked into the tribal tension between the Nuer and the Dinka.

Thus, it was also the case with the SPLM/A after its formation in 1983 especially the events of 1990-91 where some leaders thought to have had the other tribes and ethnicities pocketed with no political existence and strength among others, which eventually led to the division of SPLM/A into two complete different unit: The SPLM/A-Torit faction and the SPLM/A-Nasir faction.

The leaders of all the South Sudanese moments (Anyanya I which started in Torit from 1955, before the Sudan independence to 1972 after Addis Ababa Peace Agreement; Anyanya II which erupted in Akobo in 1975 and lasted till the formation of the SPLM/A in 1983; The SPLM/A of 1983 which is also the current South Sudan Republic) never had a chance to look into the ethnic difference and hatred and especially among the Nilotic tribes of Anyuak, Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, etc.)

However, this conflict, though orchestrated politically, the ethnic aspect of it has been very deadly and divisive which make it the most badly contributing factor on the prolonging of this conflict.

Political Differences and Power Struggle:

SPLM as a political party ruling the Country, is very well associated with ethnic ideologies; even politicians themselves are much more concerned and caring for their tribe mates much more than those whom they shares the same political ideology, objectives and strategies with. This has badly made the South Sudan politics to be dirtier than it is in any other Country on the universe.

The power struggle and political differences is not something new to those who have been following the events in South Sudan from day one. As a matter of example, the SPLM/A was divided in 1991 due to some political differences and power domination which was ethnically motivated. There was the SPLM/A fighting under the ideology of a secular united Sudan base on democracy and unity of all the Sudanese people under the leadership of the Late Dr. John Garang De Mabior. The other SPLM/A was fighting for an Independence South Sudan which would be achieved and governed through the free wills of its people with Democracy and Rule of Law under the leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon

The SPLM/A remained as different factions up to 2002 reconciliation and unification of ideologies which eventually favored the ideology of Dr. Riek Machar for the independence of South Sudan.

Before the signing of the CPA, Gen Salva Kirr Mayardit was not pleased by the unity of the two SPLM as the case would result into him losing his post as the 1st Deputy of the SPLM/A. He had to point a gun on his boss, Dr. John Garang in 2004 refusing to render his post to Riek Machar as that supposed to have been the case.

Fortunately, through the helps of Dr. Riek Machar himself and the late George Athor Deng (May his soul rest in Peace), Salva Kirr was convinced by the two to not spoil the to-be achieved comprehensive peace agreement with the Sudanese government. Riek assured Salva that he will talk over the issue with John Garang and he ( Salva) would be the 1st Deputy of the moment.

The current war was not a result of an instigated coup against the government; or rather was it a planned ethnic fighting. The war was purely a political fearing by the chairman of the SPLM who is also the president of the Country. He knew, and everyone knew, that he would have lost in the party election and the chairmanship would have been taken by other members of the party and especially Dr. Riek who expressed his interest for it.

Then, Gen. Kirr Mayardit had to cook his mind with the help of his regional friends and the founded solution was to make a self coup to arrest others for it. The real intention was not to imprison all of them, it was to kill the most popular ones and leave the yes-men survive in prison. None of the SPLM leaders planed any coup against the government of Salva Kirr Mayardit.

Not only that, there was absolutely no reason for a coup against somebody who doesn’t defeat you politically as Salva Kirr himself is not an influential leader even in his village, County and State of Warrap, leave alone the whole of South Sudan.

Ideologies versus Ideologies:

Should we pursue the SPLM for a united Sudan or the SPLM for independence of South Sudan? Should we believe in Dinka born to rule ideology or can we say that others can rule?

Can we go for federalism or remain centralized government under the name of decentralization? Should we embrace that clean democracy or remain dictatorship?

Can we rule the Country militarily or should we adopt the best form of governing a diverse Country under democratic political leadership?

All these and many more are the most dividing factors that always lead us to bloodletting confrontation in the history of our Country. Sometime, the above mentioned ideologies are always backed tribally depending on who from which tribe mastering what ideology.

Some More Fact and Realities:

It’s worth mentioning that there has never been any trust among the leaders of SPLM when it come to guiding and shaping the future of the Country. The only place you would find them cooperating is when it comes to looking for position and money in the government.

There is also the fact that even the SPLA troops have their loyalty not to the hierarchical commanders but their tribal general in the army. So, how do we expect such a military to ever unite and protect our Country?

In all those regards, the international commentators and observers only look at the outer surface of the situation without deep analysis to find out the truth. Some blames Riek Machar for this war while in fact he (Riek) was the right target of the conflict. The rebellion was not started by Riek Machar, it was due to the Nuer massacre in Juba by Salva which led Gen. Peter Gatdet Yaka (or Jundi Irag as that is his nick name) to rebel against the government in absent of Riek Machar who was running in the bush for his dear life. Peter Gatdet fired his first bullet two days after the massacre and Riek Machar arrived some 7 days later after managing to escape from Juba.

Chuol C. Puoch is a South Sudanese living in South Sudan; (But in Nairobi in time of writing this piece) he can be added/follow on Facebook with his name mentioned above, on twitter @ChuolChot and via email: .

Statement by Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba, of the SPM/A in Opposition at SPLM intra-party dialogue, Arusha, TZ

Ndugu Jakaya Mrisha Kikwete

President of the United Republic of Tanzania

Chairman of Chama Cha Mapinduzi

Comrade Salva Kiir Mayardit

Comrade Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon

Comrade AbdulrahamanKinana

Secretary General, CCM

Comrade Bernard Membe

Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation

United Republic of Tanzania

Comrade John Samuel Malecela

Chairman of the Intra-SPLM Dialogue

Comrade Daniel Awet Akot

Comrade Pagan Amum Okiech

Comrades, Members of the sisterly Party Chama Cha Mapinduzi

Comrades, Members of the SPLM

Ladies and gentlemen

It is indeed humbling to be part of this process, the Intra-SPLM Dialogue, aimed at reunification of the SPLM. We are all witnesses to what occurred in our country, South Sudan. We have accepted the responsibility and owe our people apology for the agony to which we have subjected them.


No situation remains the same. The carnage that happened since December 2013 must be transformed into its opposite sooner than later. I must add here the catastrophe was a blessing in disguise. It is a blessing in that South Sudan and its people will never go through this again. The lessons we learned from this sad experience and which we will continue to learn in this Intra-SPLM Dialogue shall constitute the torch that will light our path to the future.

The Framework for the Intra-SPLM Dialogue marks the beginning of the road to reconcile and reunite the SPLM and the people of South Sudan. It underscores the importance of unity as a source of strength and stability, and a guarantee for prosperity of our people.

On behalf of my delegation in the Preparatory Team of the SPLM/SPLA, I take this opportunity to thanks and congratulate Comrade AbdulrahamanKinana for this resounding success of this phase.

I take this opportunity to thank my comrades: Cde. Daniel Awet Akot and Cde. Pagan Amum Okiech, for the cordiality, civility and responsibility with which we executed our task.

Thank you very much

Opening Statement by Comrade Pagan Amum Okiech, SPLM Leaders (Former Political Detainees)

20th, October, 2014, Arusha, Tanzania

SPLM chairman Salva Kiir (R) greets former SG Pagan Amum (L) as Riek Machar looks on, January 14, 2010

SPLM chairman Salva Kiir (R) greets former SG Pagan Amum (L) as Riek Machar looks on, January 14, 2010

Your Excellency, Ndugu Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, President of the United Republic of Tanzania and Chairman of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM),

Your Excellency, Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of the Republic of South Sudan and Chairman of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM),

Your Excellency, Dr. Riek Machar Teny, First Deputy Chairman of the SPLM,

Mzee John Samuel Malecela, Former Prime Minister and Former Deputy Chairman of CCM and Chairman of this Intra-SPLM Dialogue,

Excellencies, the Secretary General of CCMand the Foreign Minister of Tanzania,

Honourable Delegates from the SPLM dividedfamily,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

On behalf of the SPLM Leaders, who were detained following the crisis of December 15th, 2013 for calling for reforms and internal democracy within the party and on my own behalf, I take this opportunity to thank Ndugu Chairman of CCM for extending his solidarity by convening this Intra-SPLM dialogue in the beautiful city of Arusha.  We wholeheartedly appreciate this facilitation by CCM and the support of Crisis Management Initiative (CMI).  Offering the SPLM family this forum and a conducive environment for dialogue is like extending a ladder to somebody who has thrown himself/herself in a deep pit.  Unless we choose to get out of the pit by climbingup, the ladder alone will not get us out.  Therefore, we must climb the ladder provided to us by CMM in order to come out of the abyss we have landedourselves into.

Excellencies, Distinguished Delegates,

The Secretary General of CMM, Ndugu Abdulrahman Kinana, wisely made it clear the other day that their support and solidarity is out of historical commitment to support and help the African Liberation Movements mend their differences and heal their rifts whenever that occurred, without unhealthy interference.  CCM is making it clear that it shall not diagnose our ailment and problem.  In other words, CCM will not give the SPLM a prescription or a recipe but rather it provides only a forum, a conducive environment and the moral encouragement for usthe SPLM leaders to take advantage and thecourage to accept the reality that we have the responsibility, in fact a collective responsibility, forthe current crisis in the country.  This crisis, as we all know, emanated from failure of leadership,resulting in differences among the top SPLM leaders.

Therefore, we must admit this fact and discuss itduring the dialogue when we resume in Novemberwith open minds and hearts so as to correct ourselves and agree to recommit to the core values and fundamental principles of our Movement.  Let us courageously recognize that we have lost direction and have deviated from the vision of the SPLM.  We have fundamentally gone wrong, divided ourselves and have thrown the country into chaos.  However, it is human to err and fall, the greatest of human spirit is in correcting oneself and rising up from the fall. By admitting such facts, our hearts will be ready to reconcile the differences and heal our self-inflicted wounds.  To do this successfully, we have to move away from finger pointing and blame game and go beyond our egos and fears.  Let us leave judgment to history but fornow let us focus our energies in resolving the current crisis by reuniting the divided SPLMfamily so as to rescue the country from falling into total chaos and disorder.

Finally, inspired by the spirit of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, the founding father of this peaceful and united nation and by the vision of our founding father and hero, Dr John Garang De Mabior, who dreamt of a new and just society at peace with itself and with its neighbours, a common wealth united in its diversity; inspired by this spirit, let us launch this process of the Intra-SPLM Dialogue in order to return the party to its glory and provide collective visionary leadership to the people of South Sudan in this second phase of state and nation building.  We, the SPLM Leaders (Former Political Detainees), are certain that the SPLM vision shall come to fruition.  As SPLM committed cadres, we will engage in this dialogue with open hearts and minds in order to reunite the SPLM andrealize its vision of a free, peaceful and prosperous South Sudan.

Oh God bless South Sudan!

SPLM Oyee!

CCM Oyee!

Thank you.

The Entire SPLM-In Opposition Leadership Owns up to Human Right Abuses and Crime Against Humanity Since 1991
By Sindani Ireneaus, Somaliland
The cat is out of the bag. At least the Tanzanians have made it to jump out of the bag straight to our eyes and ears. No one can longer deny it whether now or in future. The world has also heard. The African Union must have taken heed of it while the ICC prosecutors should be happy and excited that they will not longer delve deep in investigating the heinous crimes in South Sudan in order to unravel the people behind the genocide, mass rape, rampant torture, ethnic targeted killings, disappearance of people, violation of individual rights and mass displacement of people in Bor in 1991 and twice in 2013/2014 making South Sudanese to live destitute lives in their own country.
If you are still wondering what I am talking about, let me make it abundantly clear that I am talking about the surprising admission by the entire leadership of the SPLM-in Opposition that they are responsible for the crisis in South Sudan. Allow me to quote the Arusha communiqué; entitled: The Arusha Communiqué: Intra-SPLM party so as to clearly illustrate the point and make it abundantly plane to everybody. I quote “The parties acknowledge a collective responsibility for the crisis in South Sudan that has taken a great toll on the lives and property of our people”. The communiqué was signed by none other than Cde Paul Akol Kordit on behalf of SPLM in government; Cde Duer Tut Duer on behalf of SPLM in opposition and Cde Kosti Manibe Ngai on behalf of SPLM detainees, dated October 21, 2014.
“The great toll on the lives” means the mass killings, torture, rape, displacement and incarcerations and disappearances”. “Great toll to property” means the destruction to private and public properties such as individual Dinka houses in Bor in 1991, destruction of public homes such as the one of the late icon Dr. John Garang De Mabior, destruction of villages in upper Nile and Bentui, looting of peoples’ houses in Bor, killing innocent civilians in hospital beds, churches, mosques and massive destruction and looting of Kenya Commercial Banks in Bor, Malakal and Bentiu by SPLM-In Opposition.
Right from the start let me make it abundantly clear that the leadership of these tribal factions under the leadership of Dr. Riek Machar, the former leader of Nasir Faction of 1991 have frankly and without shame owned up to the criminal act and brutality that has been meted to the people of South Sudan. My admitting that they are responsible for the “crisis in South Sudan that has taken a great toll on lives and property of the people of South Sudan”, it means they systematically planned, directed and executed all that befell the people. Secondly they are saying that whatever crimes committed by their subordinates that include the rank and file of the Nuer, “white army” soldiers on both side of the divide in this criminal war, was methodically organized, plan and directed by Dr. Riek Machar and his former militia commanders. There is nothing called random killing by rogue and untrained white army soldiers, nothing called revenge killings or being detained innocently.
All have participated in one way or another in brutally murdering innocent children, women and civilians in hospital beds, churches and mosques. They conspired to exterminate Dinka ethnic groups and planned ethnic killings in the country on the pretext that there is no good governance, service delivery, rampant corruption or federalism as if Dr. Riek and his groups have never been part and parcel of the government since 2005. They smartly planned and uprooted South Sudanese from their residences and made them to be refugees and internally displaced in their country. They directed mass rape as a tool of war. They displaced thousands of South Sudanese and forced them to take refuge in neighboring countries. They carried out targeted killing particularly of those perceived to be obstacles to prophesized ascension of Dr. Riek Machar to presidency although Riek failed to get his Agreement of KPA-1997 implemented by Bashir who is now again supporting Riek’s rebellion. It’s not clear why Dr. Riek cannot flex its tribal muscle against Bashir of Jaylin who failed him in 1997 and made him keep changing allegiance and rebelling without being appointed president, not elected, either in Khartoum or Juba since1991.
Now that these rebel leaders of SPLM-In Opposition have admitted and owned up to the genocide, ethnic killings, raping, torture and the whole range of human right abuses in South Sudan. Let me be clear on apportioning the crimes. By owning up to these crimes the leadership of SPLM-In Opposition under Dr. Riek Machar has owned up to:
1.     Targeted ethnic killing of more than 20,000 Dinka civilians in Bor, Bentiu and Malakal, destruction of Dinka property in Bor, Malakal, and Unity state including Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB) and other Banks
2.     The targeted killing and disappearance of people in Bor, Malakal, and Bentiu such as the killing of Gen. Peter Panom Thanypiny in 1991 because of his loyalty to SPLM who liberated South Sudan from Khartoum when they were militias and used by Khartoum
3.     Torturing participants in failed coup attempts of December 15th, 2013 which they turned around and sent the wrong message to regional and international audience that the guns were copied and pasted in our hands although they initially tried coup attempt in 1991
4.     Attacking innocent Dinka and killing two (2) UMNISS peacekeepers who were sheltering in UNMISS compound in Akobo
5.     Illegally using of banned chemical weapons supplied by Bashir on Dinka soldiers on Juba-Bor road where hundreds of soldiers died as a result of Khartoum-made cluster bombs
6.     Carrying out rampant rape of Dinka women in Bor by rebel soldiers, white army and operatives just because of their ethnicity
7.     The fact that Dr. Riek denied a coup attempt because he has PhD in killing since 1991 and deliberate denial before they fled to Khartoum as usual for logistical support
8.     Consciously recruiting, training, arming, directing and commanding tribal militia groups such as untrained Lou-Nuer “white army” in particular to carry out genocide and commit serious human right abuses in Bor in particular and in South Sudan at large
9.     Hiring mercenaries from their terrorist friends LRA, Messeriya, SAF and northern Sudan to deny its genocide and ethnic cleansing policy beautified by Khartoum-made weapons
Likewise by signing the communiqué, the leadership of the SPLM-in-opposition has again owned up to:
1.     Brutal killings that occurred in Akobo in the UNMISS compound.
2.     Killing of innocent people in hospital beds and in a church in Bor
3.     Innocent killing of captured civilians in Bor, Malakal and Bentiu
4.     Ethnic killing of innocent Dinka, Chollo people because of their refusal to join Riek’s rebellion
Lastly the leadership of the SPLM-in-Opposition in collaboration with the other detainees (G10) has owned up to the rampant corruption, tribalism, nepotism, molding a dictator, mismanagement of state affairs, inability to render services to the people of South Sudan while Riek’s and his cohorts denied they were not at all in the government that they rebelled against.
What is the implication of this admission to the future of South Sudan? First these SPLM-In Opposition leaders have admitted that they created chaos in South Sudan since 1991 because of their power greed and failure to stay the course of achieving Nasir Faction objectives of liberating South Sudan from oppressive regime in Khartoum and provide effective leadership although they were in Khartoum. They have admitted that they are criminals, thieves, tribalists and dictators who are repugnant to democracy since 1991. Above all they have committed crime against humanity and human right violations, not only in Bor, Akobo (where they killed two UN peacekeepers), Malakal but also in Bentiu.
They have disunited and completely broken the bridges that had made the people of South Sudan to stick together. They have admitted that they have failed the people of South Sudan especially when they were in Khartoum from 1991, signing KPA of 1997 and returning to SPLM who stay the course of liberation of South Sudan. KPA just to be forgiven by Dr. John Garang de Mabior in Nairobi, Kenya. They have admitted that they cannot unite, lead and administer the nation other than their stomachs and their cronies who often survive on shifting allegiance to Khartoum. They have above all admitted that they have failed the peoples’ mandate and instead turned to kill and maim the very people who forgave them when they were militias designed by Khartoum to keep South Sudan destabilized politically and economically.
The question is whether in any meaningful way these SPLM-In Opposition leaders have any legitimacy left to continue preaching good governance or service delivery when they failed in Khartoum when they were in bed with KPA-1997 and in South Sudan? The fact is that any returned to South to be forgiven through amnesty and later turned against their own brothers and sisters and massacred them, plunger their wealth and property, displaced them, raped and tortured them, in the eyes of those who truly liberated South Sudan from 1983-2005 and up to 2011. They have lost their legitimacy of being forgiven since 2002 and can no longer purport to lead and speak on behalf of the people of South Sudan.
They deserve not to speak on behalf of the people of South Sudan any more without considering their record of shifting allegiance since 1991. Since they have collectively taken responsibility for the heinous crimes against humanity and human right abuses in Bor in 1991 (and again in 2013/2014), Akobo, Malakal and Bentiu, their only option is to stand up and answer to their crimes before the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague. As they stood boldly in their gray suites in front of Kikwete; the Tanzania President and owned up to their crimes, they should likewise stand tall, boldly and upright in front of the ICC to defend themselves individually or collectively.
On the other hand they should also face their victims and relatives of their victims to whole heartedly apologize to them as Dr. Riek did to Bor people at Rebecca Nyandeng’s house before like the great men and women in South African who faced their victims and relatives of their victims and apologized under the tutelage of Bishop Tutu truth and reconciliation commission. Unlike Zulu, most Nuer failed to stay the course but ended up in Khartoum. No zulu or ANC leaders ended up in Apartheid-led regime in Pretoria as Nuer, Nasir Faction or SPLM-In Opposition leaders did in Khartoum.
Finally what is my advice in this circumstance? My brotherly advice first goes to these SPLM-In Opposition leaders to tell them that this is a decision time. Either they make South Sudan to take the path of reconciliation and embark on peaceful co-existence and development of the country or they would like this great nation to sink with them during this period of their demise. Taking path of reconciliation and peaceful co-existence means the SPLM-In Opposition leadership in Hotels should immediately resign or seek no leadership position in the transitional administration.
Similarly the leadership of the SPLM-In opposition and SPLM detainees must negotiate in good faith for peace and transitional government under the leadership of democratically-elected President H.E. Salva Kiir Mayardit who will still forgive them as usual to go through extensive political orientation to ensure that tribal rebellion with or without support from Khartoum is not the way to violently grab power. Elections, not violent tribal rebellion, will determine good leadership based on record and nationalism. Genuine reconciliation will not happen in South Sudan if IGAD mediation effort is to appoint leaders instead of elections. It would be like covering a fire with mud without extinguishing it completely.
Secondly, I must advise these SPLM-IN Opposition leaders that they either face peoples’ truth in elections campaigns and reconciliation commission to ask for forgiveness from the people of South Sudan because there is no South Sudanese who has not been aggrieved by their reckless leadership since 1991 or wait to present themselves to the ICC where they can have the opportunity to clear their names as individual or suffer the consequences of their action. This is the only way to end the impunity that has been the order of the day in South Sudan since 1991 Bor massacre.
My advice to the IGAD peace negotiators is that peace and reconciliation can only come to South Sudan when the root causes of the current conflict are fully discussed, agreed upon and future roadmap for thorough reforms including the institution of “definitively defined” federal system is drawn up because the current system is more or less federal. It is the people of South Sudan to define the federal system which will not negatively affect the wellbeing of South Sudanese people. Once this is achieved then a transitional government without these tribally self-confessed SPLM-In Opposition butchers of South Sudan since 1991 can be established.
Excluding the entire SPLM-In Opposition leadership is crucial so that reconciliation and building of the social fabric of the people of South can begin. The SPLM-In Opposition leaders should be offered the chance to seek forgiveness from the people of South Sudan through truth and reconciliation commission or face the ICC to clear their names. By considering or allowing these leaders to participate in the transitional or future leadership in South Sudan without reconciliation or not answering to the heinous crimes they committed against the people of South Sudan, means IGAD itself is condoning impunity in South Sudan and in fact the South Sudanese will view this as if IGAD is adding salt on the bleeding wounds in South Sudan since 1991. Certainly this will not go unchallenged because there are many patriotic South Sudanese out there who will take over the mettle of liberating the people of South Sudan from the York of murderous tribal leaders, looters and plunderers of the country. It does not matter how long this will take but the people have to be liberated from these tribal criminals supported by Khartoum and impunity must be ended.
My advice to the friends of South Sudan including the troika is that they should continue to stand firm in supporting the people of South Sudan during this trying time. There is no quick fix to the issues in South Sudan neither can there be quick fix by reconstituting SPLM-In Opposition of self-confessed criminals and looters. The current SPLM-In Opposition leaders are bent to continue with their determined efforts to propagate chaotic crisis in the country for their comfort and comfort of their tribes and cronies in expensive Hotels.
South Sudan is not devoid of leaders but the country has been taken hostage by leaders who have no future of the country in their hearts since they signed KPA in 1997. For eight years, after being forgiven by SPLM leadership, they have been in government; they have only perfected the art of looting, corrupting and balkanizing the country into tribal enclaves. Nothing is acceptable than allowing and accepting the impunity that is striding the breath and length of entire South Sudan because of one man’s greed for power. Riek believe that he’s the only educated Nuer with PhD in killing who could govern South Sudan better than any peaceful PhD holders.
What about the Tanzania government. I must extend my sincere congratulations to the government of Tanzania for bringing these SPLM-In Opposition leaders together to finally take responsibility for the crimes they committed in South Sudan since 1991. They have been denying this for long and now they have owned up. My sincere advice is that Tanzania should question the political record of Riek’s in particular and make these SPLM-In Opposition leaders to realize that the confession they made is not the highway to violently assume leadership of a country at any cost but it is the rough road for them to stand up and face their victims or their relatives and say we are sorry or else they must face the law at The Hague in order to end impunity in South Sudan. There is no middle road for these SPLM-In Opposition leaders. They either succumb to the law or are forced to face the law since the record of Bor massacre of 1991 besides of 2013/2014 is clear.
For the AU commission tasked to investigate human rights abuses and crime against humanity in South Sudan, I would say that the Commission‘s work is made easier. The people have already taken responsibility for these crimes. The only work you are left with is to identify who bears the greatest responsibility of massacring people of South Sudan since 1991 so that the law takes its course. There is no time to waste now because the people of South Sudan need closure for their sufferings caused by one man who is always greedy for power and hides behind the word democracy and good governance or federalism. Last but not the least please ICC take up the case of South Sudan as soon as the AU commission presents it to you because Dr. Riek’s political prostitution, power greed, tribal rebellion since 1991 is well recorded in both Khartoum/Sudan and in Juba/South Sudan, but not recorded in capitals of the Regional/East African Bloc, AU and Western countries. South Sudanese are yawning for peace, security, economic development and justice, and they want to see justice prevail for this second-time failed coup attempt of December 15th, 2013 and this should be done as soon as possible for any justice delayed is justice denied.
Sindani Ireneaus, Hargeisa; Somaliland, Contact:

The Problem with Nuer Extremists

Posted: October 23, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Commentary

Amb. Gen. Gordon Buay Malek

The Madness in South  Sudan

The Madness in South Sudan

The problem with Nuer extremists supporting war in South Sudan is their inability to accept realities. In this conflict, I have realized that the extremist Nuer believe in fiction more than reality.

The first reality the Nuer rebels need to accept is the fact that the positions of Salva Kiir as the President of South Sudan and Chairman of the SPLM are non-negotiable.

What the IGAD and AU are saying is the accommodation of Riek Machar either as the Prime Minister or First Vice-President. The debate now is not about Presidency but the accommodation of Riek Machar.

Therefore, any reasonable Nuer extremist who has no intellectual disability has two options. The first option is to break away from Riek Machar to tell the world his position so that he is included in the negotiations. The second option is to remove Riek Machar from the leadership of the rebels.

I want the Nuer extremists to know that Riek Machar presented two names for the position of Prime Ministerial post should he decline. The first candidate is his wife and the second one is Taban Deng.

If the Nuer rebels do not like the IGAD power-sharing arrangements, they should eliminate Riek Machar because he accepted the executive position proposed as part of the package. You cannot say that you are against the power-sharing arrangements while Riek Machar accepted it. The IGAD only knows the leader of the rebels who is Riek Machar in reality.

If the Nuer rebels don’t want the deal already arranged, they need to jettison Riek Machar to engage the international community before they are branded as international terrorists.

When I look at it, the cows are more reasonable than Nuer extremists who don’t want to accept reality. The Nuer extremists think that they can reject the position of the international community with impunity. That is not true because anybody who will reject the fact that Salva Kiir is the President of South Sudan will be branded as a terrorist.

It is very unfortunate that cows in Nuer land are more intelligent that the Nuer tribalists in accepting realities.



1. If Riek Machar comes to Juba as the Prime Minister, his powers are equivalent to those of the Minister of Cabinet Affairs, Dr. Martin Elia Lomuro. The Prime Minister post he would hold is not the Prime Minister position of Parliamentary Systems of Ethiopia, Canada, UK, and other West Minister systems.

2. President Kiir would remain as the head of state and government and will be the one directing the policy of the central government.

3. If Riek Machar refuses to take the position of the Prime Minister, Angelina Teny or Taban Deng Gai will occupy the post.

4. President Kiir will be the one to appoint the Prime Minister. Therefore, he will choose between Angelina Teny and Taban Deng Gai if Riek Machar rejects to hold the post.

5. The forces loyal to Riek Machar will be screened before they are integrated into the SPLA. Warlords who have no academic backgrounds will not be integrated into the national army. However, there will be exceptions depending on whether the warlords distance themselves from Riek Machar.

6. After peace, the Government of South Sudan will disarm the Nuer White Army so that they don’t pose a security threat to civilians in Nuer land. Since the White Army are always motivated by looting, they must be disarmed by all means to protect civilians.

7. Riek Machar’s group will get only two ministerial posts in the Government of National unity.

8. All soldiers loyal to Riek Machar will not be deployed in Central Equatoria, Jonglei, Upper Nile state and Unity State . They will be taken to Mapel to undergo training in nationalism before they are deployed to border towns.

9. Politicians loyal to Riek Machar will undergo education in eradicating tribalism before assuming any constitutional positions. They will first be transformed psychologically to become nationalists before assuming any position.

10. Riek Machar will publicly apologize to the people of South Sudan before assuming his position as the Prime Minister for staging a coup twice.

The Jonglei Conflict is slowly on the Revival

Posted: October 23, 2014 by PaanLuel Wël in Featured Articles, Malith Alier

By Malith Alier, Juba

David Yau-Yau, the Murle militia leader who led a military rebellion against the gov't of South Sudan leading to the creation of the Greater Pibor Administrative of which he (Yau-Yau) has been appointed the administrator by President Kiir.

David Yau-Yau, the Murle militia leader who led a military rebellion against the gov’t of South Sudan leading to the creation of the Greater Pibor Administrative of which he (Yau-Yau) has been appointed the administrator by President Kiir.

Jonglei State shall never be stable as long as the cattle keepers do not change their old habits. The Murle, Dinka Bor, Nuer and Mandari communities are the worst enemies of each other. Each time there is a lull in the conflict, it is short lived as is the case yesterday.

Yesterday morning 21st October 20014, saw the slaying of a victim known as Aguto Makol (R.I.P) at Gere located between Paanwel and Bangachorot. The news of the killing reached Juba in a matter of minutes because of the telephone message that travels faster than sound. The shooting information was received by relatives, family, friends and all people of Bor County with great sadness. The implication about this killing in cold blood concerns everybody in Bor County and other travellers on the Juba-Bor Highway.

In mid December to January 2013, Juba-Bor Highway was a no go territory except for the military and other security operatives because of the activities of the white army. However, when Bor was liberated, the said highway continues to pose challenges to travellers on end. Remember that after the white and SPLA conflict this Highway was awash with arms and munitions which put lives in danger. Some cluster bombs were reported by Non Governmental organisations along that road.

Many commentators and observers on Jonglei State peace and conflict reported that the signing and subsequent creation of Greater Pibor Administrative Area (GPAA) was a major determinant of peace in the embattled State.

My measured view however is that, this is just a lull that should deceive nobody. The old habits will spring back in the face of everybody as long as there is lawlessness on the side of both governments of the two States. The vastly roaming cattle is the property of everybody to grab. Child abduction by any means continues to be more lucrative like never before. Anyone out there should tell us why peace should reign one more time.

Road motor accidents are augmented by such killings as that of the late Aguto. Two pastors of the Episcopal Church of the Sudan of Bor Diocese were killed in the same way between March and April this year by unknown gunmen. The accusing fingers point at Murle, Mandari or other criminals that waylay travellers on the Highway.

Unsurprisingly, the killings are usually near Bor County particularly the Paanwel-Bangachorot-Sudan Safari stretch. Child abduction in the same stretch happened on many occasions prompting the former Bor County Commissioner to request the army to create a permanent post in the area. All this arrangement was affected by the present conflict with Riek Machar.

A colleague of mind whose abduction rendition happened on the vehicle he was travelling in 2012 narrated that they abductors came from Pibor County now self-autonomous under Yauyau.

All the atrocities and abductions are set to resume. Eight months is a long time for professional killers and child abductors. The Highwaymen are back in full swing!